• 20th
  • Connectionism can be traced to ideas more than a century old, which were little more than speculation until the mid-to-late 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Art of Noises is considered to be one of the most important and influential texts in 20th century musical aesthetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • It fell into decline as a distinct method by the 20th century, however, due to overcrowding and misuse of asylums and the predominance of biomedical methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • For most of the 19th and early 20th centuries, it was poorly understood in Anglophone countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mercantilism encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and was arguably responsible for European expansion and imperialism-both in Europe and throughout the rest of the world-until the 19th century or early 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only during the 20th century did this fully succeed, with the election of John F. Kennedy to the presidency in 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learning theorists from the 17th through the mid-20th century attempted to develop a scientific proof of certain principles that governed all processes of learning. (britannica.com)
  • Connectome" begins with a history lesson, recapping the 19th-century obsession among phrenologists to link the brain's size to intelligence, and moving into the 20th-century advances in deciphering neuron-to-neuron cross talk. (cleveland.com)
  • By the beginning of 20th century the study of creativity has involved many scientists, as well as individual scientific schools. (docplayer.net)
  • In the last decades of the 20th century governments' advice began to come not only from perturbed fishermen, but also from scientists. (waterstones.com)
  • While philosophical thought pertaining to science dates back at least to the time of Aristotle , philosophy of science emerged as a distinct discipline only in the 20th century in the wake of the logical positivism movement, which aimed to formulate criteria for ensuring all philosophical statements' meaningfulness and objectively assessing them. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • The global language system draws upon the world system theory to account for the relationships between the world's languages and divides them into a hierarchy consisting of four levels, namely the peripheral, central, supercentral and hypercentral languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indian textiles had maintained a competitive advantage over British textiles up until the 19th century, when Britain eventually overtook India as the world's largest cotton textile manufacturer. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the world's leading authority on the 19th Century American landscape artist Gilbert Munger and he authors the online catalog raisonne. (umn.edu)
  • early
  • According to de Swaan, the global language system has been constantly evolving since the time period of the early 'military-agrarian' regimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as the late 19th century Boston citizens were advised not to swim in any portion of the Harbor. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Bengali exports declined over the course of the early 19th century, as British imports to Bengal increased, from 25% in 1811 to 93% in 1840. (wikipedia.org)
  • Language is thought to have originated when early hominins started gradually changing their primate communication systems, acquiring the ability to form a theory of other minds and a shared intentionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following criticism of early positivist criminology, attention shifted away from individualistic explanations and towards theories that stress the social and cultural context of crime. (prezi.com)
  • 21st century
  • By allowing the challenges of the 21st century to be hijacked by the apocalyptic storyline, we find ourselves awaiting a moment of clarity when the problems we must confront will become apparent to all - or when those challenges will magically disappear, like other failed prophecies about the end of the world. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The deeper we entangle the challenges of the 21st century with apocalyptic fantasy, the more likely we are to paralyze ourselves with inaction - or with the wrong course of action. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Academic consensus holds that between 50% and 90% of languages spoken at the beginning of the 21st century will probably have become extinct by the year 2100. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Through his work on the structure of the nervous system for which he won the Nobel Prize in 1906, the Spanish neuroscientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal established the basis for studies of neural networks, but it wasn't until the 1980s that connectionism became a popular perspective among scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach was prominent among many scientists in the 18th and 19th centuries, but fell into disfavour in the twentieth century, when technical professionalism and expertise were assumed to be sufficient to deal with health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • In practice, culture referred to an élite ideal and was associated with such activities as art, classical music, and haute cuisine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It operates a School of Restoration Arts which offers a three-year post-secondary diploma in conservation skills and theory, and a Centre for Cultural Landscape, a forum for cultural landscape theory and practice in Canada and the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a microcosm of the diploma program, with an introduction to cultural landscape theory and practice, an experience of documentation and design, and then a major hands-on component. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learning theory , any of the proposals put forth to explain changes in behaviour produced by practice, as opposed to other factors, e.g., physiological development. (britannica.com)
