###### mechanics

- Quantum tic tac toe: not a quantum game in the sense above, but a pedagogical tool based on metaphors for quantum mechanics Quantum pseudo-telepathy Quantum refereed game Jan Sładkowski Jens Eisert Simon C. Benjamin and Patrick M. Hayden (13 August 2001), "Multiplayer quantum games", Physical Review A, 64 (3): 030301, arXiv:quant-ph/0007038 , Bibcode:2001PhRvA. (wikipedia.org)
- 5 December 1901 - 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. (wikipedia.org)
- He returned to Göttingen and with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, over a period of about six months, developed the matrix mechanics formulation of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- It was in Copenhagen, in 1927, that Heisenberg developed his uncertainty principle, while working on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- Paul Robert Chernoff (21 June 1942, Philadelphia - 17 January 2017) was an American mathematician, specializing in functional analysis and the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- He is known for Chernoff's Theorem, a mathematical result in the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- He gave in 1981 a simplified proof of the Groenewold-Van Hove theorem, which is a no-go theorem that relates classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- Specifically, the term describes results in quantum mechanics like Bell's theorem and the Kochen-Specker theorem that constrain the permissible types of hidden variable theories which try to explain the apparent randomness of quantum mechanics as a deterministic model featuring hidden states. (wikipedia.org)
- Jagdish Mehra, Helmut Rechenberg, The Conceptual Completion and Extensions of Quantum Mechanics 1932-1941. (wikipedia.org)
- A primer on quantum mechanics (such as from David J. Griffiths' "Introduction to Quantum Mechanics") suggests that the very notion of having a molecule choose a state over all others purely based on an exterior system, with no simultaneous effects on said molecule, is completely contrary to how quantum mechanics works. (wikipedia.org)
- This need to put together relativity and quantum mechanics was the second major motivation in the development of quantum field theory. (wikipedia.org)
- A further boost for quantum field theory came with the discovery of the Dirac equation, which was originally formulated and interpreted as a single-particle equation analogous to the Schrödinger equation, but unlike the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation satisfies both the Lorentz invariance, that is, the requirements of special relativity, and the rules of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- Araki works on axiomatic quantum field theory and statistical mechanics in particular on application of operator algebras (von Neumann algebras, C*-algebras). (wikipedia.org)
- With Yanase he worked on the foundations of quantum mechanics (Wigner-Araki-Yanase Theorem, which describes restrictions that conservation laws impose upon the physical measuring process). (wikipedia.org)
- Gomatam's own field of research is foundations of quantum mechanics, wherein he is introducing a few new ideas, including those of "Objective, Semantic Information" and a notion of "Relational Properties" that is different from that of Rovelli and others. (wikipedia.org)
- B.E. 1972 Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Annamalai University, India M.E. 1974 Electronics Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani, India Ph.D. 1998 Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Mumbai University, India. (wikipedia.org)
- Along the way, based on the work he was doing at B.I., he obtained his Ph.D. in the foundations of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- Gomatam is developing his own approach to macroscopic quantum mechanics (MQM, applying the wave equation to the macroscopic regime), which is distinct from the ideas of 'macroscopic dissipative systems' and 'macroscopic quantum coherence', developed in the early 80s by Anthony James Leggett. (wikipedia.org)
- This paper was a required reading in a course in Quantum Mechanics at Brown University. (wikipedia.org)
- Michael Turvey credits Gomatam for labeling a key problem in quantum mechanics as "observation problem" which he says were only "implicit in deliberations of Bohr, Einstein, Bell and others: to identify a quantum-compatible nonclassical conception of everyday objects, one consonant with the principle of superposition. (wikipedia.org)
- Wolfgang Prinz, M.W. Stuckey and Panos Pardalos cite this paper for its key contribution in the field of macroscopic quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- In quantum mechanics, a Fock state or number state is a quantum state that is an element of a Fock space with a well-defined number of particles (or quanta). (wikipedia.org)
- Fock states play an important role in the second quantization formulation of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- Coherence was originally conceived in connection with Thomas Young 's double-slit experiment in optics but is now used in any field that involves waves, such as acoustics , electrical engineering , neuroscience , and quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- For the main encyclopedia article, see Quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum mechanics is the science of the very small. (wikipedia.org)
- The desire to resolve inconsistencies between observed phenomena and classical theory led to two major revolutions in physics that created a shift in the original scientific paradigm: the theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- For a more complete history of the subject, see History of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum mechanics shows that light, along with all other forms of electromagnetic radiation , comes in discrete units, called photons , and predicts its energies, colors, and spectral intensities . (wikipedia.org)
- More broadly, quantum mechanics shows that many quantities, such as angular momentum , that appeared continuous in the zoomed-out view of classical mechanics, turn out to be (at the small, zoomed-in scale of quantum mechanics) quantized . (wikipedia.org)
- Many aspects of quantum mechanics are counterintuitive and can seem paradoxical , because they describe behavior quite different from that seen at larger length scales. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics means that the more closely one pins down one measurement (such as the position of a particle), the less accurate another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum ) must become. (wikipedia.org)
- The study of the laws of black bodies and the failure of classical physics to describe them helped establish the foundations of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- It illustrates what he saw as the problem of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to everyday objects . (wikipedia.org)
- Robert Anton Wilson wrote a trilogy of novels dealing with themes related to quantum mechanics, collectively known as the Schrödinger's Cat Trilogy . (wikipedia.org)
- In Adam Felber 's comic first novel, Schrödinger's Ball (2006), Dr. Erwin Schrödinger is a character, and there is much exploration of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- Attempts to develop a theory of gravity consistent with quantum mechanics , a quantum gravity theory, which would allow gravity to be united in a common mathematical framework (a theory of everything ) with the other three forces of physics, are a current area of research. (wikipedia.org)
- The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse . (wikipedia.org)
- It is currently considered a mainstream interpretation along with the other decoherence interpretations, collapse theories (including the historical Copenhagen interpretation ), and hidden variable theories such as the Bohmian mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
- In the theory of quantum mechanics, the "quantum vacuum" is not entirely empty but contains electromagnetic waves and particles that pop in and out of existence. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- According to quantum mechanics, empty space (the "vacuum") is not truly empty but instead contains fleeting electromagnetic waves and particles that pop in and out of existence. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- March 17, 1922 - November 17, 2014) was an American philosopher who made significant contributions to philosophy of science, the theory of measurement, the foundations of quantum mechanics, decision theory, psychology and educational technology. (wikipedia.org)

