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  • insects
  • SbDV is carried and spread from plant to plant by insects called aphids. (usda.gov)
  • Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adelgids are sometimes described as aphids, but are more properly classified as aphid-like insects, because they have no cauda or cornicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Aside from fields staying green longer, another possible explanation for the increased aphid populations following fungicide applications could be that beneficial fungi that affect aphids could have been killed by the fungicides, as has been found to happen with use of some fungicides (Lagnaoui & Radcliffe 1998, Nanne & Radcliffe 1971, Wilding 1982). (gov.mb.ca)
  • species
  • The soybean aphid is the only species of aphid that can successfully live and reproduce on soybean. (usda.gov)
  • That's when the first soybean aphids, an Asian species, showed up in Wisconsin. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Maybe (I almost hope) these aphids will become vectors for some horrible buckthorn disease, thus reducing the impact of Rhamnus cathartica , a notorious invasive species from Asia that is causing considerable ecological degradation in upper Midwestern forests and woodlands. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Many species of Aphis, such as A. coreopsidis, are myrmecophiles, forming close associations with ants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Establishment of B. communis throughout the United States has been questionable, likely due to reduced aphid population because of fungal pathogens, competition with other species of parasitoid, and prophylactic usage of pesticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • 32 aphid species, of 15 different genera, have been shown to transmit SMV in a non-persistent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids originated in the late Cretaceous about 100 million years ago (Mya), but the Aphidinae which comprises about half of the 4700 described species and genera of aphids alive today come from their most recent radiation which occurred in the late Tertiary less than 10 Mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to beans, peanuts, and clover (7 different species of Trifolium ), PSV has been reported to naturally infect peas (Pisum sativum), soybeans (Glycine max), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and lupine (Lupinus luteus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to many taxa, aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When host plant quality becomes poor or conditions become crowded, some aphid species produce winged offspring, "alates", that can disperse to other food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many aphid species are monophagous (that is, they feed on only one plant species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycine
  • Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean ( Glycine max ), referred to as Gm NLL1 and Gm NLL2. (frontiersin.org)
  • Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important sources of edible oil and proteins and pathogenic infections are responsible for annual yield losses of about $4 billion dollars in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • To determine the risk of the soybean aphid spreading SbDV in the US, we tested the ability of the soybean aphid to spread SbDV isolates that had been collected from several locations in the United States and around the world. (usda.gov)
  • The soybean aphid was not very good at spreading the US isolates, but the efficiency of spread was dramatically increased when the soybean aphid was allowed to feed on infected plants followed by healthy plants for long periods of time. (usda.gov)
  • This paper represents important findings that there are SbDV isolates in the US that are spread by the soybean aphid, which presents a potential threat to US soybean production. (usda.gov)
  • More recently Japanese isolates, other exotic isolates, and endemic U.S. isolates have been shown to be transmitted by several different aphids. (usda.gov)
  • Crop
  • These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The virus can be introduced into a susceptible field crop by aphids from a nearby reservoir (infected perennial hosts like clover, alfalfa or perennial peanuts) and then is spread further into the field by aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasonovia
  • For example, the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is believed to have spread from New Zealand to Tasmania in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • buckthorn
  • Sensing the end of summer, the aphids are moving en masse to their winter host, buckthorn . (scienceblogs.com)
  • George Heimpel suggests that this whole thing is an invasion meltdown initiated by introduced earthworms, which modify the soil to favor buckthorn growth, which then favors the growth of aphids, which then are good food for the invasive ladybug Harmonia axyridis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Soybean aphids overwinter as eggs on their primary hosts, buckthorn (Rhamnus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggs begin to hatch into fundatrices when temperatures in the spring reach 10 °C (50 °F).[citation needed] Colonization of buckthorn by soybean aphids in the spring can lead to curling of leaves and twigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • antennae
