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  • novel genes
  • This invention provides novel genes encoding herbicide resistance, which are useful in plant biology, crop breeding, and plant cell culture. (google.com)
  • Proteins
  • With this technology, segments of DNA could be sequenced, amplified, and proteins produced using bacterial transformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGS was the first company (in 1985) to develop genetically engineered (tobacco) plants with insect tolerance by expressing genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other fusion proteins such as green fluorescent protein may act as a reporter gene for the identification of successful cloned genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • The Bt brinjal is a suite of transgenic brinjals (also known as an eggplant or aubergine) created by inserting a crystal protein gene (Cry1Ac) from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of various brinjal cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chvE protein regulates the second mechanism of the vir genes' activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector is used to introduce a specific gene into a target cell, and can commandeer the cell's mechanism for protein synthesis to produce the protein encoded by the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression however may also be constitutive (i.e. protein is constantly expressed) in some expression vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Plant genes involved in developmental reprogramming, wound response, and/or homologous recombination should be used to boost the recovery of transformed plants. (plantcell.org)
  • This investment in plant science has enabled foundational discoveries of crop genes and their functions. (plantcell.org)
  • Since glyphosate-class herbicides inhibit aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, they not only kill plant cells, but are also toxic to bacterial cells. (google.com)
  • With gene editing, the final product can match that obtained by conventional plant breeding, but in a much shorter timeframe. (ufl.edu)
  • Genetic engineering is the insertion of a foreign synthetic gene (DNA) into a plant, with subsequent expression of the gene to produce a new phenotype. (edu.au)
  • The complexity of Agrobacterium -plant interaction has been studied for several decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also recognizes plant-derived signals including γ-amino butyric acid and salicylic acid (SA) to activate quorum quenching that reduces the level of QS signals, thereby avoiding the elicitation of plant defense and preserving energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium -plant interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Agrobacterium -plant interaction is an excellent paradigm for studying both plant and bacterial responses, as well as the role of chemical signaling in these processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a ubiquitous soil bacterium, Agrobacterium is capable of two lifestyles: independent free-living or acting as a pathogen in association with a plant host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gelvin SB (2000) Agrobacterium and plant genes involved in T-DNA transfer and integration. (springer.com)
  • Isenegger DA, Taylor PW, Mullins K, McGregor GR, Barlass M, Hutchinson J (2003) Molecular detection of a bacterial contaminant Bacillus pumilus in symtomless potato plant tissue cultures. (springer.com)
  • This provides an example of cross-kingdom nuclear localization between two free-living organisms: a bacterial peptide is capable of acting as a eukaryotic (plant) nuclear targeting signal. (pnas.org)
  • Monsanto introduced this gene into plants using agrobacterium and the result was a plant that was resistant to Roundup. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also found a way to make plant cells resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin by transferring a bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase gene into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insertion of the gene, along with other genetic elements such as promoters, terminators and an antibiotic resistance marker gene into the brinjal plant is accomplished using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible plant compounds that initiate Agrobacterium to infect plant cells: Acetosyringone and other phenolic compounds alpha-Hydroxyacetosyringone Catechol Ferulic acid Gallic acid p-Hydroxybenzoic acid Protocatechuic acid Pyrogallic acid Resorcylic acid Sinapinic acid Syringic acid Vanillin To transfer the T-DNA into the plant cell, A. tumefaciens uses a type IV secretion mechanism, involving the production of a T-pilus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research on Agrobacterium also showed that the genes responsible for causing disease could be removed from the bacterium without adversely affecting its ability to insert its own DNA into plant cells and modify the plant's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983 an antibiotic resistant gene was inserted into tobacco, leading to the first genetically engineered plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • vector
  • A gene isolated from one species can be inserted into a bacterial or yeast 'vector' DNA molecule to make a recombinant molecule. (edu.au)
  • The binary vector is a shuttle vector, so-called because it is able to replicate in multiple hosts (E. coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene must then be isolated and incorporated, along with other genetic elements, into a suitable vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector is engineered to contain regulatory sequences that act as enhancer and promoter regions and lead to efficient transcription of the gene carried on the expression vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloned gene may be transferred from a specialized cloning vector to an expression vector, although it is possible to clone directly into an expression vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • An expression vector must have elements necessary for gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer as are transformation and transduction although these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • When acetosyringone and other substances are detected, a signal transduction event activates the expression of 11 genes within the VirB operon which are responsible for the formation of the T-pilus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Genetic engineering has been made possible by the development of gene cloning (also known as recombinant DNA) and associated molecular biology techniques. (edu.au)