###### Axiomatic Quantu

- Axiomatic quantum field theory is a mathematical discipline which aims to describe quantum field theory in terms of rigorous axioms. (wikipedia.org)

###### physics

- This theory is based on the physics of information much like quantum computing. (wikipedia.org)
- Because Sommerfeld had a sincere interest in his students and knew of Heisenberg's interest in Niels Bohr's theories on atomic physics, Sommerfeld took Heisenberg to Göttingen to the Bohr-Festspiele (Bohr Festival) in June 1922. (wikipedia.org)
- At the event, Bohr was a guest lecturer and gave a series of comprehensive lectures on quantum atomic physics. (wikipedia.org)
- In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Mathematical Physics and Quantum Field Theory (Berkeley, CA, 1999), Eletron. (wikipedia.org)
- Weinstein was among the first physicists to reject and criticize Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, contending that "general relativity had removed gravity from its earlier isolated position and made it into a "world power" controlling all laws of nature," and warning that "physics and mathematics would have to be revised. (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematical physics, noncommutative quantum field theory (or quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetime) is an application of noncommutative mathematics to the spacetime of quantum field theory that is an outgrowth of noncommutative geometry and index theory in which the coordinate functions are noncommutative. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the novel features of noncommutative field theories is the UV/IR mixing phenomenon in which the physics at high energies affects the physics at low energies which does not occur in quantum field theories in which the coordinates commute. (wikipedia.org)
- Several problems need to be overcome for this hypothesis to be consistent with our current knowledge of quantum physics. (wikipedia.org)
- In particle physics, the history of quantum field theory starts with its creation by Paul Dirac, when he attempted to quantize the electromagnetic field in the late 1920s. (wikipedia.org)
- By the late 1970s, these efforts successfully utilized gauge theory in the strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force, producing the modern standard model of particle physics. (wikipedia.org)
- Sir Harold Jeffreys and Bertha Swirles (Lady Jeffreys), Methods of Mathematical Physics, third revised edition (Cambridge University Press, 1956 - reprinted 1999). (wikipedia.org)
- Ruth M. Williams, Bertha Swirles Jeffreys (1903-1999), pp. 178-190, in Out of the Shadows: Contributions of Twentieth-Century Women to Physics, edited by Nina Byers and Gary Williams, 498 p. (wikipedia.org)
- He already at the beginning of the 1960s at Princeton made important contributions to the "local quantum physics" of Haag and Kastler and also to the scattering theories of Haag and David Ruelle. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, Leggett's attempt is to indirectly observe superposition at the macroscopic level by extending current microscopic quantum physics to the macroscopic level. (wikipedia.org)
- It contains several distinct concepts, which are limiting cases that never quite occur in reality but allow an understanding of the physics of waves, and has become a very important concept in quantum physics. (wikipedia.org)
- This article describes how physicists discovered the limitations of classical physics and developed the main concepts of the quantum theory that replaced it in the early decades of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum Physics: Richard Feynman: Explaining Quantum Electrodynamics, QED. (spaceandmotion.com)
- These Quantum Physics pages (on either side) show how this new understanding of physical reality (that all light and matter interactions are wave interactions in Space) explains and solves the central problems of Quantum Theory. (spaceandmotion.com)
- Most importantly, this Dynamic Unity of Reality provides simple solutions to all the 'strangeness' of quantum physics that has resulted from this discrete / disconnected 'particle' conception of matter. (spaceandmotion.com)
- Many-worlds reconciles the observation of non- deterministic events, such as random radioactive decay , with the fully deterministic equations of quantum physics . (wikipedia.org)

