• Emission
  • This book is divided into four clearly defined parts: measuring organic indoor pollutants, investigation concepts and quality guidelines, field studies, and emission studies. (ebooks.com)
  • The authors cover physico-chemical fundamentals of organic pollutants, relevant definitions and terminology, emission sources, sampling techniques and instrumentation, exposure assessment as well as methods for control. (ebooks.com)
  • The Government of Canada has proposed, for the first time, industrial air pollutant emission legislation for some sectors of the economy, including certain categories of stationary engines. (dieselnet.com)
  • The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. (epa.gov)
  • These sources may release air toxics from equipment leaks, when materials are transferred from one location to another, or during discharge through emission stacks or vents "Area" sources consist of smaller-size facilities that release lesser quantities of toxic pollutants into the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the US Public Health Service in 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The equation for the estimation of emissions before emission reduction controls are applied is: E = A × EF and for emissions after reduction controls are applied: E = A × EF × (1-ER/100) Emission factors are used by atmospheric dispersion modelers and others to determine the amount of air pollutants being emitted from sources within industrial facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapter 5, Section 5.1 "Petroleum Refining" discusses the air pollutant emissions from the equipment in the various refinery processing units as well as from the auxiliary steam-generating boilers, furnaces and engines, and Table 5.1.1 includes the pertinent emission factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Table 5.1.2 includes the emission factors for the fugitive air pollutant emissions from the large wet cooling towers in refineries and from the oil/water separators used in treating refinery wastewater. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fugitive air pollutant emission factors from relief valves, piping valves, open-ended piping lines or drains, piping flanges, sample connections, and seals on pump and compressor shafts are discussed and included the report EPA-458/R-95-017, "Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates" which is included in the Chapter 5 section of AP 42. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fund pollutants do not cause damage to the environment unless the emission rate exceeds the receiving environment's absorptive capacity (e.g. carbon dioxide, which is absorbed by plants and oceans). (wikipedia.org)
  • Local pollutants cause damage near the emission source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regional pollutants cause damage further from the emission source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Pollutant Emission Register is a type of PRTR providing access to information on the annual emissions of industrial facilities in the Member States of the European Union, as well as Norway. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first amended in 1965, by the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act, which authorized the federal government to set required standards for controlling the emission of pollutants from certain automobiles, beginning with the 1968 models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1967 act also authorized expanded studies of air pollutant emission inventories, ambient monitoring techniques, and control techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • Major sources of air toxics are stationary sources that emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons or more per year of any one of the 188 air toxics listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (Act), or 25 tons or more per year of combined air toxics. (ct.gov)
  • In 1990, the EPA estimated that major sources emit 30% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (ct.gov)
  • Despite great gains in fuel economy and the efficacy of air pollution control equipment over the past twenty years, the EPA estimated in 1990 that mobile sources emit 39% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (ct.gov)
  • State Average Annual Emissions Trend (1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016. (epa.gov)
  • The EPA established the NAAQS according to Sections 108 and 109 of the U.S. Clean Air Act, which was last amended in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, a Lead Staff Paper was prepared by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OPQPS), which was based on information presented in the 1986 Lead/AQCD/Addendum and 1990 Supplement, in addition to other OAQPS sponsored lead exposure/risk analyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA to set standards for all major sources of air toxics (and some area sources that are of particular concern). (wikipedia.org)
  • Further amendments were made in 1990 to address the problems of acid rain, ozone depletion, and toxic air pollution, and to establish a national permit program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. W. Bush, William K. Reilly characterized passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act as his most notable accomplishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • All of the concentrations and concentration corrections in this article apply only to air and other gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their biggest disadvantages are that they are not capable of removing submicrometer partculates and they do not efficiently absorb most pollutant gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • methane
  • The main short-lived climate pollutants are black carbon, methane and tropospheric ozone, which are the most important contributors to the human enhancement of the global greenhouse effect after CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapidly reducing short-lived climate pollutants, for instance through the collection of landfill gas or the recovery of methane from coal mines, has the potential to avoid the annual loss of more than 30 million tons of crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane is excluded in air-pollution contexts because it is not harmful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure
  • Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a method allowing a quantitative evaluation of the number of excess cancer cases caused by individual substances is of great interest. (springer.com)
  • Professor Jonathan Grigg, Professor of Paediatric Respiratory and Environmental Medicine at Queen Mary University of London and the Vice Chair of the working party, called on the Government to monitor exposure to air pollution more effectively in order to help identify those children and young people who are most at risk. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Since most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental hazard. (tamu.edu)
  • The EPA concentrated on regulatory and remedial clean-up efforts to minimize Pb exposure from numerous non-air sources that caused more severe public health risks, and undertook actions to reduce air emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have found correlations between exposure to vehicle pollutants and certain diseases such as asthma, lung and heart disease, and cancer among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this article is to outline how vehicular pollutants affect the health of expectant mothers and the adverse health effects these exposure have on the unborn babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • emit
  • These sources emit air toxics through various means, including emissions stacks and vents, fugitive process emissions, equipment leaks, material transfer and handling, or accidental releases. (ct.gov)
  • Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than major sources, which emit less than 10 tons per year of any single air toxic or less than 25 tons per year of combined air toxics. (ct.gov)
  • Mobile sources emit toxic air pollutants through the incomplete combustion of fuel and through the evaporation of fuel. (ct.gov)
  • Area sources are defined as sources that do not emit more than 10 tons per year of a single air toxic or more than 25 tons per year of a combination of air toxics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Design for disposal or reuse: The end-of-life of a product is very important, because some products emit dangerous chemicals into the air, ground and water after they are disposed of in a landfill. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, more than half of the carbon monoxide emitted into our atmosphere was from vehicle traffic and burning one gallon of gas will often emit over 20 pounds of carbon monoxide into the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ozone
