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  • 20th
  • It used the albumen found in egg whites to bind the photographic chemicals to the paper and became the dominant form of photographic positives from 1855 to the turn of the 20th century, with a peak in the 1860-90 period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tintypes enjoyed their widest use during the 1860s and 1870s, but lesser use of the medium persisted into the early 20th century and it has been revived as a novelty in the 21st. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although indispensable to the evolution of photography as an art and science, all of this individual experimentation has created a very difficult situation for 20th-century curators and photographic conservators. (conservation-us.org)
  • The majority of photography remained monochrome until the mid-20th century, although experiments were producing colour photography as early as 1855 and some photographic processes produced images with an inherent overall colour like the blue of cyanotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Hand-colouring remained the easiest and most effective method to produce full-colour photographic images until the mid-20th century when American Kodak introduced Kodachrome colour film. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many high-quality hand-coloured photographs continued to be made in Japan well into the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased demand for hand-coloured landscape photography at the beginning of the 20th century is attributed to the work of Wallace Nutting. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early part of the 20th century black & white photography proved its worth as a social document that had the power of influence. (threecolumnblogger.com)
  • In the 20th century, Britain's rate of innovation, measured by patents registered, slowed in comparison to other leading economies. (wikipedia.org)
  • photograph
  • When backed with black varnish, paper or cloth the thin negative turned into a positive photograph. (studioq.com)
  • Because the image emerges as a direct result of exposure to light, without the aid of a developing solution, an albumen print may be said to be a printed rather than a developed photograph. (wikipedia.org)
  • A paper overlay could be used when framing the photograph to hide the parts showing the mother, focusing on the child instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 1999, Sotheby's sold a Le Gray albumen print "Beech Tree, Fontainebleau" for £419,500, which was a world record for the most expensive single photograph ever sold at auction, to an anonymous buyer. (wikipedia.org)
  • photographers
  • The latter made the dry form unsuitable for the usual portraiture work of most professional photographers of the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some photographers preferred the diluted albumen because it was easier to tone, though many chose matte papers for aesthetic reasons. (conservation-us.org)
  • Pioneers such as Mads Alstrup and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century while both artistic and press photographers have made internationally recognized contributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • photography
  • A portable photography studio in 19th century Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • photography was to encounter many such dead ends in the next century. (sharlot.org)
  • Due to the overwhelming response and unprecidented demand for true 19th century authentic wet-plate collodion photography, we are offering our totally unique portrait weekends again, but with thrice as many as ever before. (johncoffer.com)
  • He is interested only in what they are made of: the papers, chemicals and metals that constituted the richly varied physical world of photography for about 170 years, until the rise of digital cameras and printing a decade ago began to render it obsolete. (blogspot.com)
  • binder
  • Each of these materials has a characteristic effect on the printing process, and many different printing papers may also be created by combining these various binder substances. (conservation-us.org)
  • Even if only one kind of binder is used, a whole range of effects may be accomplished by simply varying the dilution, i.e. the amount, of binder that is applied to the raw paper. (conservation-us.org)
  • Even a 2% solution of albumen causes a significant improvement in depth and contrast over a paper that is simply salted and has no organic binder at all. (conservation-us.org)
  • silver
  • The paper is then dipped in a solution of silver nitrate and water which renders the surface sensitive to UV light. (wikipedia.org)
  • These materials are of landmark historical importance and also are fundamental to any modern practice with handmade silver printing-out papers. (conservation-us.org)
  • The main differences lie in the materials and techniques of coating the raw paper with organic binders to carry the silver image. (conservation-us.org)
  • Since silver nitrate is water soluble and was observed to darken when exposed to light either in solution or dried, it would seem to be the simplest of experiments to dip paper into a solution and make shadow pictures in the sun. (sharlot.org)
  • The sizing materials used in some papers prevented good penetration and wetting, as did silver salts and processing residues. (sharlot.org)
  • Talbot's early silver chloride "sensitive paper" experiments required camera exposures of an hour or more. (threecolumnblogger.com)
  • Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. (threecolumnblogger.com)
  • He first developed the Talbotype, which used silver chloride to sensitize paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Though direct sunlight was used long ago, a UV exposure unit is often used contemporarily because it is more predictable, as the paper is most sensitive to ultraviolet light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collodion is normally used in its wet form, but can also be used in humid ("preserved") or dry form, at the cost of greatly increased exposure time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interesting sidelights on the waxed paper process as practiced by Roger Fenton are given by Hannavy , particularly regarding pre-exposure and post-exposure waxing. (sharlot.org)
  • While exposure times shrank as photographic technology developed, to get a clear picture of a child during the 19th century the child had to be persuaded to stay still, which could be difficult to achieve. (wikipedia.org)
  • image