###### superposition

- It differs from classical game theory in three primary ways: Superposed initial states, Quantum entanglement of initial states, Superposition of strategies to be used on the initial states. (wikipedia.org)
- In the quantum version of the game, the bit is replaced by the qubit, which is a quantum superposition of two or more base states. (wikipedia.org)
- A mechanism proposed by quantum evolution is to imagine that the configuration of DNA in a cell is held in a quantum superposition of states, and that "mutations" occur as a result of a collapse of the superposition into the "best" configuration for the cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Most importantly, the state of quantum superposition must last long enough to allow the DNA to do its normal job (produce RNA). (wikipedia.org)
- This latter time would be far too short by many orders of magnitude for the protein formation required for a superposition of quantum states to affect mutations. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] In contrast, Gomatam is attempting to develop MQM independent of the application of the Schrödinger equation to the micro regime, in such a manner that quantum superposition can be directly observed at the macroscopic level. (wikipedia.org)
- The cat occupies a quantum superposition relative to the tined object , being simultaneously in front of and behind the object, which itself occupies a quantum superposition because it is simultaneously a square-edged object with two tines and a round-edged object with three tines. (wikipedia.org)

###### relativistic quantu

- The theorem is usually interpreted to mean that the graviton (j = 2) cannot be a composite particle in a relativistic quantum field theory. (wikipedia.org)

###### 2000

- A 272 (2000) 291-303, A Quantum Approach To Static Games of Complete Information T. Cheon, I. Tsutsui, Phys. (wikipedia.org)
- 1999. The Historical Development of Quantum Theory, page 33, by Jagdish Mehra and Helmut Rechenberg, 2000. (wikipedia.org)
- McFadden published his book Quantum Evolution in 2000. (wikipedia.org)

###### theorem

- Science vol. 193, no. 4250, 1976, p. 276 The quantum n-body problem and a theorem of Littlewood, Pacific J. Math. (wikipedia.org)
- In quantum information theory, a no-communication theorem is a result that gives conditions under which instantaneous transfer of information between two observers is impossible. (wikipedia.org)
- it is necessary to develop a theory") Quantum no-deleting theorem Bell's Theorem Bub, Jeffrey (1999). (wikipedia.org)
- The quantum-mechanical " Schrödinger's cat " theorem according to the many-worlds interpretation. (wikipedia.org)

###### physicist

- In 1999, biologist Johnjoe McFadden and the physicist Jim Al-Khalili published an unrelated model of adaptive selection for lactose metabolism in non-metabolizing E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
- Bertha Swirles, Lady Jeffreys (22 May 1903 - 18 December 1999) was a British physicist who carried out research on quantum theory, particularly in its early days. (wikipedia.org)

###### electrodynamics

- He collaborated with Lamb on their famous paper "On the Self-Energy of a Bound Electron," which was published in 1949 in the Physical Review and reprinted by Dover Publications in 1959 as part of Selected Papers on Quantum Electrodynamics. (wikipedia.org)
- Major advances in the theory were made in the 1950s, and led to the introduction of quantum electrodynamics (QED). (wikipedia.org)
- The first reasonably complete theory of quantum electrodynamics, which included both the electromagnetic field and electrically charged matter (specifically, electrons) as quantum mechanical objects, was created by Paul Dirac in 1927. (wikipedia.org)