  • Ozone (O3): Ozone found on the surface-level, also known as tropospheric ozone is also regulated by the NAAQS under the Clean Air Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ground level ozone is a prominent example of a secondary pollutant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concern
  • It is a fact that indoor air is, in many cases, a more grievous concern than outdoor air. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Given climate change, changes in wind speed are currently a potential concern for society, due to their impacts on a wide array of spheres, such as wind power generation, ecohydrological implications for agriculture and hydrology, wind-related hazards and catastrophes, or air quality and human health, among many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • originate
  • However, estimates based on 1999 information indicate that 64% of toxic air pollutant emissions originate from mobile sources, 38% from on-road and 26 % from non-road. (ct.gov)
  • Sources: USEPA's original list & Modifications Most air toxics originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (e.g., cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (e.g., factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (e.g., building materials and activities such as cleaning). (wikipedia.org)
  • climate
  • The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) was launched by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and six countries - Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden, and the United States - on 16 February 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CCAC aims to catalyze rapid reductions in short-lived climate pollutants to protect human health, agriculture and the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) are agents that have relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere - a few days to a few decades - and a warming influence on climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These short-lived climate pollutants are also dangerous air pollutants, with various detrimental impacts on human health, agriculture and ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other short-lived climate pollutants include some hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Short-lived climate pollutants are largely to blame. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast actions on short-lived climate pollutants, such as the widespread adoption of advanced cookstoves and clean fuels, have the potential to prevent over 2 million of premature deaths each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rise in global environmental issues such as air and water pollution, climate change, overflowing landfills and clearcutting have all lead to increased government regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best method of controlling the environment is by using a centralized climate control or HVAC system where incoming air is washed, cleaned, heated, or cooled, adjusted to specific conditions, and then injected into the storage space. (wikipedia.org)
  • heavy metals
  • Indeed, Hajrudin Pasic, Khairul Alam and David Bayless recently patented a new type of membranewoven from carbon, silicon and other fibers and measuring only one to three millimeters thickthat captures fine air pollutants and heavy metals more cheaply and efficiently than conventional filters. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Regulations
  • The proposed Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR) will impose mandatory national performance standards on specific sector/equipment groups and establish consistent emissions limits for regulated industries across the country. (dieselnet.com)
  • Pollutants can cross international borders and therefore international regulations are needed for their control. (wikipedia.org)
  • indoors
  • The objective was to measure the air quality outside and inside the combined showroom and workshop, demonstrating the importance of measuring common traffic-related pollutants indoors as well as outdoors. (environmental-expert.com)
  • include
  • The Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • However, reduced airflow in a building can cause air quality problems in three ways. (tamu.edu)
  • Reduced amounts of outside air entering a building can cause the levels of air pollutants to build up over time and become greater than outdoor levels of air pollution. (tamu.edu)
  • Poor indoor air quality can cause or contribute to the development of infections, lung cancer and chronic lung diseases such as asthma. (lung.org)
  • A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal species, or by interfering with human amenities, comfort, health, or property values. (wikipedia.org)
  • The damage they cause increases as more pollutant is emitted, and persists as the pollutant accumulates. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • It is a major air pollutant that is colorless and has a pungent smell, released from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, in different industries, and it is also a product of the burning fuels in automobiles released from the vehicular exhausts. (pakobserver.net)
  • One of the major mechanisms for implementing this statute was to create a permitting process for all discharging methods that involved dumping pollutants into streams, lakes, rivers, wetlands, or creeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • stationary
  • A second amendment, the Air Quality Act of 1967, enabled the federal government to increase its activities to investigate enforcing interstate air pollution transport, and, for the first time, to perform far-reaching ambient monitoring studies and stationary source inspections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clean Air
  • The Clean Air Act requires periodic review of NAAQS, and new scientific data published after 1977 made it necessary to revise the standards previously established in the 1977 Lead AQCD document. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution in the United States EPA: Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Overview, a brief description of the sections of the Clean Air Act related to air toxics as well as further links to relevant rules, reports, and programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clean Air Act standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • This question of terminology has practical effects, for example as determining whether the U.S. Clean Air Act is deemed to regulate CO2 emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • According to the World Health Organization, 40% of all buildings pose a serious health hazard due to indoor air pollution. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Poor air quality has been linked to health effects in everyone, especially infants, children, seniors and pets. (environmental-expert.com)
  • EPA Warns Indoor Air More Concerning That polluted haze that can be seen over the horizon, acting like a beacon and reminding you what should already be common sense and well understood: dirty air is not good for your health. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The EPA has put indoor air quality on its top five concerns for our overall health. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Air fresheners and household cleaning products were at the centre of a new health scare last night as report warns that of the hidden threat of air pollution in our homes. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Dr Andrew Goddard, the Royal College of Physicians lead for the report, said: "Taking action to tackle air pollution in the UK will reduce the pain and suffering for many people with long term chronic health conditions, not to mention lessening the long term demands on our NHS. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • EPA will not make a regulatory decision on a pollutant until SAB has reviewed and approved the health assessment, which can involve returning to SAB several times for approval. (gao.gov)
  • All pollutant levels are calculated by associated health risks that would harm the most sensitive subgroup of people, which are considered to be inner city children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a federal program within the U.S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This section of the act declares that protecting and enhancing the nation's air quality promotes public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the 2014 World Health Organization report, air pollution in 2012 caused the deaths of around 7 million people worldwide, an estimate roughly echoed by one from the International Energy Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Release
  • Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) are systems to collect and disseminate information on environmental releases and transfers of toxic chemicals from industrial and other facilities. (wikipedia.org)