  • Organisms
  • Advances followed that allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • High level expression of the genes encoding some of these exporters in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (including human) result in the development of resistance to multiple drugs such as antibiotics and anti-cancer agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • This review will summarize recent developments in understanding the biochemical and structural mechanisms utilized by bacterial pathogens to interact with the host ubiquitination pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several natural mechanisms allow gene flow across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Thus, gene transfer may occur through many varying means. (wikipedia.org)
  • As shown below, most belong to the order Rhizobiales, but several rhizobia occur in distinct bacterial orders of the proteobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • There are many methods used for gene insertion: transformation, injection, viral infection or bombardment with DNA-coated tungsten or gold particles. (macalester.edu)
  • This can be accomplished with microinjection, viral vectors, Agrobacterium-mediated recombination, biolistics or using the organism's natural processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Based on policy discussions, it is possible that the first-generation plants containing the edited genes will not require extensive regulation, and these tools will be extremely valuable in the long-term efforts of every strawberry breeding program. (ufl.edu)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soil bacterium capable of transferring DNA to the genome of higher plants. (pnas.org)
  • This meant that all plants without the bacterial gene would die, leading a much higher degree of weed control. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens has the ability to introduce genes into plants to cause the development of Gall disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The completed construct was inserted into young cotyledons from the brinjal plants using an Agrobacterium-mediated technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transformed plants were regenerated and analyzed for the presence of the gene through Southern blotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wide variety of plants affected by Agrobacterium makes it of great concern to the agriculture industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barbara McClintock breeds maize plants for color, which leads to the discovery of transposable elements or jumping genes (1944). (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral gene tra
  • is proposed to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. (biologists.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses including Od-CesA s indicate that a single lateral gene transfer event from a prokaryote at the base of the lineage conferred biosynthetic capacity in all tunicates. (biologists.org)
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • The cry1Ac gene is under the transcriptional control of an enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter, which ensures the gene is expressed in all the brinjal's tissue throughout its complete life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The promoter initiates the transcription and is therefore the point of control for the expression of the cloned gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Ascidians possess one CesA gene, whereas duplicated larvacean genes have evolved distinct temporal and functional specializations. (biologists.org)
  • traits
  • Recent technology has been developed to precisely engineer genes for traits of interest. (ufl.edu)
  • CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is one form of gene editing that can be used to precisely modify a gene of interest without otherwise compromising the favorable traits of an elite variety (Rani et al. (ufl.edu)
  • The UF/IFAS strawberry breeding program has identified several important gene regions controlling disease resistance traits that are directly relevant to Florida growers. (ufl.edu)
  • However, just as each cultivar has different traits and qualities, they also behave differently with respect to introduction of new genes. (ufl.edu)
  • Since then important traits including dwarfing genes and rust resistance have been introduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • These traits are controlled by more than one gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Recent studies have revealed that viruses and bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination pathways to gain entry and to aid their survival/replication inside host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • For more complex objectives whole biosynthetic pathways involving multiple genes may be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum moot the "one gene-one enzyme hypothesis" based on induced mutations in bread mold Neurospora crassa (1941). (wikipedia.org)
  • ABC genes are essential for many processes in the cell, and mutations in human genes cause or contribute to several human genetic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • Gregor Mendel's experiments with the garden pea led him to surmise many of the fundamental laws of genetics (dominant vs recessive genes, the 1-2-1 ratio, see Mendelian inheritance) (1856-1863). (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes that look at a phenotype and then try and identify the gene responsible for it are called forward genetics. (wikipedia.org)