• impulsivity
  • In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurobiological findings suggest that there are specific brain regions involved in impulsive behavior, although different brain networks may contribute to different manifestations of impulsivity, and that genetics may play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • High PCL-R scores are positively associated with measures of impulsivity and aggression, Machiavellianism, persistent criminal behavior, and negatively associated with measures of empathy and affiliation. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • Halperin maintains a part-time affiliation at Mount Sinai School of Medicine as the director of disruptive behavioral disorders research team, while currently working full-time as a psychology professor at Queens College and the CUNY Graduate Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • As defined by experts with a biomedical background, a mental disorder is "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common areas of study include psychosocial development, environmental factors which contribute to the development of a disorder, outcomes of children with medical conditions, treating the comorbid behavioral and emotional components of illness and injury, and promoting proper health behaviors, developmental disabilities, educating psychologists and other health professionals on the psychological aspects of pediatric conditions, and advocating for public policy that promotes children's health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes
  • Such patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders highlight possible common etiological processes, genetic influences, or maintaining factors among subsets of disorders, and may also have implications for treatment selection and responsiveness to specific therapies ( Krueger, 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Biological psychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model focused on organic or "hardware" pathology of the brain, where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette's
  • Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional and chronic tics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette's was classified by the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) as one of several tic disorders "usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence" according to type (motor or phonic tics) and duration (transient or chronic). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Tourette's is the more severe expression of the spectrum of tic disorders, most cases are mild. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders (for example, choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias), the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • Callous and unemotional traits (CU) are distinguished by a persistent pattern of behavior that reflects a disregard for others, and also a lack of empathy and generally deficient affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interplay between genetic and environmental risk factors may play a role in the expression of these traits as a conduct disorder (CD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition "with limited prosocial emotions" to the conduct disorder diagnosis in DSM-5 is to classify a specific subgroup of antisocial youth with distinguishing antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in combination with CU traits seem to cause antisocial behavior even without external hardships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with CU traits have more severe conduct disorder, and respond to different management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with high CU traits are less responsive to time-out and other punishment techniques than are healthy children as they are unperturbed by the threat of punishment and time-out does not seem to bother them, so their behavior does not improve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reward-based disciplining techniques, such as praise and reinforcement, tend to have a greater effect than punishing techniques on children with high CU traits in reducing antisocial behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood-onset CU shows a more aggressive and stable pattern of antisocial behavior with higher rates of CU traits, as well as more severe temperamental and neuropsychological risk factors relative to their adolescent-onset counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 20-item inventory of perceived personality traits and recorded behaviors, intended to be completed on the basis of a semi-structured interview along with a review of 'collateral information' such as official records. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff. (patientsville.com)
  • Subjects will undergo clinical diagnostic interviews and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, and then complete 1 EEG scan of approximately 1 hour. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • His approach to research includes integration of clinical, neuropsychological and neurobiological psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This temporary condition is not a clinical illness or a personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The onset of directed attention fatigue can be triggered by a number of activities, all of which involve use of the brain's inhibitory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • An older 2003 review of linkage studies also listed seven genes as likely to increase risk for a later diagnosis of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • personality
  • PCL-R Factors 1a and 1b are correlated with narcissistic personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factor 1 has been correlated with narcissistic personality disorder, low anxiety, low empathy, low stress reaction and low suicide risk but high scores on scales of achievement and social potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitter systems has been implicated[citation needed] in several mental disorders, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and glutamate systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • schizophrenia
  • Family studies indicate that the closer a person's genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychology
  • Two important books influenced the revolution: Plans and Structures of Behavior by George Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl H. Pribram in 1960 and Cognitive Psychology by Ulric Neisser in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • full citation needed] The causes of mental disorders are generally complex and vary depending on the particular disorder and the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have indicated[citation needed] that variation in genes can play an important role in the development of mental disorders, although the reliable identification of connections between specific genes and specific categories of disorder has proven more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • To clarify this issue, future neuropsychological investigations are encouraged to employ tasks with significantly more trials and direct manipulations of bottom-up mechanisms with larger samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although one's efforts may involve very different tasks, each incoming stimulus calls upon the same directed attention mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Directed attention, or voluntary attention, requires a great deal of concentration and focus, and is employed in tasks such as problem solving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies that require participants to carry out attention-demanding tasks under conditions of high distraction reveal how unpleasant a mentally fatigued person can be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatigue that is experienced by participants of these kinds of studies is induced by attention-intensive tasks, and the observed effects of such fatigue are correlated with decline in inhibitory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • FXS is a common genetic disorder resulting from a single-gene mutation on the X chromosome. (docplayer.net)
  • communication Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common genetic disorder associated with a broad spectrum of problems [Dykens et al. (docplayer.net)
  • Maltreatment and parenting may play a role in the development of antisocial behavior, but better research is needed to understand the interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors. (wikipedia.org)