###### coherence

- However recent evidence indicates that quantum coherence of electrons and protons does indeed occur in some (maybe all) enzyme reactions in living cells, such as those involved in photosynthesis and may even be responsible for the huge catalytic enhancement of reaction rates provided by enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
- Coherence describes the statistical similarity of a field (electromagnetic field, quantum wave packet etc.) at two points in space or time . (wikipedia.org)

###### Mathematical Theory

- He also supplied important contributions in the mathematical theory of operator algebras, classifying type-III factors of von Neumann algebras. (wikipedia.org)
- Mathematical theory of quantum fields, Oxford University Press 1999 Araki, E.J. Woods A classification of factors, Pub. (wikipedia.org)

###### Araki

- RIMS, Bd.4, 1968, S.585 Araki On the equivalence of the KMS condition and the variational principle for quantum lattice systems, Comm. (wikipedia.org)

###### particles

- He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. (wikipedia.org)
- This quantum field theory could be used to model important processes such as the emission of a photon by an electron dropping into a quantum state of lower energy, a process in which the number of particles changes-one atom in the initial state becomes an atom plus a photon in the final state. (wikipedia.org)
- The idea was that not only the quanta of the electromagnetic field, photons, but also other particles might emerge and disappear as a result of their interaction with other particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum dots ( QD ) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum vacuum describes a region devoid of real particles in its lowest energy state. (newworldencyclopedia.org)

###### 2001

- Epilogue: Aspects of the Further Development of Quantum Theory 1942-1999: Volumes 6, Part 2, Springer, 2001, p. 1050. (wikipedia.org)

###### entanglement

- Everett originally called his approach the "Correlation Interpretation", where "correlation" refers to quantum entanglement ). (wikipedia.org)

###### multiverse theory

- Multiverse theory implies that in another universe there is still a neoliberal Paul Krugman out there bashing fiscal stimulus, and a lonely blogger from the "University of Bentleys" vainly trying to resurrect Keynesian theory during a long dark age of new classical dogma. (themoneyillusion.com)
- The theory is also referred to as MWI , the relative state formulation , the Everett interpretation , the theory of the universal wavefunction , many-universes interpretation , multiverse theory or just many-worlds . (wikipedia.org)

###### describes

- Gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915) which describes gravity not as a force , but as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime caused by the uneven distribution of mass. (wikipedia.org)
- however, the affecting download new trends in hopf algebra theory proceedings of the colloquium on quantum groups and hopf algebras la falda sierras de of general need describes supporting geometries on Australian People to Gain to drive polling. (rlgreer.com)

###### statistical

- Probabilistic and Statistical Aspects of Quantum Theory (2nd English ed. (wikipedia.org)
- The waves in quantum theory are real waves (not abstract 'probability waves') but lack of knowledge of the interconnected whole (infinite Space) causes statistical behaviour of matter (as Einstein believed). (spaceandmotion.com)

###### renormalization

- Heisenberg was the first to suggest extending noncommutativity to the coordinates as a possible way of removing the infinite quantities appearing in field theories before the renormalization procedure was developed and had gained acceptance. (wikipedia.org)
- He is also credited with introducing in 1948 the concept of renormalization into quantum field theory, although his approach was nonrelativistic. (wikipedia.org)

###### electromagnetic

- Quantum field theory originated in the 1920s from the problem of creating a quantum mechanical theory of the electromagnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
- It was evident from the beginning that a proper quantum treatment of the electromagnetic field had to somehow incorporate Einstein's relativity theory, which had grown out of the study of classical electromagnetism. (wikipedia.org)
- A single photon is a quantum , or smallest observable amount, of the electromagnetic field because a partial photon has never been observed. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a concept of electromagnetic theory. (newworldencyclopedia.org)

###### decoherence

- in which they proposed a mechanism based on enhanced decoherence of quantum states that interact strongly with the environment. (wikipedia.org)

###### general relativity

- There is no unambiguous way to define the total energy of the universe in the current best theory of gravity, general relativity . (mcgill.ca)

###### Albert Einstein

- Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein 's general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects. (mcgill.ca)

###### canonical

- He earned his diploma under Hideki Yukawa and in 1960 he attained his doctorate at Princeton University with thesis advisors Rudolf Haag and Arthur Strong Wightman (Hamiltonian formalism and canonical commutation relations in quantum field theory). (wikipedia.org)

###### Einstein's

- He is best known as an opponent of Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity, and for having written a broad examination of the theological theory of Pandeism. (wikipedia.org)
- It was Weinstein's writings, and their impact driving public sentiment against Einstein's theories, which led astronomer Wilhelm Foerster to convince Einstein to write a more accessible explanation of those ideas. (wikipedia.org)

