• Protein
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. (genetex.com)
  • As Enkhjargal et al 2 have recently demonstrated, endothelial AMP-activated protein kinase mediates endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization responses and blood pressure regulation in mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • High mobility group box 1 protein interacts with multiple Toll-like receptors," The American Journal of Physiology , vol. 290, no. 3, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Recognizes mycoplasmal macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2kD (MALP-2), soluble tuberculosis factor (STF), phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) and B.burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein (OspA-L) cooperatively with TLR6. (abcam.com)
  • Antibody Reactive Against Recombinant Protein. (abnova.com)
  • Antibodies Receptor tyrosine kinases Transcription factors Leucine zipper motif proteins Nuclear receptors 14-3-3 proteins G protein-coupled receptors G protein βγ-subunit dimer Kinesin Triosephosphateisomerase (TIM) Alcohol dehydrogenase Factor XI Factor XIII Toll-like receptor Fibrinogen Variable surface glycoproteins of the Trypanosoma parasite Tubulin TypeII restriction enzymes Dimer (chemistry) Protein trimer Oligomer ProtCID Sluis-Cremer N, Hamamouch N, San Félix A, Velazquez S, Balzarini J, Camarasa MJ (August 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • They received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs
  • Hyperactivation of immune cells by bacterial products through toll-like receptors (TLRs) is thought of as a causative mechanism of septic shock pathology. (jci.org)
  • The TLR family has significant homology in its cytoplasmic domain to the IL-1 receptor type I. Studies so far show that signaling pathways via TLRs originate from the conserved Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of Immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins with subgroup 2 TIR domains are classical TLRs, and bind directly or indirectly to molecules of microbial origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular building blocks of the TLRs are represented in bacteria and in plants, and plant pattern recognition receptors are well known to be required for host defence against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opsona's research is primarily focused on the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR signalling in human innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • interleukin
  • These include transcriptional factor p65 ( Rela ), tumor necrosis factor ( Thf ), interleukin 6 ( Il6 ), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 ( Ccl2 ), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 ( Ccl5 ), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 ( Cxcl10 ), cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide ( Cybb ), nitric oxide synthase 2 ( Nos2 ), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 ( Icam1 ) (Dvoriantchikova et al. (jax.org)
  • The most necessary are interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interferon γ (IFN-γ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the IRAK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial
  • The Tlr4 Lps-del spontaneous mutation exhibits a defective response to LPS stimulation and affects Toll signaling pathways involved with inflammation, including susceptibility to various bacterial infections, effects of tissue ischemia (including cerebral and retinal ischemia), myocardial infarction, neurodegeneration, and tumor immune responses. (jax.org)
  • In 1899, Ladislas Deutsch (Laszlo Detre) (1874-1939) named the hypothetical substances halfway between bacterial constituents and antibodies "substances immunogenes ou antigenes" (antigenic or immunogenic substances). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytosis occurs after the foreign body, a bacterial cell, for example, has bound to molecules called "receptors" that are on the surface of the phagocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • When mice are raised in germ-free conditions, they lack circulating antibodies, and cannot produce mucus, antimicrobial proteins, or mucosal T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins with subgroup 1 TIR domains are receptors for interleukins that are produced by macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells and all have extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third subgroup of proteins containing TIR domains consists of adaptor proteins that are exclusively cytosolic and mediate signaling from proteins of subgroups 1 and 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways could significantly decrease HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and western blot analysis showed that HP1330 could induce activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) has evolved into a highly invasive pathogen responsible for two large-scale outbreaks of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) in China. (frontiersin.org)
  • infection
  • Anti-dsDNA antibodies can also be produced through infection via a mechanism known as molecular mimicry. (wikipedia.org)
  • How Flagellin and Toll-Like Receptor 5 Contribute to Enteric Infection" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an acute infection, however, so what we think of as "immunology" constitutes only the second half of the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes
  • Human CD14dim monocytes patrol and sense nucleic acids and viruses via TLR7 and TLR8 receptors," Immunity , vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 375-386, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the function of HBeAg was not clearly understood, one study demonstrated that it downregulated Toll-like receptor 2 expression on hepatocytes and monocytes leading to a decrease in cytokine expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • Toll-like receptors have also been shown to be an important link between innate and adaptive immunity through their presence in dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus such elements of innate immunity as macrophages, PMNs and dendritic cells assume functions of nonspecific immune defense, B1a and MZ B cells form the first antibodies, and specific antibody formation gets started in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is regulated post-transcriptionally and its ligand is present in the sera of some septic patients," Clinical and Experimental Immunology , vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 448-455, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • There are 14 different mammalian Siglecs, providing an array of different functions based on cell surface receptor-ligand interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The main difference between professional and non-professional phagocytes is that the professional phagocytes have molecules called receptors on their surfaces that can detect harmful objects, such as bacteria, that are not normally found in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • When phagocytes come into contact with bacteria, the receptors on the phagocyte's surface will bind to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • To further elucidate the mechanism of HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, antibody blocking and gene-deletion experiments with macrophages were performed. (frontiersin.org)
  • novel
  • Finally, they concluded that shear stress induces TGF-β3 signaling and subsequent activation of Kruppel-like factor 2 and nitric oxide (NO), demonstrating a novel role for TGF-β3 in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis in a hemodynamic environment. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 This article provides a novel effect of shear stress on ECs in which induction of TGF-β3 expression leads to the activation of Kruppel-like factor 2 and NO signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • specific
  • Anti-dsDNA antibodies are incredibly specific for SLE, with studies quoting nearly 100%, and are therefore used in the diagnosis of SLE. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, they infiltrate the spleen and lymph nodes, and each presents components of an antigen there, as the result of which specific antibodies are formed that recognize precisely that antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to disinhibition of the early inflammation phase and of specific antibody formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies, helped by specific genetic testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed on sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This refers to receptors that recognize the gross, primarily structural features of molecules not innate to the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • V. A. Chereshnev and E. Gusev Yu, "Immunological and Pathophysiological mechanisms of Systemic Inflammation," Medical Immunology , vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 9-20, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • human
  • H 2 O 2 plays a crucial role as a signaling molecule at physiological low concentrations, which is one of the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factors that modulate vascular tone, especially in microvessels and in human coronary arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • In general, "of the 29 described serotypes, serotype 2 (SS2) is the most prevalent in humans" ( 2 ), but human infections with other serotypes also occur sporadically ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • adaptive
  • A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response," Journal of Immunology , vol. 170, no. 7, pp. 3812-3818, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • PMID
  • PMID 19879295 Dhillon N, Walsh L, Krüger B, Ward SC, Godbold JH, Radwan M, Schiano T, Murphy BT, Schröppel B. A single nucleotide polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 4 identifies the risk of developing graft failure after liver transplantation. (wikipedia.org)