• mutations
  • Germline mutations of ACVRL1 are associated with: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 2) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations Somatic mosaicism in ACVRL1 are associated with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Publications] T.Nakamura,Y.Hasegawa,K.Sugino,K.Kogawa,K.Titani,H.Sugino: 'Follistatin inhibits activin-induced differentiation of rat follicular granulosa cells in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transduces the activin signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating a many physiological and pathological processes including neuronal differentiation and neuronal survival, hair follicle development and cycling, FSH production by the pituitary gland, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. (genecards.org)
  • TGF-β is a multifunctional set of peptides that controls proliferation, differentiation, and other functions in many cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, miR-24 has been shown to suppress expression of two crucial cell cycle control genes, E2F2 and Myc in hematopoietic differentiation and also to promote keratinocyte differentiation by repressing actin-cytoskeleton regulators PAK4, Tsk5 and ArhGAP19. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the tissues activin has a strong role in cellular proliferation, thereby making follistatin the safeguard against uncontrolled cellular proliferation and also allowing it to function as an instrument of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Akt is not responsible for all of the observed muscle hyperthrophic effects which are mediated by myostatin inhibition Thus myostatin acts in two ways: by inhibiting muscle differentiation, and by inhibiting Akt-induced protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This type of mutation may inactivate tumor suppressor genes in cancers with frequent MSI (MSI-H cancers). (aacrjournals.org)
  • SMAD2 and SMAD3
  • Soon after their association with the activin receptor and subsequent phosphorylation, SMAD2 and SMAD3 are released into the cytoplasm where they interact with the common partner SMAD4. (genecards.org)
  • Inhibitory SMAD7, which is recruited to ACVR1B through FKBP1A, can prevent the association of SMAD2 and SMAD3 with the activin receptor complex, thereby blocking the activin signal. (genecards.org)
  • TGF beta's, Activins, Nodals and some GDFs are mediated by SMAD2 and SMAD3, while BMPs, AMH and a few GDFs are mediated by SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD9. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovary
  • Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that the mRNA levels of activin receptor in immature rat ovary has been induced according to the maturation of follicles and even after ovulation it continued to increase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Expression
  • Expression of the BMP9 receptor complex and TMEM100 was studied in human endothelial and epithelial cell cultures and the effect of BMP9 on inflammatory cytokine production and TMEM100 expression was studied in endothelial cell cultures. (frontiersin.org)
  • It can also decrease the expression levels of cytokine receptors, such as the IL-2 receptor to down-regulate the activity of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALK1
  • Taken together, our results suggest that Alk1 plays a role in transducing hemodynamic forces into a biochemical signal required to limit nascent vessel caliber, and support a novel two-step model for HHT-associated AVM development in which pathological arterial enlargement and consequent altered blood flow precipitate a flow-dependent adaptive response involving retention of normally transient arteriovenous connections, thereby generating AVMs. (biologists.org)
  • novel
  • Two individuals had novel CDK13 variants (p.Asn842Asp, p.Lys734Glu), while the remaining seven unrelated individuals had a recurrent, previously published p.Asn842Ser variant. (stanford.edu)
  • mRNA
  • Previous studies reported that activin alone increased FSH receptor levels by using receptor binding assay and various hormone regulated FSH receptor mRNA levels in cultures rat granulosa cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on FSH receptor mRNA in cultured rat granulosa cells using a FSH receptor cRNA probe. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Northern blot analysis with cRNA of FSH receptor detected mRNA transcripts of 5.5- and 2.4-kb. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our data showed that activin alone stimulated FSH receptor mRNA transcripts as well as FSH receptor levels in a concentration-dependent manner. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Previous studies reported that FSH may maintain its own receptor mRNA and various growth factors as epidermal growth factor(EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF), and insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-I) did not alter basal levels of FSH receptor mRNA but EGF or bFGF dose-dependently attenuated the stimulatory actions of FSH on FSH receptor mRNA levels. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The results that the granulosa cells contained two predominant rat type II activin receptor mRNA transcripts (6.0 and 3.0 kilobases). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Interleukin 1- and interleukin 2-dependent proliferation of activated T cells, and the activation of quiescent helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells is prevented by the activity of TGF-β1. (wikipedia.org)