• allele
  • We distinguished the polymorphism at the ADH2 and ALDH2 loci in Japanese individuals'white cell DNAs using allele-specific oligonucleotide probes directed at their single base pair differences. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Homozygous individuals with the mutant allele have almost no ALDH2 activity, and those heterozygous for the mutation have reduced activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • Methods: Two types of HRA models were developed based on our previous case-control study, which included assessment of ALDH2 activity and selected risk factors (HRA-G and HRA-F: activities of ALDH2 assessed by genotype and questionnaire for alcohol flushing, respectively). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Case-control studies in Japanese ( 10 - 13 ) and Taiwanese ( 13 - 16 ) individuals and prospective studies in which esophageal iodine staining has been used in Japanese alcoholics ( 17 - 19 ) have consistently shown a very strong link between the risk of esophageal SCC and alcohol drinking in people possessing the ALDH2*1/*2 genotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alcohol drinking together with the ALDH2*1/*2 genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for multiple cancerization in the upper aerodigestive tract ( 13 , 17 , 19 , 20 , 21 ) and for oropharyngolaryngeal SCC ( 13 , 18 , 20 , 22 , 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since ALDH2 is a randomized tetramer, the hetero-mutated genotype is reduced to only 6% activity compared to wild type, while homo-mutated genotypes have virtually zero enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinogenic
  • This would increase the knowledge of acetaldehyde concentration and give the possibility for consumers to choose the products that have little or no carcinogenic acetaldehyde. (globenewswire.com)
  • The L-cysteine in Acetium capsules dissolves slowly into the gastric fluid, efficiently binding (neutralising) carcinogenic acetaldehyde in an achlorhydric stomach. (globenewswire.com)
  • The consistent epidemiological and biochemical results obtained from this model prompted the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in October 2009 to classify the acetaldehyde found in, and generated endogenously from, alcoholic beverages as a Group I carcinogen, i.e. as carcinogenic as asbestos, formaldehyde and benzene. (globenewswire.com)
  • enzymes
  • Although there is a recognizable Rossmann fold, the coenzyme-binding region of ALDH2 binds NAD+ in a manner not seen in other NAD+-binding enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysine
  • A single point mutation (G → A) at exon 12 of the ALDH2 gene causes a replacement of glutamine with lysine at residue 487, resulting in the ALDH2K enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Except for the signal NH2-terminal peptide, which is absent in the mature enzyme, the amino acid sequence deduced from the exons coincided with the reported primary structure of human liver ALDH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophageal
  • In addition, Biohit´s GastroPanel diagnosis method is developed to identify major risk groups for esophageal and gastric cancer, for whom the avoidance of acetaldehyde is of particular importance. (globenewswire.com)
  • facial
  • increased acetaldehyde causes facial flushing! (brainscape.com)
  • Because drinking a small amount of alcohol results in acetaldehydemia and unpleasant alcohol flushing responses in persons with inactive ALDH2, the activity of ALDH2 can be assessed by a simple questionnaire that asks about both current and past facial flushing ( 24 , 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • accumulation
  • While the causes of a hangover are still poorly understood, several factors are known to be involved including acetaldehyde accumulation, changes in the immune system and glucose metabolism, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, disturbed prostaglandin synthesis, increased cardiac output, vasodilation, sleep deprivation and malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactive
  • This simple questionnaire about flushing as a marker of inactive ALDH2 is a highly reliable means of detecting inactive ALDH2 and predicting the risk of SCC in the upper aerodigestive tract ( 11 , 18 , 22 , 25 - 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • gene
  • Using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, we have examined a cohort of 597 French VC workers for polymorphisms in CYP2E1, ALDH2, GSTM1 and GSTT1 in relation to the occurrence of mutant oncogene and tumor suppressor gene biomarkers that are attributable to VC exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The ALDH2 gene is about 44 kbp in length and contains at least 13 exons which encode 517 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Acetaldehyde has been established as a carcinogen in experimental animals ( 8 ) and is suspected of playing a critical role in cancer development in humans ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • concentration
  • It would be desirable that, for example, the dairy products (including yogurt) and baby food as well as alcoholic and soft drinks product packages should include information of acetaldehyde concentration. (globenewswire.com)
  • individuals
  • The metabolized acetaldehyde in the blood, which is six times higher than in individuals without the mutation, has shown to be a carcinogen in lab animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • The purpose of the compositions is to reduce the amount of detrimental acetaldehyde in the area of the mouth, the pharynx, the esophagus, the stomach, and the small and large intestines, and through this, to reduce the risk of developing cancers in these areas. (globenewswire.com)
  • Insufficient ability to remove acetaldehyde caused by point mutation provides a human model for acetaldehyde exposure, helping to explain the high incidence rates of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers in alcohol drinkers. (globenewswire.com)
  • activity
  • Those who don't have any ALDH2 activity get sick with even a tiny amount of alcohol and tend not to drink, Patel said. (cbc.ca)
  • blood
  • So acetaldehyde stays in our system much longer and the overproduction of it causes blood vessels to dilate, resulting in the deep blush that rises to the surface of the skin. (bustle.com)
  • respectively
  • Frequencies of ADH2^*1/ADH2^*1, ADH2^*1/ADH2^*2 and ADH2^*2/ADH2^*2 in the healthy Japanese were 11, 49 and 40 %, respectively and those of ALDH2^*1/ALDH2^*1, ALDH2^*1/ALDH2^*2 and ALDH2^*2/ALDH2^*2 were 48, 44 and 8 %, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
  • human
  • Group I human carcinogens such as acetaldehyde, asbestos, benzene and formaldehyde, regardless of the source, are bound to the uniform international principle. (globenewswire.com)