• Antigen
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • The average window period with HIV-1 antibody tests is 25 days for subtype B. Antigen testing cuts the window period to approximately 16 days and nucleic acid testing (NAT) further reduces this period to 12 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of antibody, antigen and nucleic acid tests are used by blood banks in Western countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 'vaccine'/antigen based on the hemagglutinin (HA) stem was the first to induce 'broadly neutralizing' antibodies to both HA-group 1 and HA-group 2 influenza in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Whitehead Institute scientists have determined how to use alpaca-derived, single-domain antibody fragments (also called VHHs or nanobodies) to perturb cellular processes in mammalian cells, including the infection of human cells by influenza A virus (IAV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (phys.org)
  • When Schmidt analyzed these hits, he found that the nanobodies jammed the viruses' infection machinery using tactics specific to each virus-anti-IAV VHHs targeted the viral nucleoprotein NP, while the anti-VSVs recognized the viral nucleocaspid N. (phys.org)
  • This is the first time that the VRC01 antibody has been evaluated in people who started ART during acute HIV infection," said Dr. Trevor Crowell, the MHRP research physician who presented the findings. (eurekalert.org)
  • Colorado tick fever (CTF) (also called mountain tick fever, American tick fever, and American mountain tick fever) is a viral infection (Coltivirus) transmitted from the bite of an infected Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). (wikipedia.org)
  • Polioencephalitis is a viral infection of the brain, causing inflammation within the grey matter of the brain stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In clinical trials, a broadly neutralizing antibody isolated from an HIV-infected patient was shown to be safe and effective and to interfere with chronic infection in a way that traditional antiretroviral therapy does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its cause has not been established, but its association with asthma exacerbations (usually with a respiratory infection as a trigger) has led to suspicion that the initial viral insult that causes the respiratory infection is also implicated in the subsequent paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indirect evidence has implicated viral infection in the aetiology of subacute thyroiditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This evidence is limited to preceding upper respiratory tract infection, elevated viral antibody levels, and both seasonal and geographical clustering of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cause of acute splenomegaly in children is viral infection, which is transient and usually moderate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing the blood for antibodies against the virus can confirm a previous infection but will be negative in new infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of primary infection, the body produces antibodies to the particular type of HSV involved, preventing a subsequent infection of that type at a different site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assay
  • HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI or HAI) were developed in 1941-42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • A controlled serologic survey of antibody titres to 17 viruses was undertaken in multiple sclerosis patients in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. (bmj.com)
  • Dessain's research has examined a range of subjects in molecular biology and immunology, from homeobox genes to DNA tumor viruses and human antibody therapeutics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2011, researchers created an antibody, which targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called haemagglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • His technique for cloning native human antibodies has been used to produce mAbs capable of neutralizing botulism toxin and poliovirus and of binding amyloid proteins associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (abgent.com)
  • rebound
  • There was a delay in viral load rebound in people who received VRC01, which occurred at a median of 26 days versus 14 days in the placebo group. (eurekalert.org)
  • Seventeen of the 18 volunteers experienced viral rebound and reinitiated ART. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although the delayed time to viral load rebound with VRC01 seen here is likely not clinically significant, it taught us two important lessons," said Dr. Jintanat Ananworanich, Associate Director for Therapeutics Research at MHRP. (eurekalert.org)
  • infections
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of aCL isotypes and requirement of protein cofactor in viral infections in order to establish the importance, if any, of these antibodies in these infectious diseases. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS The presence of aCLs in viral infections is principally cofactor independent, suggesting that cofactor dependence of the aCLs should be assessed to distinguish subjects most likely to suffer from clinical symptoms observed in the presence of these antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • It is intended for the treatment of viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTIs) such as common cold, influenza or influenza-like illnesses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • infectious
  • BACKGROUND Antibodies to cardiolipin (aCLs) are often detected in patients with autoimmune disorders or infectious diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Nonspecific reactions, hypergammaglobulinemia, or the presence of antibodies directed to other infectious agents that may be antigenically similar to HIV can produce false positive results. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the US, the Food and Drug Administration requires that all donated blood be screened for several infectious diseases, including HIV-1 and HIV-2, using a combination of antibody testing (EIA) and more expeditious nucleic acid testing (NAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Viral replication in infected cells is associated with characteristic cytoplasmic granular matrices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence suggests viral presence in mature erythrocytes is a result of replication of the virus in hematopoitic erythrocyte precursor cells and simultaneous maturation of the infected immature cells rather than of direct entry and replication of CTFV in mature erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves from the bloodstream into the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative to the initial viral stock concentration, the virus concentration in this well will be some dilution of the stock, for example, 1/40-fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • F16 is the only known antibody that binds (its neutralizing activity is controversial) to all 16 subtypes of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin and might be the lynchpin for a universal influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • 10-24M) of antibodies purified from the serum of rabbit immunised against a synthetic peptide with an amino acid sequence selected in the human toll-like receptor type 3 sequence (anti-TLR3). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • establish
  • Proper validation with controls and optimization ensure the quality of the antibody, and establish confidence in your results. (abgent.com)
  • Human
  • Scott K. Dessain, MD, PhD, is an American oncologist, research scientist, biotechnology entrepreneur and professor who developed a technique for generating native human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using B cells drawn from human tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • High efficiency creation of human monoclonal antibody-producing hybridomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adekar SP, Jones RM, Elias MD, Al-Saleem FH, Root MJ, Simpson LL, Dessain SK (2008) "Hybridoma populations enriched for affinity-matured human IgGs yield high-affinity antibodies specific for botulinum neurotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory has isolated and cloned human antibodies to HIV-1 and explored their roles in prevention and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fever
  • Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • No consistent pattern of elevated antibody titre levels or the presence of antibody was noted in patients compared with two control groups. (bmj.com)
  • cells
  • Work on adaptive immunity focuses on B lymphocytes and antibodies to HIV-1, while work on innate immunity focuses on dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • The resulting HI plate images usually progress from non-agglutinated, "button" wells with high antibody concentration to agglutinated, red diffuse wells with low antibody concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and dysfunctional processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)