  • For example, microscopic sensilla in the form of flattened sense organs on the antennae of aphids are referred to as rhinaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • All aphids have very small eyes, sucking mouthparts in the form of a relatively long, segmented rostrum, and fairly long antennae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids have antennae with as many as six segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • In the first experiment, I grew soybean seedlings to the V-0 stage at 25°C and then conditioned them for 0, 3 or 5 days at 20° or 30°C before infesting with a single first instar SBA at each of the two experimental temperatures. (k-state.edu)
  • The second experiment compared SBA responses, including population growth, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25, and 30⁰C) on a Rag1-resistant and susceptible soybean variety. (k-state.edu)
  • I predicted that SBA fitness would be lower at all temperatures on resistant soybeans, but the magnitude of differences between cultivars would not be uniform across temperatures. (k-state.edu)
  • This information will aid soybean producers in implementing a cost-efficient IPM strategy involving Rag1 resistant soybeans to combat SBA under a range of temperatures. (k-state.edu)
  • As colonies expand and temperatures increase, soybean aphids move toward lower portions of the soybean plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimal temperature for soybean aphid development occurs between 25 and 30 °C, and exposure to prolonged temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) decrease survival rates and fecundity of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • honeydew
  • Aphids excrete a sugary liquid called honeydew, because the plant sap from which they feed contains excess carbohydrates relative to its low protein content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like aphids, phylloxera feed on the roots, leaves, and shoots of grape plants, but unlike aphids, do not produce honeydew or cornicle secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • Felton GW, Summers CB, Mueller, AJ (1994a) Oxidative responses in soybean foliage to herbivory by bean leaf beetle and three-cornered alfalfa hopper. (springer.com)
  • Studies have demonstrated a positive correlation exists between upper leaf nitrogen content of soybean and the occurrence of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Soybean dwarf (SbDV) is a plant disease that causes the stunting and yellowing of soybeans. (usda.gov)
  • RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. (frontiersin.org)
  • Trophic interactions between host plant, aphid, aphid endosymbiont and aphid vectored viruses. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • The Soybean Green Plant Problem - An Evaluation of Possible Influencing Factors. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • As the infested plant ages, soybean aphids remain on leaves near the top of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to a soybean plant during this initial stage is a result of stylet-feeding and can include curling and stunting of leaves and twigs, physiological delays, and underdevelopment of root tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) is one of six operational program units within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids have also been spread by human transportation of infested plant materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids, adelgids, and phylloxerids are very closely related, and are all within the suborder Sternorrhyncha, the plant-sucking bugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) exists as several distinct strains based on symptomatology, vectors, and host range. (usda.gov)
  • invasive
  • This aphid is actually a huge problem, and the sheer biomass only 10 (or so) years after introduction is absolutely amazing, and speaks to the massive invasive potential of aphids in general. (scienceblogs.com)
  • responses
  • Four aphid responses were evaluated: preimaginal development, survival to adulthood, number of progeny produced, and adult longevity. (k-state.edu)
  • concern
  • Flea beetles caused widespread damage in canola, and aphids were a concern in peas, cereals and canaryseed in many areas. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Aphids were a concern in many small grain cereal fields. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Green cloverworm were a concern in soybeans and dry edible beans. (gov.mb.ca)
  • cultivars
  • Using Marker Assisted Selection to Accelerate Development of Potato Cultivars that Pyramid Novel Sources of Aphid, Virus and Late Blight Resistance. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Pyramiding novel sources of aphid, virus and late blight resistance into advanced breeding lines to create superior cultivars. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • hosts
  • The soybean aphid possesses a heteroecious holocyclic life cycle, which means the insect alternates hosts and undergoes sexual reproduction for at least part of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycine
  • In addition to beans, peanuts, and clover (7 different species of Trifolium ), PSV has been reported to naturally infect peas (Pisum sativum), soybeans (Glycine max), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and lupine (Lupinus luteus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important sources of edible oil and proteins and pathogenic infections are responsible for annual yield losses of about $4 billion dollars in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Aside from fields staying green longer, another possible explanation for the increased aphid populations following fungicide applications could be that beneficial fungi that affect aphids could have been killed by the fungicides, as has been found to happen with use of some fungicides (Lagnaoui & Radcliffe 1998, Nanne & Radcliffe 1971, Wilding 1982). (gov.mb.ca)