  • The first section deals with the concepts, theory and practice relating to the use of property rights in fisheries management. (waterstones.com)
  • largely
  • By the end of the 19th century, the buildings had become largely used for medical care of the poor, rather than workhouse and training. (wikipedia.org)
  • One medicine, as championed by scholars and practitioners such as Calvin Schwabe, was largely considered a marginal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this theory has largely been discredited now due to later research that showed that those with extra chromosomes committed petty crimes as a result of learning difficulties as opposed to greater aggressiveness. (prezi.com)
  • principles
  • The goal of systems theory is systematically discovering a system's dynamics, constraints, conditions and elucidating principles (purpose, measure, methods, tools, etc.) that can be discerned and applied to systems at every level of nesting, and in every field for achieving optimized equifinality. (wikipedia.org)
  • General systems theory is about broadly applicable concepts and principles, as opposed to concepts and principles applicable to one domain of knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a transdisciplinary, interdisciplinary and multiperspectival domain, the area brings together principles and concepts from ontology, philosophy of science, physics, computer science, biology and engineering as well as geography, sociology, political science, psychotherapy (within family systems therapy) and economics among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and has been general chairman and program committee member for various SIGOPS Symposia on Operating Systems Principles. (umn.edu)
  • 1970s
  • By the 1970s, however, flaws and gaps in these comprehensive theories led many psychologists to conclude that learning could not be represented by a single universal theory. (britannica.com)
  • psychological
  • Psycholinguists (those who study the psychological aspects of language ability) argue that language learning involves too many words and combinations to be satisfactorily explained by association theory. (britannica.com)
  • 1 Nr 6 (2) 2013 Kultura i Wychowanie Evolution of the Ideas about Creativity in Psychological and Pedagogical Concepts of 19 th -20 th century Olexander Didenko Khmelnytskyi city, Ukraine Keywords: creativity, innovating, creative traits, creative personality, creative qualities, the concept of creativity A man always seeks to create consciously or not consciously. (docplayer.net)
  • That is why the attempts to understand the essence of creativity led to the emergence of a great number of conflicting psychological theories and concepts. (docplayer.net)
  • methodology
  • Since the mid 1990s he has been involved in technical outreach activities exploring the impact of the web on the methodology of cultural history. (umn.edu)
  • More precisely, it is the measurement methodology and communication system designed to produce selected quantitative data (usually in monetary terms) about an entity engaged in economic activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rigorous, "objective" methodology was attempted so that the behaviour of all organisms could be comprehended under a unified system of laws modeled on those posited in the physical sciences. (britannica.com)
  • history
  • Chang's cage-rattling, contrarian history of global capital appeals to readers new to economic theory as well as members of the old school looking for a fresh take. (softpanorama.org)
  • The 19th-century history of the Catholic Church in the United States was characterized by several unsuccessful attempts by Catholics to culturally integrate themselves into the mainstream American culture of that century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity zone for children Entrance to feature on the digestive system Slum street in Victorian Leeds Tableau of a 19th-century midwife at work Part of the Wilkinson Apothecary Gallery Apothecary Set of tools for amputation Red wine and germ theory The Thackray Medical Museum houses a collection of over 50,000 objects from medical history which date from Roman times to the present day. (wikipedia.org)
  • He submitted me the Strength of Materials and Theory of Elasticity in 19th Century Italy: A Brief Account of the History of Mechanics of Solids and Structures of the 220-kD server in the s( and I have recently of real-world for any advanced tangent I give since I are previously carried my role since together, represented Collectively by the gonads of surprising & outside tumorsCA). (ecombinatii.ro)
  • emergent
  • In terms of its effects, a system can be more than the sum of its parts if it expresses synergy or emergent behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not to be confused with the public imagination of 'chaos' theories (butterflies making tsunamis across the world, etc), emergent characteristics are highly organizational. (prezi.com)
  • These natural systems produce emergent behaviour by means of exponential and actively aggregative patterns. (prezi.com)
  • ecological
  • The crucial problem is not that the agent overtly wills the domination of nature and affirms anthropocentric ideology, but rather that he or she abstracts an individual, egocentric conception of good from the larger system of social and ecological goods. (prezi.com)
  • sociologist
  • Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan developed this theory in 2001 in his book Words of the World: The Global Language System and according to him, "the multilingual connections between language groups do not occur haphazardly, but, on the contrary, they constitute a surprisingly strong and efficient network that ties together - directly or indirectly - the six billion inhabitants of the earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • authors
  • citation needed] The authors noted most for establishing the English mercantilist system include Gerard de Malynes and Thomas Mun, who first articulated the Elizabethan system, which in turn was then developed further by Josiah Child. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th century, more and more authors support the approach, according to which the genius is based on an extraordinary level of the originality, that in turn depends on the ability to set up the associations between the ideas. (docplayer.net)
  • work
  • Beiser instead traces Naturphilosophie as developed by Schelling, Hegel, Schlegel and Novalis to a crux in the theory of matter, and identifies the origins of the line they took with the vis viva theory of matter in the work of Gottfried Leibniz. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Mesosystem: Relationships among the systems in an environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The revival of Italian commerce in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries created a need for records: to help merchants control their dealings with customers and employees, to indicate the relative interests of creditors and owners, and to apportion profits among partners. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This point of view, called learning theory, is concerned with identifying those mechanisms that can be offered to explain differences in behaviour, motives, and values among children. (britannica.com)
  • Developments
  • Developments and modifications to the Greek musical system were made during the Middle Ages, which led to music like Gregorian chant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. (wikipedia.org)
  • texts
  • The system outlined by Pacioli in the section entitled "De computes et scriptures" ("Of Reckonings and Writings") was a surprisingly complete one, and for four centuries almost all texts on accounting were closely patterned after it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • widely
  • There is currently no publicly available research or trial data to support these claims, but BCSR systems are fairly widely used in organic farms and many positive testimonials from farmers and gardeners can be found on the internet and in alternative agriculture literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • objective
  • Nature as the sum of what is objective, and intelligence as the complex of all the activities making up self-consciousness, appear as equally real. (wikipedia.org)
  • destructive
  • Always controversial, some of Schelling's ideas in this direction are still considered of philosophical interest, even if the subsequent development of experimental natural science had a destructive impact on the credibility of the theories of his followers in Naturphilosophie. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite such pro-nature self-identifications, and perhaps even certain gestures that express concern for the natural world, the decision-maker[s] may nevertheless hold socially conditioned values of self-interest, self-gratification, personal status, individual needs, and personal good that dictate participation in a system that is ecologically destructive. (prezi.com)
  • time
  • Throughput: Rate of energy transfer between the system and its environment during the time it is functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The movement is particularly associated with reform and development of the asylum system in Western Europe at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mercantilist theory varies in sophistication from one writer to another and has evolved over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations applied the theory, notably France, which was the most important state economically in Europe at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has worked on time-sharing, computer security, distributed email systems, remote procedure call, switch-based local area networks, large-scale naming systems, global cluster file systems, and web-based access to personal information. (umn.edu)
  • He was co-inventor of the Needham-Schroeder authentication protocol, and a designer / builder of the Multics time sharing system, the Grapevine distributed email system, the Cedar distributed file system, the Topaz distributed operating system, the Autonet and AN2 switch-based LANs, and the Pachyderm web-based email system. (umn.edu)
  • Living systems are objects with definite boundaries, continually exchanging some materials with their surroundings but without altering their general properties, at least over some period of time. (britannica.com)
  • global
  • Besides, the world-systems theory also allowed the global language system to expand further. (wikipedia.org)
  • These efforts organized national resources sufficiently in the defense of England against the far larger and more powerful Spanish Empire, and in turn paved the foundation for establishing a global empire in the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Historically, according to Richards: Despite the tentativeness of their titles, these monographs introduced radical interpretations of nature that would reverberate through the sciences, and particularly the biology, of the next century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boundaries
  • Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose or nature and expressed in its functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boundaries: Barriers that define a system and distinguish it from other systems in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • parts
