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  • Protein
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. (genetex.com)
  • As Enkhjargal et al 2 have recently demonstrated, endothelial AMP-activated protein kinase mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization responses and blood pressure regulation in mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • High mobility group box 1 protein interacts with multiple Toll-like receptors," The American Journal of Physiology , vol. 290, no. 3, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Recognizes mycoplasmal macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2kD (MALP-2), soluble tuberculosis factor (STF), phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) and B.burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein (OspA-L) cooperatively with TLR6. (abcam.com)
  • Antibodies Receptor tyrosine kinases Transcription factors Leucine zipper motif proteins Nuclear receptors 14-3-3 proteins G protein-coupled receptors G protein βγ-subunit dimer Kinesin Triosephosphateisomerase (TIM) Alcohol dehydrogenase Factor XI Factor XIII Toll-like receptor Fibrinogen Variable surface glycoproteins of the Trypanosoma parasite Tubulin TypeII restriction enzymes Dimer (chemistry) Protein trimer Oligomer ProtCID Sluis-Cremer N, Hamamouch N, San Félix A, Velazquez S, Balzarini J, Camarasa MJ (August 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • They received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs
  • Hyperactivation of immune cells by bacterial products through toll-like receptors (TLRs) is thought of as a causative mechanism of septic shock pathology. (jci.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of Immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins with subgroup 2 TIR domains are classical TLRs, and bind directly or indirectly to molecules of microbial origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular building blocks of the TLRs are represented in bacteria and in plants, and plant pattern recognition receptors are well known to be required for host defence against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial
  • The Tlr4 Lps-del spontaneous mutation exhibits a defective response to LPS stimulation and affects Toll signaling pathways involved with inflammation, including susceptibility to various bacterial infections, effects of tissue ischemia (including cerebral and retinal ischemia), myocardial infarction, neurodegeneration, and tumor immune responses. (jax.org)
  • In 1899, Ladislas Deutsch (Laszlo Detre) (1874-1939) named the hypothetical substances halfway between bacterial constituents and antibodies "substances immunogenes ou antigenes" (antigenic or immunogenic substances). (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • PMID 19879295 Dhillon N, Walsh L, Krüger B, Ward SC, Godbold JH, Radwan M, Schiano T, Murphy BT, Schröppel B. A single nucleotide polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 4 identifies the risk of developing graft failure after liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is regulated post-transcriptionally and its ligand is present in the sera of some septic patients," Clinical and Experimental Immunology , vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 448-455, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • There are 14 different mammalian Siglecs, providing an array of different functions based on cell surface receptor-ligand interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, no ligand has been identified for this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Finally, they concluded that shear stress induces TGF-β3 signaling and subsequent activation of Kruppel-like factor 2 and nitric oxide (NO), demonstrating a novel role for TGF-β3 in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis in a hemodynamic environment. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 This article provides a novel effect of shear stress on ECs in which induction of TGF-β3 expression leads to the activation of Kruppel-like factor 2 and NO signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by leukocytic toll-like receptor-2 and reduced by systemic administration of a novel anti-toll-like receptor-2 antibody," Circulation , vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 80-90, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Tlr4
  • Purified thin curled fimbriae induced IL-8 expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells transfected with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/CD14 but not in cells transfected with TLR5, TLR4/MD2/CD14 or TLR11. (nih.gov)
  • epitopes
  • Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different antibodies have the potential to discriminate among specific epitopes present on the antigen surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • Toll-like receptors have also been shown to be an important link between innate and adaptive immunity through their presence in dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus such elements of innate immunity as macrophages, PMNs and dendritic cells assume functions of nonspecific immune defense, B1a and MZ B cells form the first antibodies, and specific antibody formation gets started in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • CsgA is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium that is recognized by Toll-like receptor 2. (nih.gov)
  • intestinal
  • Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies, helped by specific genetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Anti-dsDNA antibodies are incredibly specific for SLE, with studies quoting nearly 100%, and are therefore used in the diagnosis of SLE. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, they infiltrate the spleen and lymph nodes, and each presents components of an antigen there, as the result of which specific antibodies are formed that recognize precisely that antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • H 2 O 2 plays a crucial role as a signaling molecule at physiological low concentrations, which is one of the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factors that modulate vascular tone, especially in microvessels and in human coronary arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • This was discovered by over-expressing TLR10 in human cell lines and using antibody-mediated engagement of the receptor on primary human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response," Journal of Immunology , vol. 170, no. 7, pp. 3812-3818, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Immuno-modulation, an important feature of hMSC, was clearly demonstrated for pMSC when co-cultured with porcine peripheral blood cells stimulated with PMA and pIL-2. (wiley.com)
  • The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab59711, 1µg/1x10 6 cells) for 30 min at 22ºC. (abcam.com)
  • Commensals promote the development of B cells that produce a protective antibody, Immunoglobulin A (IgA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K antibodies are marketed for research into expression of this enyzme by various cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed on sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune-system components (e.g. complement) are bound to the antibodies and kept near, in reserve to disable them via phagocytosis by scavenger cells (e.g. macrophages). (wikipedia.org)
  • Such receptors are bound directly to cells of the immune system and cause immediate activation of their respective nonspecific immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • defence
  • Chinchilla D., Zipfel C., Robatzek S., Kemmerling B., Nürnberger T., Jones J.D.G., Felix G. & Boller T. 2007 A flagellin-induced complex of the receptor FLS2 and BAK1 initiates plant defence, Nature 448, 497-500. (wikipedia.org)