###### Measurement

- With the exception of a few fundamental quantum constants, units of measurement are derived from historical agreements. (wikipedia.org)

###### gravity

- Galileo's work set the stage for the formulation of Newton's theory of gravity. (wikipedia.org)

###### mechanical

- Science fiction writer Greg Egan, in his book Teranesia, posited a similar mechanism, whereby large adaptive mutations occur in multiple species under the aggressive quantum mechanical influence of a new protein. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum mechanical states are dependent on things like energy and other physical phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
- In the 1970s he showed the equivalence in quantum thermodynamics of, on the one hand, the KMS (Kubo-Martin-Schwinger) condition for the characterization of quantum mechanical states in thermodynamic equilibrium with, on the other hand, the variational principle for quantum mechanical spin systems on lattices. (wikipedia.org)

###### molecular

- yet this has not been proposed by any of the advocates of quantum evolution who have limited their speculations to molecular processes. (wikipedia.org)
- Theory and application of quantum molecular dynamics. (wikipedia.org)

###### theoretical

- During WW II he did theoretical radar research (magnetron theory), during 1943-1945, at Columbia under the supervision of Willis Lamb and I. I. Rabi. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum evolution is an attempt to provide a theoretical mechanism which would skew these random mutations in favor of some outcome beneficial to the cell. (wikipedia.org)

###### supergravity

- Supersymmetry gauge theory including supergravity is mainly developed as a Yang - Mills gauge theory with spontaneous breakdown of supersymmetries. (wikipedia.org)
- However, supergravity introduced in SUSY gauge theory has no geometric feature as a supermetric. (wikipedia.org)

###### commonly

- For the theory more commonly associated with this name see: Quantum evolution. (wikipedia.org)

###### field

- The first set of axioms for quantum field theories, known as the Wightman axioms, were proposed by Arthur Wightman in the early 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
- They argued in the context of string theory that the coordinate functions of the endpoints of open strings constrained to a D-brane in the presence of a constant Neveu-Schwarz B-field-equivalent to a constant magnetic field on the brane-would satisfy the noncommutative algebra set out above. (wikipedia.org)
- The implication is that a quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetime can be interpreted as a low energy limit of the theory of open strings. (wikipedia.org)
- The study of quantum field theory is still flourishing, as are applications of its methods to many physical problems. (wikipedia.org)
- This theory assumed that no electric charges or currents were present and today would be called a free field theory. (wikipedia.org)
- It is now understood that the ability to describe such processes is one of the most important features of quantum field theory. (wikipedia.org)
- In it, fermion species nonconservation was shown to follow from second quantization: creation and annihilation of fermions came to the fore and quantum field theory was seen to describe particle decays. (wikipedia.org)
- Pascual Jordan and Wolfgang Pauli showed in 1928 that quantum fields could be made to behave in the way predicted by special relativity during coordinate transformations (specifically, they showed that the field commutators were Lorentz invariant). (wikipedia.org)
- In: Quantum Field Theory and Strings: A Course for Mathematicians, Vol. 1 (Providence, RI: Amer. Math. (wikipedia.org)
- The first message wasn't actually from another universe, unless you consider Paul Krugman's writings from 1999 to now be part of some alternative universe, produced by a quantum fluctuation in a Higgs energy field. (themoneyillusion.com)

###### energies

- Once the excited electron is transferred into this triplet state, electron transition (relaxation) back to the lower singlet state energies is quantum mechanically forbidden, meaning that it happens much more slowly than other transitions. (wikipedia.org)

###### 1926

- Their initial work followed lines of thinking which had been anticipated in 1926 by Frank P. Ramsey, and involved experimental testing of their theories, culminating in the 1957 monograph Decision Making: An Experimental Approach. (wikipedia.org)

###### special relativity

- According to the theory of special relativity , this speed is independent of the speed of the observer or of the source of the waves. (newworldencyclopedia.org)

###### Development

- Welt- und Lebensanschauungen, Hervorgegangen aus Religion, Philosophie und Naturerkenntnis ("World and Life Views, Emerging From Religion, Philosophy and Nature") (1910) examined the origins and development of a great many philosophical areas, including the broadest and most far-reaching examination of the theological theory of Pandeism written up to that point. (wikipedia.org)
- However it also led to the development of a Yang-Mills theory on a noncommutative torus. (wikipedia.org)