  • A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts that is either natural or man-made. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changing one part of the system usually affects other parts and the whole system, with predictable patterns of behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Willowbank's campus is composed of two main parts, a 19th-century estate, and a former village elementary school with its surrounding lands. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • They also have relatively weak governments and a poor social structure and often depend on primary industries as the main source of economic activity for the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • thought
  • In the 19th century, humanists such as English poet and essayist Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lombroso was the founder of the positivist school of thought in the 19th Century. (prezi.com)
  • economic
  • The extracting and exporting of raw materials from the peripheral nations to core nations is the activity bringing about the most economic benefits to the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as a codified school of economic theories, mercantilism's real birth was marked by the empiricism of the Renaissance, which first began to quantify large-scale trade accurately. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. (wikipedia.org)
  • Economic modernization theories such as Rostow's stages model have been heavily inspired by the Harrod-Domar model which explains in a mathematical way the growth rate of a country in terms of the savings rate and the productivity of capital. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the company provided little relief either through reduced taxation or by relief efforts, and the economic and cultural impact of the famine was felt decades later, even becoming, a century later, the subject of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's novel Anandamath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, accounting has been described as the art of classifying, recording, and reporting significant financial events to facilitate effective economic activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • grew
  • In less than a century the corner shop grew into one of Britain's principal medical companies, Chas F Thackray Limited, manufacturing drugs and medical instruments and pioneering the hip replacement operation alongside Sir John Charnley. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • Willowbank was created from the rescue of a 19th-century estate which today forms the centre of its campus, and it is one of a handful of Canadian organisations of which His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales is Royal Patron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even the simplest animals display such primitive forms of adaptive activity as habituation , the elimination of practiced responses. (britannica.com)
  • Italy
  • During the 19th century, a wave of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Italy, Eastern Europe and elsewhere swelled the number of Roman Catholics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strength of Materials and Theory of Elasticity in 19th Century Italy: A to bring the Sepharose partners or IgGsorb. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • This not perpetuates applied Strength of Materials and Theory of Elasticity in 19th Century Italy: A Brief Account and obvious description facilitation with applied indicators. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • world
  • Then was the formation of empires, which resulted in the next stage of integration of the world language system. (wikipedia.org)
  • upon
  • For systems that are self-learning and self-adapting, the positive growth and adaptation depend upon how well the system is adjusted with its environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The landscape of the estate includes a ravine and a hill upon which sits a 19th-century stone mansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • At low temperatures they lack metabolic activity for hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years but revive perfectly well upon being subjected to more clement conditions. (britannica.com)
  • half
  • As it has developed in the more than four and a half centuries since Pacioli, the term "double entry" has probably referred to the two-sided nature of transactions, to the debit and credit aspects of each event. (encyclopedia.com)
  • conventional
  • The conventional SLAN system does not generally test for minor and trace elements unless there is sufficient cause to suspect a deficiency or toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike conventional human languages, a formal language in this sense is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 he received the ACM SIGSAC Outstanding Innovations Award for technical contributions to the field of computer and communication security that have had lasting impact in furthering or understanding the theory and/or development of commercial systems. (umn.edu)
  • Since then the International Association for Ecology and Health, and the journal Ecohealth have established the field as a legitimate scholarly and development activity (www.ecohealth.net). (wikipedia.org)
  • strength
  • 3, mathematicians in the Strength of Materials and Theory of Elasticity in 19th Century of computational conditions in the clean-up control of the download. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • RSS General out they can anyway make more because they move the thoughts of the mathematical Strength of Materials and Theory of culture invited in. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • Hull argued that "habit strength," a result of practiced stimulus-response (S-R) activities promoted by reward, was the essential aspect of learning, which he viewed as a gradual process. (britannica.com)