• Araki
  • RIMS, Bd.4, 1968, S.585 Araki On the equivalence of the KMS condition and the variational principle for quantum lattice systems, Comm. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. (wikipedia.org)
  • This quantum field theory could be used to model important processes such as the emission of a photon by an electron dropping into a quantum state of lower energy, a process in which the number of particles changes-one atom in the initial state becomes an atom plus a photon in the final state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea was that not only the quanta of the electromagnetic field, photons, but also other particles might emerge and disappear as a result of their interaction with other particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantum dots ( QD ) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantum vacuum describes a region devoid of real particles in its lowest energy state. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • electrons
  • However recent evidence indicates that quantum coherence of electrons and protons does indeed occur in some (maybe all) enzyme reactions in living cells, such as those involved in photosynthesis and may even be responsible for the huge catalytic enhancement of reaction rates provided by enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albert Einstein
  • Gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915) which describes gravity not as a force , but as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime caused by the uneven distribution of mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein 's general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects. (mcgill.ca)
  • canonical
  • He earned his diploma under Hideki Yukawa and in 1960 he attained his doctorate at Princeton University with thesis advisors Rudolf Haag and Arthur Strong Wightman (Hamiltonian formalism and canonical commutation relations in quantum field theory). (wikipedia.org)
  • Einstein's
  • He is best known as an opponent of Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity, and for having written a broad examination of the theological theory of Pandeism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was Weinstein's writings, and their impact driving public sentiment against Einstein's theories, which led astronomer Wilhelm Foerster to convince Einstein to write a more accessible explanation of those ideas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was evident from the beginning that a proper quantum treatment of the electromagnetic field had to somehow incorporate Einstein's relativity theory, which had grown out of the study of classical electromagnetism. (wikipedia.org)
  • describes
  • however, the affecting download new trends in hopf algebra theory proceedings of the colloquium on quantum groups and hopf algebras la falda sierras de of general need describes supporting geometries on Australian People to Gain to drive polling. (rlgreer.com)
  • mechanical
  • Science fiction writer Greg Egan, in his book Teranesia, posited a similar mechanism, whereby large adaptive mutations occur in multiple species under the aggressive quantum mechanical influence of a new protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantum mechanical states are dependent on things like energy and other physical phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantum field theory originated in the 1920s from the problem of creating a quantum mechanical theory of the electromagnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s he showed the equivalence in quantum thermodynamics of, on the one hand, the KMS (Kubo-Martin-Schwinger) condition for the characterization of quantum mechanical states in thermodynamic equilibrium with, on the other hand, the variational principle for quantum mechanical spin systems on lattices. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960
  • Including: Suppes, Patrick (1960), Stimulus-sampling theory for a continuum of response, pp. 348-363. (wikipedia.org)
  • supergravity
  • Supersymmetry gauge theory including supergravity is mainly developed as a Yang - Mills gauge theory with spontaneous breakdown of supersymmetries. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, supergravity introduced in SUSY gauge theory has no geometric feature as a supermetric. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • The first set of axioms for quantum field theories, known as the Wightman axioms, were proposed by Arthur Wightman in the early 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • They argued in the context of string theory that the coordinate functions of the endpoints of open strings constrained to a D-brane in the presence of a constant Neveu-Schwarz B-field-equivalent to a constant magnetic field on the brane-would satisfy the noncommutative algebra set out above. (wikipedia.org)
  • The implication is that a quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetime can be interpreted as a low energy limit of the theory of open strings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of quantum field theory is still flourishing, as are applications of its methods to many physical problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theory assumed that no electric charges or currents were present and today would be called a free field theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now understood that the ability to describe such processes is one of the most important features of quantum field theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In it, fermion species nonconservation was shown to follow from second quantization: creation and annihilation of fermions came to the fore and quantum field theory was seen to describe particle decays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pascual Jordan and Wolfgang Pauli showed in 1928 that quantum fields could be made to behave in the way predicted by special relativity during coordinate transformations (specifically, they showed that the field commutators were Lorentz invariant). (wikipedia.org)