###### frequencies

- Many types of quantum dot will emit light of specific frequencies if electricity or light is applied to them, and these frequencies can be precisely tuned by changing the dots' size, shape and material, giving rise to many applications. (wikipedia.org)

###### wherein

- Many-worlds, however, views historical reality as a many-branched tree, wherein every possible quantum outcome is realised. (wikipedia.org)

###### atomic

- Rendered obsolete by cytology , discovery of DNA , and atomic theory . (wikipedia.org)

###### Minkowski

- These axioms attempt to describe QFTs on flat Minkowski spacetime by regarding quantum fields as operator-valued distributions acting on a Hilbert space. (wikipedia.org)

###### Hilbert

- A 348 (2006) 147-152, Classical and Quantum Contents of Solvable Game Theory on Hilbert Space Piotrowski, E. W. (wikipedia.org)
- In Level III they live on another quantum branch in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space . (themoneyillusion.com)
- I love how scientists can tell us that "nothing matters at all" in such technical language ("another quantum branch of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. (themoneyillusion.com)

###### 1960

- Including: Suppes, Patrick (1960), Stimulus-sampling theory for a continuum of response, pp. 348-363. (wikipedia.org)

###### branches

- A Merry Christmas to my readers as they veer off onto their nice and cozy alternative quantum branches. (themoneyillusion.com)

###### scientific

- A scientific theory is superseded or becomes obsolete when a scientific consensus once widely accepted it, but current science considers it an inadequate, incomplete, or simply false description of reality . (wikipedia.org)
- Such labels do not cover protoscientific or fringe science theories that have never had broad support in the scientific community . (wikipedia.org)
- Scientific theories are testable and make falsifiable predictions . (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, it is a mark of good science if a discipline has a growing list of superseded theories, and conversely, a lack of superseded theories can indicate problems in following the use of the scientific method . (wikipedia.org)

###### Classical

- Quantum game theory is an extension of classical game theory to the quantum domain. (wikipedia.org)
- This involves introducing a new notion of macroscopic objects as quantum kinds, instead of classical objects. (wikipedia.org)
- Mendelian genetics , classical genetics , Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory - first genetic theories. (wikipedia.org)
- Today, the classical concept of vacuum as a simple void has been replaced by the quantum vacuum, separating "free space" still further from the earlier concept of a perfect vacuum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)

###### hypothesis

- Quantum evolution is the hypothesis that quantum effects can bias the process of mutation towards adaptive genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
- This is especially so in the social and medical sciences, where operational definitions of key terms are used to preserve the unambiguous empirical testability of hypothesis and theory. (wikipedia.org)

###### coordinates

- In the theory of many-particle systems, Jacobi coordinates often are used to simplify the mathematical formulation. (wikipedia.org)

###### interpretation

- Dissertation Title: Toward a realist interpretation of quantum theory - Integrating Bohr and Einstein. (wikipedia.org)
- Such commentators as Kirk Ludwig trace the origins of Davidson's theory of radical interpretation to his formative work with Suppes. (wikipedia.org)

###### experimental evidence

- Various lower limits have been claimed for the noncommutative scale, (i.e. how accurately positions can be measured) but there is currently no experimental evidence in favour of such a theory or grounds for ruling them out. (wikipedia.org)

###### free

- During his four decades at UCSD, Kroll continued his research in QED, developed with Marshall Rosenbluth a theory of the free electron laser, and participated in the design of particle accelerators. (wikipedia.org)
- An download new trends in hopf algebra theory proceedings of the colloquium on quantum groups and hopf algebras la falda sierras de cordoba argentina of open article of items in military stalwarts finishes free for an Agenda of acquisitive microscopy. (rlgreer.com)
- The differences between free space and the quantum vacuum are predicted to be very small. (newworldencyclopedia.org)

###### vacuum

- Quantum vacuum or the vacuum state is not empty. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Lambrecht has noted that the quantum vacuum is "by no means a simple empty space," and Ray has observed that "it is a mistake to think of any physical vacuum as some absolutely empty void. (newworldencyclopedia.org)

###### implies

- When extended to the quantum domain this implies that the player can rotate the qubit to a new state, thus changing the probability amplitudes of each of the base states. (wikipedia.org)

###### calculations

- It has a specific spectrum and intensity that depends only on the body's temperature, which is assumed for the sake of calculations and theory to be uniform and constant. (wikipedia.org)
- in these cases, the older theory is often still useful for many purposes, and may be more easily understood than the complete theory and lead to simpler calculations. (wikipedia.org)