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  • role
  • Our results show that GluR2 plays a critical role in controlling the assembly of AMPA receptors, and that the assembly of subunits may reflect the affinity of one subunit for another or the stability of intermediates in the assembly process. (garvan.org.au)
  • Our objective is to determine the role of kainate receptors, a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, in synaptic transmission and plasticity at the mossy fiber - CA3 pyramidal neuron synapse in the hippocampus. (northwestern.edu)
  • Excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by kainate receptors (KA-EPSCs) at mossy fiber synapses have unusual kinetic properties and play a role in the induction of long-term potentiation of mossy fiber synapses. (northwestern.edu)
  • NMDA
  • In addition, we show that CX546 administration also ameliorates various synaptic deficits induced by anesthesia, including reductions in synaptic expression of NMDA ( N -methyl- d -aspartate) and AMPA receptor subunits, motor training-evoked neuronal activity, and dendritic spine remodeling associated with motor learning. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1999
  • However, it has been reported that the NMDAR-mediated component of evoked EPSCs is small at parallel fiber (PF)-to-interneuron synapses ( Glitsch and Marty, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Indeed, in the hippocampal CA1 region, more than half of the synapses do not have an astrocytic process in close proximity, suggesting that neuronal glutamate transport may play a larger role than originally thought in confining released glutamate ( Ventura and Harris, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • proteins
  • Here, we find that the postsynaptic proteins PSD ‐93, PSD ‐95, and SAP 102 differentially regulate excitatory synapse properties in the NA c. (embopress.org)
  • He further demonstrated that the interaction between AMPA receptor and PDZ proteins is critical, and inhibiting such interaction provide analgesic effects in animals model of chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second mechanism depends on a second messenger cascade regulating gene transcription and changes in the levels of key proteins at synapses such as CaMKII and PKAII. (wikipedia.org)
  • To facilitate translation outside of the soma, since synapses depend on some proteins to be synthesized on site, translation machinery such as ribosomal assemblies and endoplasmic reticulum are present in dendrites (specifically in the spine neck and shaft). (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • This finding suggests that estradiol improves learning through inducing the formation of silent or immature synapses, which provide the substrate for storing new memories. (pnas.org)
  • Surprisingly, estrogen-activated spinogenesis was associated with a decrease in CA1 hippocampal excitatory input, rapidly and transiently reducing CA1 AMPA activity via a mechanism likely reflecting AMPA receptor internalization and creation of silent or immature synapses. (pnas.org)
  • NMDAR
  • Synchronous activation of larger numbers of synapses, or facilitation of glutamate release by stimulus trains, results in NMDAR activation that is enhanced by glutamate transporter blockers. (jneurosci.org)
  • Selective activation of a subset of whiskers is sufficient to potentiate layer 4-layer 2/3 excitatory synapses in the mouse somatosensory (barrel) cortex, a process that is NMDAR dependent. (jneurosci.org)
  • suggesting that this transition in NMDAR function might occur across multiple synapse types in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • After this initiation phase, sensory input triggers an NMDAR-dependent reduction in synaptic strength, specifically at recently potentiated synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using single quantum dot tracking, we demonstrate that MMP-9 enzymatic activity increases NR1-NMDAR surface trafficking but has no influence on AMPA receptor mobility. (jneurosci.org)
  • silent synapse
  • Silent synapse‐based NA c remodeling was shown to be critical for several drug‐induced behaviors, but its role in acquisition and retention of the association between drug rewarding effects and drug‐associated contexts has remained unclear. (embopress.org)
  • The stimulation of a silent synapse does not elicit EPSCs when the postsynaptic cell is clamped at -60 mV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of a silent synapse will elicit EPSCs when the postsynaptic cell is depolarized beyond -40 mV. (wikipedia.org)
  • potentiation
  • Long-term potentiation (LTP) or increased activity of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induced delivery of tagged AMPA-Rs into synapses. (sciencemag.org)
  • To understand how experience might persistently alter neocortical synapses, we monitored synaptic potentiation induced by sensory activity at short time intervals. (jneurosci.org)
  • In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium/ calmodulin dependent protein kinase II is also heavily implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP) - the molecular process of strengthening active synapses that is thought to underlie the processes of memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Dramatic increases in hippocampal spine synapse density are known to occur within minutes of estrogen exposure. (pnas.org)
  • dentate gyrus
  • Lømo's experiments focused on connections, or synapses, from the perforant pathway to the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experiment described was conducted on the synapse between the perforant path and dentate gyrus in the hippocampi of anaesthetised rabbits. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were able to show a burst of tetanic (100 Hz) stimulus on perforant path fibres led to a dramatic and long-lasting augmentation in the post-synaptic response of cells onto which these fibres synapse in the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic spine
  • Estradiol rapidly and dramatically increases hippocampal dendritic spine and synapse density within minutes of application ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • increases
  • Until now, it had been assumed that estradiol-induced increases in hippocampal synapses would result in increased excitatory input into the neuron. (pnas.org)
  • When L-LTP is induced, synthesis of PKMζ from its brain-specific mRNA increases, and this constitutively active kinase maintains LTP in tagged synapses by upregulating AMPA receptor trafficking pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • potentiate
  • Administration of the AMPAkine drug CX546 [1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine] to potentiate AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor activity during emergence from anesthesia in mice enhances neuronal activity and prevents long-term motor learning deficits induced by repeated neonatal anesthesia. (sciencemag.org)
  • subset
  • The variability of postsynaptic α7nAChR labeling density was greater at postnatal day (PD) 7 than in adulthood, and PD 7 neuropil contained a subset of small AMPA receptor-negative synapses with a high density of α7nAChR immunoreactivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • selective
  • Previously we have shown that selective whisker removal (leaving only a single whisker on one side of the snout) selectively strengthens synapses in the spared barrel column within 24 h of altered sensory input ( Clem and Barth, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Within a few hours following selective whisker removal, layer 4-2/3 synapses in the spared barrel column grow significantly stronger, reaching their peak amplitude after 12 h of altered whisker experience. (jneurosci.org)
  • The receptor was first named the "quisqualate receptor" by Watkins and colleagues after a naturally occurring agonist quisqualate and was only later given the label "AMPA receptor" after the selective agonist developed by Tage Honore and colleagues at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy in Copenhagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • amplitude
  • This labile phase is transient, lasting ∼12 h, before synapses are stabilized at a new, larger amplitude compared with control animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • molecular layer
  • Here we extend our quantitative SDS-FRL analysis to parallel fiber (PF)-PC, CF-PC, and PF-interneuron synapses in the molecular layer of adult rat cerebellum, in which such fine electrophysiological analysis is not feasible. (jneurosci.org)