  • The paper with negative is then exposed to light until the image achieves the desired level of darkness, which is typically a little lighter than the end product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The collodion process produced a negative image on a transparent support (glass). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1816: Heliography The first person who succeeded in producing a paper negative of the camera image was Joseph Nicephore Niepce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive
  • William Henry Fox Talbot patented the positive/negative salted paper process in 1841 after a public announcement in 1839. (sharlot.org)
  • The process could produce many positive images, but they were not as sharp because they were printed on fibrous paper rather than glass. (wikipedia.org)
  • nineteenth
  • The one-stop blog spot for your Nineteenth Century Mustache needs! (blogspot.com)
  • The Nineteenth Century gave us many things, but above all it was a hotbed of facial hair experimentation and this is but a poor sampling of those many lost forms. (blogspot.com)
  • chemicals
  • Some of that information has long been lost in the weeds of history, left there by innovators who experimented with exotic chemicals and papers and left little record of what they were up to. (blogspot.com)
  • photograph
  • Because the image emerges as a direct result of exposure to light, without the aid of a developing solution, an albumen print may be said to be a printed rather than a developed photograph. (wikipedia.org)
  • When backed with black varnish, paper or cloth the thin negative turned into a positive photograph. (studioq.com)
  • In October 1999, Sotheby's sold a Le Gray albumen print "Beech Tree, Fontainebleau" for £419,500, which was a world record for the most expensive single photograph ever sold at auction, to an anonymous buyer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A paper overlay could be used when framing the photograph to hide the parts showing the mother, focusing on the child instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • photography
  • On the contrary, photography began with the camera obscura as early as the 10th century AD, and some evidence seems to indicate that Aristotle was familiar with this technique as early as the 4th century BC. (fiberq.com)
  • He is interested only in what they are made of: the papers, chemicals and metals that constituted the richly varied physical world of photography for about 170 years, until the rise of digital cameras and printing a decade ago began to render it obsolete. (blogspot.com)
  • Her artistic goals for photography, informed by the outward appearance and spiritual content of fifteenth-century Italian painting, were wholly original in her medium. (metmuseum.org)
  • These methods would both inspire wide use of the camera, as well as present problems for later photographic techniques to solve, taking photography from its early beginnings in the end of the 19th century to the modernity we now enjoy. (upagallery.com)
  • A portable photography studio in 19th century Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the overwhelming response and unprecidented demand for true 19th century authentic wet-plate collodion photography, we are offering our totally unique portrait weekends again, but with thrice as many as ever before. (johncoffer.com)
  • photographers
  • Some photographers preferred the diluted albumen because it was easier to tone, though many chose matte papers for aesthetic reasons. (conservation-us.org)
  • The latter made the dry form unsuitable for the usual portraiture work of most professional photographers of the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneers such as Mads Alstrup and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century while both artistic and press photographers have made internationally recognized contributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • binder
  • Even if only one kind of binder is used, a whole range of effects may be accomplished by simply varying the dilution, i.e. the amount, of binder that is applied to the raw paper. (conservation-us.org)
  • Even a 2% solution of albumen causes a significant improvement in depth and contrast over a paper that is simply salted and has no organic binder at all. (conservation-us.org)
  • 16th century
  • In the middle of the 16th century, lenses were added to the hole of the camera obscura to produce a brighter, sharper image. (fiberq.com)
  • By the 16th century, a lens is added to the configuration to have greater control of the light entering the device. (upagallery.com)
  • exposure
  • He originally exposed these plates to some light through an oiled etching on a piece of paper, and washed the plates with a solvent after exposure to remove the hardened parts of the image. (fiberq.com)
  • Though direct sunlight was used long ago, a UV exposure unit is often used contemporarily because it is more predictable, as the paper is most sensitive to ultraviolet light . (wikipedia.org)
  • Collodion is normally used in its wet form, but can also be used in humid ("preserved") or dry form, at the cost of greatly increased exposure time. (wikipedia.org)
  • While exposure times shrank as photographic technology developed, to get a clear picture of a child during the 19th century the child had to be persuaded to stay still, which could be difficult to achieve. (wikipedia.org)
  • image
  • Over time, the camera obscura became more compact, and the image was projected onto thin paper on glass so it could be traced. (fiberq.com)
  • In 1816, Joseph Niépce and his Brother Clyde successfully produced a paper negative from the image. (fiberq.com)
  • When they sandwiched this negative with another piece of sensitized paper, a positive image would appear. (fiberq.com)
  • Constructions similar to the Camera Obscura were described as far back as the 5th century B.C. by Chinese Philosopher Mo-Ti, where a small hole was used to direct the straight rays of light against a wall in a darkened room, creating an image reversed of that found on the outside (Historic Camera). (upagallery.com)
  • The paper with negative is then exposed to light until the image achieves the desired level of darkness, which is typically a little lighter than the end product. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1816: Heliography The first person who succeeded in producing a paper negative of the camera image was Joseph Nicephore Niepce. (wikipedia.org)
  • nineteenth
  • The one-stop blog spot for your Nineteenth Century Mustache needs! (blogspot.com)
  • The Nineteenth Century gave us many things, but above all it was a hotbed of facial hair experimentation and this is but a poor sampling of those many lost forms. (blogspot.com)
  • chemicals
  • Some of that information has long been lost in the weeds of history, left there by innovators who experimented with exotic chemicals and papers and left little record of what they were up to. (blogspot.com)