• world's
  • The global language system draws upon the world system theory to account for the relationships between the world's languages and divides them into a hierarchy consisting of four levels, namely the peripheral, central, supercentral and hypercentral languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the world's leading authority on the 19th Century American landscape artist Gilbert Munger and he authors the online catalog raisonne. (umn.edu)
  • Indian textiles had maintained a competitive advantage over British textiles up until the 19th century, when Britain eventually overtook India as the world's largest cotton textile manufacturer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18th century
  • Moral treatment was an approach to mental disorder based on humane psychosocial care or moral discipline that emerged in the 18th century and came to the fore for much of the 19th century, deriving partly from psychiatry or psychology and partly from religious or moral concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the start of the 18th century, the "insane" were typically viewed as wild animals who had lost their reason. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mercantilism was the dominant school of economic thought in Europe throughout the late Renaissance and early modern period (from the 15th to the 18th century). (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectors and systematisers reached maturity in the latter part of the 18th century in Linnaeus , other anatomists such as John Hunter also set to work to examine anatomically the whole animal kingdom and to classify its members by aid of the results of careful study. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 16th century
  • Wallerstein traces the rise of the capitalist world-economy from the "long" 16th century (c. 1450-1640). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific zoology really started in the 16th century with the awakening of the new spirit of observation and exploration, but for a long time ran a separate course uninfluenced by the progress of the medical studies of anatomy and physiology . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The spirit of inquiry which now for the first time became general showed itself in the anatomical schools of the Italian universities of the 16th century and spread fifty years later to the University of Oxford . (thefullwiki.org)
  • 21st century
  • By allowing the challenges of the 21st century to be hijacked by the apocalyptic storyline, we find ourselves awaiting a moment of clarity when the problems we must confront will become apparent to all - or when those challenges will magically disappear, like other failed prophecies about the end of the world. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The deeper we entangle the challenges of the 21st century with apocalyptic fantasy, the more likely we are to paralyze ourselves with inaction - or with the wrong course of action. (discovermagazine.com)
  • nervous system
  • Through his work on the structure of the nervous system for which he won the Nobel Prize in 1906, the Spanish neuroscientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal established the basis for studies of neural networks, but it wasn't until the 1980s that connectionism became a popular perspective among scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms of learning and remembering seem to depend on relatively enduring changes in the nervous system . (britannica.com)
  • Is it a change in the nervous system ? (britannica.com)
  • economic
  • They also have relatively weak governments and a poor social structure and often depend on primary industries as the main source of economic activity for the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracting and exporting of raw materials from the peripheral nations to core nations is the activity bringing about the most economic benefits to the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other influences on the world-systems theory come from scholars such as Karl Polanyi, Nikolai Kondratiev and Joseph Schumpeter (particularly their research on business cycles and the concepts of three basic modes of economic organization: reciprocal, redistributive, and market modes, which Wallerstein reframed into a discussion of mini systems, world empires, and world economies). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chang's cage-rattling, contrarian history of global capital appeals to readers new to economic theory as well as members of the old school looking for a fresh take. (softpanorama.org)
  • They propose that this economic system be executed in a manner that attempts to maximize the liberty of individuals and minimize concentration of power or authority (libertarianism). (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. (wikipedia.org)
  • Economic modernization theories such as Rostow's stages model have been heavily inspired by the Harrod-Domar model which explains in a mathematical way the growth rate of a country in terms of the savings rate and the productivity of capital. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as a codified school of economic theories, mercantilism's real birth was marked by the empiricism of the Renaissance, which first began to quantify large-scale trade accurately. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the company provided little relief either through reduced taxation or by relief efforts, and the economic and cultural impact of the famine was felt decades later, even becoming, a century later, the subject of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's novel Anandamath. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the former, he demonstrated that it was possible, on the basis of the contemporary data, to reconstitute the whole economic system of Karl Marx 100 years after the first publication of Marx's Capital. (scribd.com)
  • In the first section, Mandel elucidates the basic categories of Marx's economic doctrine from the emergence of the social surplus product to the labour theory of value. (scribd.com)
  • More precisely, it is the measurement methodology and communication system designed to produce selected quantitative data (usually in monetary terms) about an entity engaged in economic activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alternatively, accounting has been described as the art of classifying, recording, and reporting significant financial events to facilitate effective economic activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The accounting entity (the focus of attention) may be a profit-seeking business enterprise, a governmental unit or activity, an eleemosynary institution, or any other organization for which financial data will be useful in determining the proper conduct of its economic affairs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • capitalism
  • For Wallerstein, world-systems analysis is a mode of analysis that aims to transcend the structures of knowledge inherited from the 19th century, especially the definition of capitalism, the divisions within the social sciences, and those between the social sciences and history. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • Beiser instead traces Naturphilosophie as developed by Schelling, Hegel, Schlegel and Novalis to a crux in the theory of matter, and identifies the origins of the line they took with the vis viva theory of matter in the work of Gottfried Leibniz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity zone for children Entrance to feature on the digestive system Slum street in Victorian Leeds Tableau of a 19th-century midwife at work Part of the Wilkinson Apothecary Gallery Apothecary Set of tools for amputation Red wine and germ theory The Thackray Medical Museum houses a collection of over 50,000 objects from medical history which date from Roman times to the present day. (wikipedia.org)