  • Soybean grown with an alfalfa living mulch had 45% more natural enemies, soybean aphid establishment was delayed, and peak populations were less than on soybean grown without a living mulch. (usda.gov)
  • However, the contribution of predator mortality was responsible for the greatest difference in soybean aphid populations between soybean with and without the living mulch. (usda.gov)
  • Bean
  • Black Bean Aphid is not currently in New Zealand but it's important that we all have a good understanding off the threat Black Ban Aphid could pose, if it gets to New Zealand. (potatoesnz.co.nz)
  • Given the distances between New Zealand and the closest countries where Black bean aphid occurs, it is most likely that introduction pathways are limited to the pathways for distribution of host plants. (potatoesnz.co.nz)
  • Feeding damage by Black bean aphid is of greater economic significance than virus transmission. (potatoesnz.co.nz)
  • Dense colonies of Black bean aphids are visible on upper stems and the undersides of leaves, in beans and other crops and are often ant-attended. (potatoesnz.co.nz)
  • Black bean aphid has a potentially enormous multiplication rate under favourable environmental conditions, enabling rapid exploitation of hosts. (potatoesnz.co.nz)
  • The Black bean aphid has both sexual and asexual generations in its life cycle and thrives best at temperatures around 14-15°C. However, the different subspecies perform better under different environmental conditions. (potatoesnz.co.nz)
  • insects
  • Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adelgids are sometimes described as aphids, but are more properly classified as aphid-like insects, because they have no cauda or cornicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Soybean lines containing the soybean aphid resistance genes Rag1 , Rag2 , or both Rag1 + Rag2 were compared with a near-isogenic aphid-susceptible line. (iastate.edu)
  • Aphid resistance alone reduced population growth compared with the susceptible line at least till 55 dap for single-gene resistance and 63 dap for the two genes combined. (iastate.edu)
  • F2 plants from the cross 'Ina' x PI 200538 segregated 114 resistant to 37 susceptible and F2 plants from the cross 'Williams 82' x PI 200538 segregated 203 resistant to 65 susceptible when tested for resistance to soybean aphid biotype 1. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The virus can be introduced into a susceptible field crop by aphids from a nearby reservoir (infected perennial hosts like clover, alfalfa or perennial peanuts) and then is spread further into the field by aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • establishment
  • Our objectives were to determine if natural enemies delay aphid establishment and limit subsequent population growth and if this biological control can be improved by altering the within-field habitat. (usda.gov)
  • widespread
  • Flea beetles caused widespread damage in canola, and aphids were a concern in peas, cereals and canaryseed in many areas. (gov.mb.ca)
  • plant
  • The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confirmed the finding of a Mediterranean fruit fly population in the El Cajon area of San Diego County, California. (blogspot.com)
  • Aphid population growth rate was measured for each caged plant for 9‐12 d after infestation. (iastate.edu)
  • Aphids have also been spread by human transportation of infested plant materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids, adelgids, and phylloxerids are very closely related, and are all within the suborder Sternorrhyncha, the plant-sucking bugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infested plant ages, soybean aphids remain on leaves near the top of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to a soybean plant during this initial stage is a result of stylet-feeding and can include curling and stunting of leaves and twigs, physiological delays, and underdevelopment of root tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) is one of six operational program units within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • tends
  • This aphid tends to colonize field edges, where the most severe crop losses occur, via the influence of wind on initial colonisation. (potatoesnz.co.nz)
  • portions
  • APHIS is designating portions of San Diego County as a Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) quarantine area and is applying restrictions on the interstate movement of regulated articles from that area. (blogspot.com)
  • occur
  • Reduction in photosynthetic capacity of soybean may occur before plants begin to display symptoms of injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Natural enemy abundance in soybean grown without the living mulch was sufficient to delay aphid population growth until more than 30% of the plants were infested with soybean aphid. (usda.gov)
  • biological
  • Individual agricultural experiment stations in the Northeast Region seldom have the resources or expertise to conduct a complete Classical Biological Control program, and thus we have a long history of cooperation among state Universities, as well as with scientists from USDA-ARS, USDA-APHIS, USFS, state departments of agriculture, and specialists in foreign countries. (nimss.org)
  • small
  • Aphids were a concern in many small grain cereal fields. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Application of insecticides to control aphids in small grain cereals was reported from near Portage la Prairie (C), Brunkild (C), Morris (C), and Aubigny (E). Most of these fields were sprayed in the first 3 weeks of August. (gov.mb.ca)