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  • behavioral
  • Halperin maintains a part-time affiliation at Mount Sinai School of Medicine as the director of disruptive behavioral disorders research team, while currently working full-time as a psychology professor at Queens College and the CUNY Graduate Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • As defined by experts with a biomedical background, a mental disorder is "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMRI
  • Some fMRI studies have shown that directed attention involves changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral prefrontal cortex, perhaps as a consequence of increased connectivity between these two areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette's
  • Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional and chronic tics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette's was classified by the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) as one of several tic disorders "usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence" according to type (motor or phonic tics) and duration (transient or chronic). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Tourette's is the more severe expression of the spectrum of tic disorders, most cases are mild. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders (for example, choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias), the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • Callous and unemotional traits (CU) are distinguished by a persistent pattern of behavior that reflects a disregard for others, and also a lack of empathy and generally deficient affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interplay between genetic and environmental risk factors may play a role in the expression of these traits as a conduct disorder (CD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition "with limited prosocial emotions" to the conduct disorder diagnosis in DSM-5 is to classify a specific subgroup of antisocial youth with distinguishing antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in combination with CU traits seem to cause antisocial behavior even without external hardships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with CU traits have more severe conduct disorder, and respond to different management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with high CU traits are less responsive to time-out and other punishment techniques than are healthy children as they are unperturbed by the threat of punishment and time-out does not seem to bother them, so their behavior does not improve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reward-based disciplining techniques, such as praise and reinforcement, tend to have a greater effect than punishing techniques on children with high CU traits in reducing antisocial behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood-onset CU shows a more aggressive and stable pattern of antisocial behavior with higher rates of CU traits, as well as more severe temperamental and neuropsychological risk factors relative to their adolescent-onset counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 20-item inventory of perceived personality traits and recorded behaviors, intended to be completed on the basis of a semi-structured interview along with a review of 'collateral information' such as official records. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Family-based treatment (FBT) is an efficacious treatment for adolescent eating disorders, yet it is not routinely implemented in clinical practice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff. (patientsville.com)
  • The Sukhodolsky lab is involved in clinical assessment of outcomes and the evaluation of electrophysiological correlates of attention and cognitive control. (yale.edu)
  • His approach to research includes integration of clinical, neuropsychological and neurobiological psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This temporary condition is not a clinical illness or a personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • attentional
  • page needed] Hence, there are two types of attention, distinguished in terms of the effort involved in their use and their changes in attentional shift: Involuntary attention refers to attention that requires no effort at all, as when something exciting or interesting happens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes
  • Such patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders highlight possible common etiological processes, genetic influences, or maintaining factors among subsets of disorders, and may also have implications for treatment selection and responsiveness to specific therapies ( Krueger, 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • onset
  • Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The onset of directed attention fatigue can be triggered by a number of activities, all of which involve use of the brain's inhibitory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although one's efforts may involve very different tasks, each incoming stimulus calls upon the same directed attention mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Directed attention, or voluntary attention, requires a great deal of concentration and focus, and is employed in tasks such as problem solving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies that require participants to carry out attention-demanding tasks under conditions of high distraction reveal how unpleasant a mentally fatigued person can be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatigue that is experienced by participants of these kinds of studies is induced by attention-intensive tasks, and the observed effects of such fatigue are correlated with decline in inhibitory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Two important books influenced the revolution: Plans and Structures of Behavior by George Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl H. Pribram in 1960 and Cognitive Psychology by Ulric Neisser in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitter systems has been implicated[citation needed] in several mental disorders, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and glutamate systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • schizophrenia
  • Family studies indicate that the closer a person's genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • anxiety
  • The second subfactor, "fear" or "anxiety," usually includes a variety of phobic conditions and panic disorder. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Factor 1 has been correlated with narcissistic personality disorder, low anxiety, low empathy, low stress reaction and low suicide risk but high scores on scales of achievement and social potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • full citation needed] The causes of mental disorders are generally complex and vary depending on the particular disorder and the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have indicated[citation needed] that variation in genes can play an important role in the development of mental disorders, although the reliable identification of connections between specific genes and specific categories of disorder has proven more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The purpose of this study is to learn more about the functioning of particular types of regions of the brain, specifically, those related to externalizing disorders such as Attention Defic. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This type of attention employs the inhibitory mechanisms of the brain, which help block incoming stimuli that are unrelated to the task at hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several parts of the brain are involved in maintaining directed attention, primarily those located in the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the mechanism of directed attention employs the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the brain stem's basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any illness or injury to the brain that interrupts the brain circuits involved in maintaining attention and inhibiting external stimuli may also contribute to the development of directed attention fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of developing certain mental disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • Several authors have reported high rates of suicidal behaviour in acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Transient tic disorders consisted of multiple motor tics, phonic tics or both, with a duration between four weeks and twelve months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measures
  • The purpose of this study is examine the efficacy of atomoxetine on executive functioning measures including the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the executive function measures of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To examine the efficacy of atomoxetine on executive functioning measures including the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the executive function measures of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To examine the efficacy of atomoxetine on other neuropsychological measures including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the attention, memory, and paired learning tests of the CANTAB. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • one's
  • A frequent assumption underlying this research is that the resultant measurement models reveal a "liability spectrum," whereby certain psychiatric disorders are regarded as expressions of latent liabilities that, in turn, explain diagnostic comorbidity or the increased risk for spectrum-related disorders during one's lifetime ( Krueger & Markon, 2006 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • alcohol
  • For example, if the "Chief Enabler" (the main enabler in the family) will often turn a blind eye to the addict's drug/alcohol use as this allows for the enabler to continue to play the victim and/or martyr role, while allowing the addict to continue his/her own destructive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • tics
  • Chronic tic disorder was either single or multiple, motor or phonic tics (but not both), which were present for more than a year. (wikipedia.org)