  • principles
  • The goal of systems theory is systematically discovering a system's dynamics, constraints, conditions and elucidating principles (purpose, measure, methods, tools, etc.) that can be discerned and applied to systems at every level of nesting, and in every field for achieving optimized equifinality. (wikipedia.org)
  • General systems theory is about broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles applicable to one domain of knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and has been general chairman and program committee member for various SIGOPS Symposia on Operating Systems Principles. (umn.edu)
  • decades
  • In a chapter recounting the history of libertarian socialism, economist Robin Hahnel relates that thus far the period where libertarian socialism has had its greatest impact was at the end of the 19th century through the first four decades of the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • In practice, culture referred to an élite ideal and was associated with such activities as art, classical music, and haute cuisine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It operates a School of Restoration Arts which offers a three-year post-secondary diploma in conservation skills and theory, and a Centre for Cultural Landscape, a forum for cultural landscape theory and practice in Canada and the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a microcosm of the diploma program, with an introduction to cultural landscape theory and practice, an experience of documentation and design, and then a major hands-on component. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learning theory , any of the proposals put forth to explain changes in behaviour produced by practice, as opposed to other factors, e.g., physiological development. (britannica.com)
  • immune system
  • Metchnikoff's theories are now applied to healing, immune system enhancement, disease prevention and life extension. (gcimagazine.com)
  • They can boost the immune system, and produce lactic and acetic acid that control pH. (gcimagazine.com)
  • In theory, vaccinations are designed to provoke a healthy immune system to manufacture antibodies to defend itself against some future exposure to disease. (rense.com)
  • There is no evidence whatsoever, that vaccination provides immunity beyond what the immune system without vaccination would normally provide. (rense.com)
  • There is much evidence that the 'one size fits all' philosophy of the vaccines overwhelms the childhood immune system, those with weakened immune systems, those already coping with some other disease and those with allergies and sensitivities. (rense.com)
  • psychological
  • Psycholinguists (those who study the psychological aspects of language ability) argue that language learning involves too many words and combinations to be satisfactorily explained by association theory. (britannica.com)
  • 1 Nr 6 (2) 2013 Kultura i Wychowanie Evolution of the Ideas about Creativity in Psychological and Pedagogical Concepts of 19 th -20 th century Olexander Didenko Khmelnytskyi city, Ukraine Keywords: creativity, innovating, creative traits, creative personality, creative qualities, the concept of creativity A man always seeks to create consciously or not consciously. (docplayer.net)
  • That is why the attempts to understand the essence of creativity led to the emergence of a great number of conflicting psychological theories and concepts. (docplayer.net)
  • processes
  • Active systems are activity structures or components that interact in behaviours and processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • That the life of a multicellular organism is the sum of the activities of the cells of which it consists and that the processes of life must be studied in and their explanation obtained from an understanding of the chemical and physical changes which go on in each individual cell of living material or protoplasm . (thefullwiki.org)
  • biological
  • BCSR supporters argue that a soil balanced using their methods leads to greater crop yield and nutritional quality, as well as increasing the soil biological activity and the physical properties of tilth, aeration, and moisture retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • governmental
  • Besides, they also have a strong governmental system in the country, which oversees the bureaucracies in the governmental departments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Governmental reporting requirements have served since antiquity to reinforce business needs for accounting systems and controls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • earlier
  • Sociological systems thinking started earlier, in the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturphilosophie ("philosophy of nature" or "nature-philosophy" in German) is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the church and strong monarchs maintained and occasionally pushed forward the earlier systems of record keeping and control. (encyclopedia.com)
  • half
  • As it has developed in the more than four and a half centuries since Pacioli, the term "double entry" has probably referred to the two-sided nature of transactions, to the debit and credit aspects of each event. (encyclopedia.com)
  • emergent
  • In terms of its effects, a system can be more than the sum of its parts if it expresses synergy or emergent behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not to be confused with the public imagination of 'chaos' theories (butterflies making tsunamis across the world, etc), emergent characteristics are highly organizational. (prezi.com)
  • These natural systems produce emergent behaviour by means of exponential and actively aggregative patterns. (prezi.com)
  • ecological
  • The crucial problem is not that the agent overtly wills the domination of nature and affirms anthropocentric ideology, but rather that he or she abstracts an individual, egocentric conception of good from the larger system of social and ecological goods. (prezi.com)
  • history
  • World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective), is a multidisciplinary, macro-scale approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 19th-century history of the Catholic Church in the United States was characterized by several unsuccessful attempts by Catholics to culturally integrate themselves into the mainstream American culture of that century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the mid 1990s he has been involved in technical outreach activities exploring the impact of the web on the methodology of cultural history. (umn.edu)
  • Dr. Robert W. Baloh spins together a fascinating history using detailed interviews from those close to the key investigators and historical documents previously unavailable in the English language to provide a historical approach to understanding the vestibular system and with it a better understanding of vertigo itself. (oup.com)
  • sociologist
  • Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan developed this theory in 2001 in his book Words of the World: The Global Language System and according to him, "the multilingual connections between language groups do not occur haphazardly, but, on the contrary, they constitute a surprisingly strong and efficient network that ties together - directly or indirectly - the six billion inhabitants of the earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • authors
  • Many authors find the clear link between neural activity and cognition to be an appealing aspect of connectionism. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The authors noted most for establishing the English mercantilist system include Gerard de Malynes and Thomas Mun, who first articulated the Elizabethan system, which in turn was then developed further by Josiah Child. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th century, more and more authors support the approach, according to which the genius is based on an extraordinary level of the originality, that in turn depends on the ability to set up the associations between the ideas. (docplayer.net)
  • biology
  • Historically, according to Richards: Despite the tentativeness of their titles, these monographs introduced radical interpretations of nature that would reverberate through the sciences, and particularly the biology, of the next century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developments
  • Developments and modifications to the Greek musical system were made during the Middle Ages, which led to music like Gregorian chant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • texts
  • The system outlined by Pacioli in the section entitled "De computes et scriptures" ("Of Reckonings and Writings") was a surprisingly complete one, and for four centuries almost all texts on accounting were closely patterned after it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • notably
  • Many nations applied the theory, notably France, which was the most important state economically in Europe at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • This point of view, called learning theory, is concerned with identifying those mechanisms that can be offered to explain differences in behaviour, motives, and values among children. (britannica.com)
  • main
  • Willowbank's campus is composed of two main parts, a 19th-century estate, and a former village elementary school with its surrounding lands. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Rigorous, "objective" methodology was attempted so that the behaviour of all organisms could be comprehended under a unified system of laws modeled on those posited in the physical sciences. (britannica.com)
  • world
  • Then was the formation of empires, which resulted in the next stage of integration of the world language system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides, the world-systems theory also allowed the global language system to expand further. (wikipedia.org)
  • World-system" refers to the inter-regional and transnational division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries, and the periphery countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • during the last few centuries, as the world-system has extended geographically and intensified economically, this status has passed from the Netherlands, to the United Kingdom and (most recently) to the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Wallerstein, then, world-systems analysis is a "knowledge movement" that seeks to discern the "totality of what has been paraded under the labels of the. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th century, humanists such as English poet and essayist Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite such pro-nature self-identifications, and perhaps even certain gestures that express concern for the natural world, the decision-maker[s] may nevertheless hold socially conditioned values of self-interest, self-gratification, personal status, individual needs, and personal good that dictate participation in a system that is ecologically destructive. (prezi.com)
  • characteristics
  • Homeostasis: The tendency of a system to be resilient towards external factors and maintain its key characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, the system has dynamic characteristics, in part as a result of revolutions in transport technology, and individual states can gain or lose their core (semi-periphery, periphery) status over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • influences
  • Macrosystem: A larger system that influences clients, such as policies, administration of entitlement programs, and culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • destructive
  • Always controversial, some of Schelling's ideas in this direction are still considered of philosophical interest, even if the subsequent development of experimental natural science had a destructive impact on the credibility of the theories of his followers in Naturphilosophie. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Throughput: Rate of energy transfer between the system and its environment during the time it is functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The movement is particularly associated with reform and development of the asylum system in Western Europe at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mercantilist theory varies in sophistication from one writer to another and has evolved over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has worked on time-sharing, computer security, distributed email systems, remote procedure call, switch-based local area networks, large-scale naming systems, global cluster file systems, and web-based access to personal information. (umn.edu)
  • He was co-inventor of the Needham-Schroeder authentication protocol, and a designer / builder of the Multics time sharing system, the Grapevine distributed email system, the Cedar distributed file system, the Topaz distributed operating system, the Autonet and AN2 switch-based LANs, and the Pachyderm web-based email system. (umn.edu)
  • Living systems are objects with definite boundaries, continually exchanging some materials with their surroundings but without altering their general properties, at least over some period of time. (britannica.com)
  • global
  • These efforts organized national resources sufficiently in the defense of England against the far larger and more powerful Spanish Empire, and in turn paved the foundation for establishing a global empire in the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boundaries
  • Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose or nature and expressed in its functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boundaries: Barriers that define a system and distinguish it from other systems in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • Hull argued that "habit strength," a result of practiced stimulus-response (S-R) activities promoted by reward, was the essential aspect of learning, which he viewed as a gradual process. (britannica.com)
  • grew
  • In less than a century the corner shop grew into one of Britain's principal medical companies, Chas F Thackray Limited, manufacturing drugs and medical instruments and pioneering the hip replacement operation alongside Sir John Charnley. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • What was known about the inner ear in the mid 19th century? (oup.com)
  • The traditional method, as used by most university laboratories, is known variously as the 'sufficiency level', sufficiency level of available nutrients (SLAN), or Index(UK) system. (wikipedia.org)