• variants
  • The immune-mediated β-cell destruction is thought to be initiated by interaction between yet unknown environmental factors and type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene variants ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. (mybiosource.com)
  • mediate
  • It cooperates with LY96 (also referred as MD-2) and CD14 to mediate in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in most gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and visfatin had no effect. (haematologica.org)
  • SL-401 is a targeted therapy directed to the interleukin-3 receptor (IL-3R) present on cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tumor bulk of many hematologic cancers. (globenewswire.com)
  • Stemline Therapeutics, Inc. is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing novel oncology therapeutics that target both cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tumor bulk in a variety of cancer types. (globenewswire.com)
  • immune
  • In the last decade, the interest for the role of inflammation in a wide range of diseases not commonly regarded as immune-mediated disorders, such as atherosclerosis and adiposity, has fostered studies that indicate that inflammatory mediators may not only be markers of metabolic aberrancies in type 2 diabetes, but may directly contribute to β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a complete or near-complete insulin deficiency caused by an immune-mediated selective destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the islets of Langerhans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a key impact on both immunoregulation and nonimmune events in most cell types and tissues outside the immune system ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This cytokine is thought to participate in a network of interleukin 1 family members to regulate adapted and innate immune responses. (mybiosource.com)
  • IL-1R signalization activates immune response by activation of transcription of IL-1 target genes such as IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, COX-2, IκBα, IL-1α, IL-1β, MKP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its ability to induce immune responses and its anti-angiogenic activity, there has been an interest in testing IL-12 as a possible anti-cancer drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of IL-2 being produced by the T-helper cells is believed to influence the extent of the immune response significantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF-β1 plays an important role in controlling the immune system, and shows different activities on different types of cell, or cells at different developmental stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL1Ra is secreted by various types of cells including immune cells, epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and is a natural inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory effect of IL1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A vast number of epidemiological, genetic, rodent, and human in vivo and in vitro studies have investigated the putative role of action/lack of action of IL-6 in the pathogeneses underlying obesity, insulin resistance, β-cell destruction, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human synovial fibroblasts coexpress IL-1 receptor type I and type II mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of cytokine receptors on human Langerhans' cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acids that are identical between mature human IL-1α and mature IL-1β is 22% while it is 26% when comparing IL-1β to IL-1RA and only 18% when comparing IL-1α to IL-1RA. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Type 2 diabetes is caused by inability of the functional β-cell mass to compensate for increased insulin needs due to insulin resistance ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, only three of these EF hands are functional in NCS-1 (the most N-terminal EF hand does not bind calcium). (wikipedia.org)
  • As measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA, immobilized IL1F10 at 1 ug/ml (100 ul/well) can bind rHuIL-1 Rrp2/Fc Chimera with a linear range of 0.15- 5 ug/ml. (mybiosource.com)
  • myeloid
  • SL-401 has demonstrated clinical activity in several indications, including blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), as well as preclinical activity in additional rare IL-3R+ cancers such as chronic eosinophilic leukemia, as well as multiple myeloma (MM), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and certain lymphoid leukemias and lymphomas. (globenewswire.com)
  • SL-401 has demonstrated single-agent activity, including durable complete responses (CRs), in a Phase 1/2 trial in several indications including blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) and relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (globenewswire.com)
  • However, as with other cell types, TGF-β1 can also have the opposite effect on cells of myeloid origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transduction
  • The similar feature of IL-1α and IL-33 is that their precursor forms can bind to their respective receptor and can activate signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • There also seems to be a link between IL-2 and the signal transduction of IL-12 in NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Recently, inflammation has received considerable attention in the pathogenesis of both type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, in recent years, chronic inflammation has received increasing attention as an important pathophysiological mechanism in both type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Therefore, genetic variability in factors involved in the regulation of inflammation may have a particular impact on the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • β-Cell mass is reduced through apoptosis ( 5 ) and type 2 diabetes is associated with a low-grade systemic inflammation ( 6 ), but the mechanisms underlying β-cell failure and destruction in type 2 diabetes remain elusive. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We showed previously that 13 weeks of IL-1Ra treatment improved β-cell function and reduced A1C and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Individuals who progress to type 2 diabetes display features of low-grade inflammation years in advance of disease onset. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This low-grade inflammation has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenetic processes causing type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • mechanism
  • These data suggest that PI3-kinase translocation to the nucleus upon IL-1R activation is an early event in IL-1 signaling mechanism, and may be involved in transcriptional activation. (biologists.org)
  • kinase
  • Recent evidence indicates that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) could be activated by a direct association with the activated IL-1 receptor. (biologists.org)
  • Both immunoblotting and immunofluorescence data indicate that IL-1 causes a rapid and transient translocation of PI3-kinase from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • This phenomenon is prevented by PI3-kinase inhibitors, suggesting that the maintenance of PI3-kinase activity is essential for IL-1-induced translocation. (biologists.org)
  • Indeed, in cell clones stably transfected with Y479F receptor mutant, in which the binding of the enzyme to the activated receptor is blocked, IL-1-induced PI3-kinase translocation to the nucleus is completely prevented. (biologists.org)
  • family
  • This gene encodes a cytokine distantly related to type I interferons and the IL-10 family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the members of IL-1 family, except IL-1Ra, are first synthesized as a precursor protein, which means it is synthesized as a long form of a protein which has to be proteolytically cleaved to a shorter, active molecule, which is generally called a mature protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • But according to new trends in nomenclature, the old names of IL-1 family returned. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • A , EP2 immunostaining is detected in wild-type but not EP2 −/− C57BL/6 primary peritoneal macrophages costained for Cd11b. (jneurosci.org)
  • C , Peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with LPS (10 ng/ml) +/− the EP2 agonist butaprost (1 μ m ) or vehicle. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is produced by activated antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • Inflammatory mechanisms play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Within the last decade, an increasing body of evidence has accumulated in favor of a putative role of immuno-related mechanisms and factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, both with regard to the progressive β-cell failure and destruction and to the peripheral insulin resistance ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)