• gossypii
  • Binodoxys communis was released in the United States prior to 1979 to control Aphis gossypii (Glover), but establishment resulting from that release was questionable. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Aside from fields staying green longer, another possible explanation for the increased aphid populations following fungicide applications could be that beneficial fungi that affect aphids could have been killed by the fungicides, as has been found to happen with use of some fungicides (Lagnaoui & Radcliffe 1998, Nanne & Radcliffe 1971, Wilding 1982). (gov.mb.ca)
  • species
  • The soybean aphid is the only species of aphid that can successfully live and reproduce on soybean. (usda.gov)
  • That's when the first soybean aphids, an Asian species, showed up in Wisconsin. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Maybe (I almost hope) these aphids will become vectors for some horrible buckthorn disease, thus reducing the impact of Rhamnus cathartica , a notorious invasive species from Asia that is causing considerable ecological degradation in upper Midwestern forests and woodlands. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The rationale was that native species of lady beetles are not particularly effective in controlling tree-feeding aphids and scale insects. (osu.edu)
  • Many species of Aphis, such as A. coreopsidis, are myrmecophiles, forming close associations with ants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Establishment of B. communis throughout the United States has been questionable, likely due to reduced aphid population because of fungal pathogens, competition with other species of parasitoid, and prophylactic usage of pesticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • 32 aphid species, of 15 different genera, have been shown to transmit SMV in a non-persistent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids originated in the late Cretaceous about 100 million years ago (Mya), but the Aphidinae which comprises about half of the 4700 described species and genera of aphids alive today come from their most recent radiation which occurred in the late Tertiary less than 10 Mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to beans, peanuts, and clover (7 different species of Trifolium ), PSV has been reported to naturally infect peas (Pisum sativum), soybeans (Glycine max), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and lupine (Lupinus luteus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to many taxa, aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When host plant quality becomes poor or conditions become crowded, some aphid species produce winged offspring, "alates", that can disperse to other food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many aphid species are monophagous (that is, they feed on only one plant species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Others, like the green peach aphid feed on hundreds of plant species across many families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycine
  • Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important sources of edible oil and proteins and pathogenic infections are responsible for annual yield losses of about $4 billion dollars in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • subfamily
  • The genus Binodoxys is located in the subfamily Aphidiinae which are noted parasitoids of aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are an extremely large number of aphid genera which are dealt with under each subfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • buckthorn
  • Sensing the end of summer, the aphids are moving en masse to their winter host, buckthorn . (scienceblogs.com)
  • George Heimpel suggests that this whole thing is an invasion meltdown initiated by introduced earthworms, which modify the soil to favor buckthorn growth, which then favors the growth of aphids, which then are good food for the invasive ladybug Harmonia axyridis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Soybean aphids overwinter as eggs on their primary hosts, buckthorn (Rhamnus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggs begin to hatch into fundatrices when temperatures in the spring reach 10 °C (50 °F).[citation needed] Colonization of buckthorn by soybean aphids in the spring can lead to curling of leaves and twigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • SBA required more degree-days to develop on resistant soybeans compared to the susceptible cultivar. (k-state.edu)
  • The virus can be introduced into a susceptible field crop by aphids from a nearby reservoir (infected perennial hosts like clover, alfalfa or perennial peanuts) and then is spread further into the field by aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • antennae
  • For example, microscopic sensilla in the form of flattened sense organs on the antennae of aphids are referred to as rhinaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • All aphids have very small eyes, sucking mouthparts in the form of a relatively long, segmented rostrum, and fairly long antennae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids have antennae with as many as six segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • In the first experiment, I grew soybean seedlings to the V-0 stage at 25°C and then conditioned them for 0, 3 or 5 days at 20° or 30°C before infesting with a single first instar SBA at each of the two experimental temperatures. (k-state.edu)
  • I predicted that SBA fitness would be lower at all temperatures on resistant soybeans, but the magnitude of differences between cultivars would not be uniform across temperatures. (k-state.edu)
  • As colonies expand and temperatures increase, soybean aphids move toward lower portions of the soybean plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimal temperature for soybean aphid development occurs between 25 and 30 °C, and exposure to prolonged temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) decrease survival rates and fecundity of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • honeydew
  • Aphids excrete a sugary liquid called honeydew, because the plant sap from which they feed contains excess carbohydrates relative to its low protein content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like aphids, phylloxera feed on the roots, leaves, and shoots of grape plants, but unlike aphids, do not produce honeydew or cornicle secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Using Marker Assisted Selection to Accelerate Development of Potato Cultivars that Pyramid Novel Sources of Aphid, Virus and Late Blight Resistance. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Pyramiding novel sources of aphid, virus and late blight resistance into advanced breeding lines to create superior cultivars. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • 2006. Identifying resistance to aphids in crosses with somatic fusions of Solanum tuberosum L. and Solanum bulbocastanum Dun. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • United States Depa
  • Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) is one of six operational program units within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemiptera
  • Aphids are in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the Sternorrhyncha division of the order Hemiptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids passively feed on sap of phloem vessels in plants, as do many of their fellow members of Hemiptera such as scale insects and cicadas. (wikipedia.org)
  • beetles
  • Flea beetles caused widespread damage in canola, and aphids were a concern in peas, cereals and canaryseed in many areas. (gov.mb.ca)
  • vectors
  • Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) exists as several distinct strains based on symptomatology, vectors, and host range. (usda.gov)
  • Aphidoidea
  • Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • This paper represents important findings that there are SbDV isolates in the US that are spread by the soybean aphid, which presents a potential threat to US soybean production. (usda.gov)
  • plant
  • Soybean dwarf (SbDV) is a plant disease that causes the stunting and yellowing of soybeans. (usda.gov)
  • Trophic interactions between host plant, aphid, aphid endosymbiont and aphid vectored viruses. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • The Soybean Green Plant Problem - An Evaluation of Possible Influencing Factors. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • As the infested plant ages, soybean aphids remain on leaves near the top of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to a soybean plant during this initial stage is a result of stylet-feeding and can include curling and stunting of leaves and twigs, physiological delays, and underdevelopment of root tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids have also been spread by human transportation of infested plant materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids, adelgids, and phylloxerids are very closely related, and are all within the suborder Sternorrhyncha, the plant-sucking bugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasive
  • This aphid is actually a huge problem, and the sheer biomass only 10 (or so) years after introduction is absolutely amazing, and speaks to the massive invasive potential of aphids in general. (scienceblogs.com)
  • hosts
  • The soybean aphid possesses a heteroecious holocyclic life cycle, which means the insect alternates hosts and undergoes sexual reproduction for at least part of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Results showed that conditioning soybeans to 20°C significantly reduced SBA survival, and the effect on survival increased with longer conditioning. (k-state.edu)
  • survival
  • Four aphid responses were evaluated: preimaginal development, survival to adulthood, number of progeny produced, and adult longevity. (k-state.edu)