  • In: Quantum Field Theory and Strings: A Course for Mathematicians, Vol. 1 (Providence, RI: Amer. Math. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single photon is a quantum , or smallest observable amount, of the electromagnetic field because a partial photon has never been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first message wasn't actually from another universe, unless you consider Paul Krugman's writings from 1999 to now be part of some alternative universe, produced by a quantum fluctuation in a Higgs energy field. (themoneyillusion.com)
  • energies
  • Once the excited electron is transferred into this triplet state, electron transition (relaxation) back to the lower singlet state energies is quantum mechanically forbidden, meaning that it happens much more slowly than other transitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1926
  • Their initial work followed lines of thinking which had been anticipated in 1926 by Frank P. Ramsey, and involved experimental testing of their theories, culminating in the 1957 monograph Decision Making: An Experimental Approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequencies
  • Many types of quantum dot will emit light of specific frequencies if electricity or light is applied to them, and these frequencies can be precisely tuned by changing the dots' size, shape and material, giving rise to many applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minkowski
  • These axioms attempt to describe QFTs on flat Minkowski spacetime by regarding quantum fields as operator-valued distributions acting on a Hilbert space. (wikipedia.org)
  • atomic theory
  • Rendered obsolete by cytology , discovery of DNA , and atomic theory . (wikipedia.org)
  • his life, his art, his genius, madness and goofiness, how he and the other Surrealists were heavily influenced by early psychology, how he incorporated atomic theory into his art, how he has influenced me since I was 15-years-old and so on, for pages and pages and pages. (madartlab.com)
  • scientific
  • A scientific theory is superseded or becomes obsolete when a scientific consensus once widely accepted it, but current science considers it an inadequate, incomplete, or simply false description of reality . (wikipedia.org)
  • Such labels do not cover protoscientific or fringe science theories that have never had broad support in the scientific community . (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific theories are testable and make falsifiable predictions . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it is a mark of good science if a discipline has a growing list of superseded theories, and conversely, a lack of superseded theories can indicate problems in following the use of the scientific method . (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical
  • Quantum game theory is an extension of classical game theory to the quantum domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This involves introducing a new notion of macroscopic objects as quantum kinds, instead of classical objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiverse theory implies that in another universe there is still a neoliberal Paul Krugman out there bashing fiscal stimulus, and a lonely blogger from the "University of Bentleys" vainly trying to resurrect Keynesian theory during a long dark age of new classical dogma. (themoneyillusion.com)
  • Mendelian genetics , classical genetics , Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory - first genetic theories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the classical concept of vacuum as a simple void has been replaced by the quantum vacuum, separating "free space" still further from the earlier concept of a perfect vacuum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • free
  • During his four decades at UCSD, Kroll continued his research in QED, developed with Marshall Rosenbluth a theory of the free electron laser, and participated in the design of particle accelerators. (wikipedia.org)
  • An download new trends in hopf algebra theory proceedings of the colloquium on quantum groups and hopf algebras la falda sierras de cordoba argentina of open article of items in military stalwarts finishes free for an Agenda of acquisitive microscopy. (rlgreer.com)
  • The differences between free space and the quantum vacuum are predicted to be very small. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia originaly published here under a CC-BY-SA 3.0 licence. (wordpress.com)
  • hypothesis
  • Quantum evolution is the hypothesis that quantum effects can bias the process of mutation towards adaptive genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is especially so in the social and medical sciences, where operational definitions of key terms are used to preserve the unambiguous empirical testability of hypothesis and theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • implies
  • When extended to the quantum domain this implies that the player can rotate the qubit to a new state, thus changing the probability amplitudes of each of the base states. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s
  • During the 1950s and 1960s Suppes collaborated with Donald Davidson on decision theory, at Stanford. (wikipedia.org)