• TLRs
  • Hyperactivation of immune cells by bacterial products through toll-like receptors (TLRs) is thought of as a causative mechanism of septic shock pathology. (jci.org)
  • The TLR family has significant homology in its cytoplasmic domain to the IL-1 receptor type I. Studies so far show that signaling pathways via TLRs originate from the conserved Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of Immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins with subgroup 2 TIR domains are classical TLRs, and bind directly or indirectly to molecules of microbial origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular building blocks of the TLRs are represented in bacteria and in plants, and plant pattern recognition receptors are well known to be required for host defence against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opsona's research is primarily focused on the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR signalling in human innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • As Enkhjargal et al 2 have recently demonstrated, endothelial AMP-activated protein kinase mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization responses and blood pressure regulation in mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • High mobility group box 1 protein interacts with multiple Toll-like receptors," The American Journal of Physiology , vol. 290, no. 3, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Antibody Reactive Against Recombinant Protein. (abnova.com)
  • C2C12 myotubes exposed to VLDL showed increased levels of ER stress and inflammatory markers whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels were reduced and the insulin signalling pathway was attenuated. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies Receptor tyrosine kinases Transcription factors Leucine zipper motif proteins Nuclear receptors 14-3-3 proteins G protein-coupled receptors G protein βγ-subunit dimer Kinesin Triosephosphateisomerase (TIM) Alcohol dehydrogenase Factor XI Factor XIII Toll-like receptor Fibrinogen Variable surface glycoproteins of the Trypanosoma parasite Tubulin TypeII restriction enzymes Dimer (chemistry) Protein trimer Oligomer ProtCID Sluis-Cremer N, Hamamouch N, San Félix A, Velazquez S, Balzarini J, Camarasa MJ (August 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • They received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • To further elucidate the mechanism of HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, antibody blocking and gene-deletion experiments with macrophages were performed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways could significantly decrease HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and western blot analysis showed that HP1330 could induce activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the function of HBeAg was not clearly understood, one study demonstrated that it downregulated Toll-like receptor 2 expression on hepatocytes and monocytes leading to a decrease in cytokine expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • In 1899, Ladislas Deutsch (Laszlo Detre) (1874-1939) named the hypothetical substances halfway between bacterial constituents and antibodies "substances immunogenes ou antigenes" (antigenic or immunogenic substances). (wikipedia.org)
  • interleukin
  • These include transcriptional factor p65 ( Rela ), tumor necrosis factor ( Thf ), interleukin 6 ( Il6 ), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 ( Ccl2 ), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 ( Ccl5 ), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 ( Cxcl10 ), cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide ( Cybb ), nitric oxide synthase 2 ( Nos2 ), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 ( Icam1 ) (Dvoriantchikova et al. (jax.org)
  • The most necessary are interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interferon γ (IFN-γ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IRAK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular signal
  • The changes caused by VLDL were dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 since they were prevented by the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 or by knockdown of this kinase by siRNA transfection. (springer.com)
  • pathogen
  • Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) has evolved into a highly invasive pathogen responsible for two large-scale outbreaks of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) in China. (frontiersin.org)
  • mice
  • Skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII showed increased levels of some ER stress and inflammatory markers and increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels, whereas PGC-1α levels were reduced, confirming apoCIII effects in vivo. (springer.com)
  • ligand
  • Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is regulated post-transcriptionally and its ligand is present in the sera of some septic patients," Clinical and Experimental Immunology , vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 448-455, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • There are 14 different mammalian Siglecs, providing an array of different functions based on cell surface receptor-ligand interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • These include increased levels of soluble Fas and bcl-2 and polymorphisms in the programmed cell death 1 and run-related transcription factor X1. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Finally, they concluded that shear stress induces TGF-β3 signaling and subsequent activation of Kruppel-like factor 2 and nitric oxide (NO), demonstrating a novel role for TGF-β3 in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis in a hemodynamic environment. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 This article provides a novel effect of shear stress on ECs in which induction of TGF-β3 expression leads to the activation of Kruppel-like factor 2 and NO signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • intestinal
  • Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies, helped by specific genetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERK1
  • ApoCIII mimicked the effects of VLDL and its effects were also blocked by ERK1/2 inhibition, suggesting that this apolipoprotein was responsible for the effects of VLDL. (springer.com)
  • These results imply that elevated VLDL in diabetic states can contribute to the exacerbation of insulin resistance by activating ERK1/2 through Toll-like receptor 2. (springer.com)
  • PMID
  • PMID 19879295 Dhillon N, Walsh L, Krüger B, Ward SC, Godbold JH, Radwan M, Schiano T, Murphy BT, Schröppel B. A single nucleotide polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 4 identifies the risk of developing graft failure after liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Anti-dsDNA antibodies are incredibly specific for SLE, with studies quoting nearly 100%, and are therefore used in the diagnosis of SLE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Markers
  • citation needed] Principal Investigator, Contribution of Toll-like receptor signaling in islet transplantation, NIH/NIAID Principal Investigator, Genetic and immune markers to predict HCV recurrence after liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response," Journal of Immunology , vol. 170, no. 7, pp. 3812-3818, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • macrophages
  • They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed on sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune-system components (e.g. complement) are bound to the antibodies and kept near, in reserve to disable them via phagocytosis by scavenger cells (e.g. macrophages). (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling molecule
  • H 2 O 2 plays a crucial role as a signaling molecule at physiological low concentrations, which is one of the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factors that modulate vascular tone, especially in microvessels and in human coronary arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • human
  • In general, "of the 29 described serotypes, serotype 2 (SS2) is the most prevalent in humans" ( 2 ), but human infections with other serotypes also occur sporadically ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)