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  • 2001
  • M. W. Service (2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistence of the virus and its spread to other states on the eastern seaboard during 2000 and 2001 suggest that WNV is now endemic in the United States and that its geographic range probably will continue to expand until it extends over much of the continent ( 2 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • Persistence and amplification of St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Coachella Valley of California, 2000-2001. (ajtmh.org)
  • viremia
  • While the virus is inside the host, it undergoes a process called amplification, where the virus replicates at sufficient levels to induce viremia, a condition in which there are large numbers of viruses present in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • If viremia is not achieved in a vertebrate, the species can be called a "dead-end host", as the virus cannot be transmitted back to the vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • Until 1999, the virus was found only in the Eastern Hemisphere, with wide distribution in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe (3) . (annals.org)
  • vaccine
  • It was reported yesterday that Sanofi Pasteur, the Sanofi vaccines division, has introduced a Japanese encephalitis vaccine, IMOJEV, in Australia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • No specific treatment is available for WNV encephalitis, and no licensed vaccine is available for its prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • viral
  • The N-terminal region of NS3, and its cofactor NS2B fold into a protease that is responsible for viral polyprotein processing, and the C-terminal domain of NS3 possesses NTPase/RNA helicase activities and is involved in viral RNA replication and virus particle formation. (springer.com)
  • infections
  • West Nile infections in free ranging wild birds in the Coachella Valley, Riverside Co., California. (ajtmh.org)
  • During the latter half of the 20th century, Dengue fever reemerged as a global disease, with the virus spreading geographically due to urbanization, population growth, increased international travel, and global warming, and continues to cause at least 50 million infections per year, making Dengue fever the most common and clinically important arboviral disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Sophie is suffering from a severe form of Japanese encephalitis , which is most common in rural areas throughout South East Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, but is very rare in travellers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that induction of virus-specific effector immune cell response limits virus replication and severe WNV disease in Eg101 infected mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WNV might be described in one of four illnesses: West Nile Fever might be the least severe in characterized by fever, headache, tiredness and aches or a rash. (fcmcd.org)
  • Of the more than 9858 cases, 6829 were West Nile Fever (the milder form), 2863 were neuroinvasive (the more severe form) and 166 clinically unspecified. (fcmcd.org)
  • titers
  • Moreover, increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators was associated with high-virus titers and increased mortality in WNV NY99 infected mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Louis
  • Our data have broad implications for free-ranging avian serological diagnostics and possibly for the recent disappearance of St. Louis encephalitis virus from California. (ajtmh.org)
  • Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • vectors
  • As occurs with hosts, not all infected vectors transmit the virus efficiently, but just those in which the virus replicates systemically and reach enough virus levels in the salivary glands to enable transmission after biting the host. (mdpi.com)
  • When uninfected vectors become infected from feeding, they are then capable of transmitting the virus to uninfected hosts, resuming amplification of virus populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The RNA helicase, nucleotide 5′-triphosphatase, and RNA 5′-triphosphatase activities of Dengue virus protein NS3 are Mg2+-dependent and require a functional Walker B motif in the helicase catalytic core. (springer.com)
  • Zika
  • After 10 days all mice that were inoculated intracerebrally were sick, and a filterable transmissible agent, later named Zika virus, was isolated from the mouse brains. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximate known distribution of Zika virus, 1947-2007. (cdc.gov)
  • replication
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), neurons are the primary target of WNV replication, and virus-associated pathology is characterized by neuronal death, activation of glial cells, and massive infiltration of leukocytes in the perivascular space and parenchyma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Novel benzoxazole inhibitor of dengue virus replication that targets the NS3 helicase. (springer.com)
  • characteristic
  • This is called "host competence" and is a characteristic of each host species in a specific host-virus-vector system. (mdpi.com)
  • NY99
  • Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with WNV NY99 or WNV Eg101 and mortality, virus burden in the periphery and brain, type 1 interferon response, WNV-specific antibodies, leukocyte infiltration, and inflammatory responses were analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, at day 6, the virus was cleared from WNV Eg101 infected mice but the virus titer remained high in the WNV NY99 infected mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus was detected in the brains of both WNV NY99 and Eg101 infected mice, albeit significantly higher in the brains of WNV NY99 infected mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • York City
  • Since the identification of West Nile virus in New York City in 1999, enzootic activity has been documented in 27 states and the District of Columbia. (annals.org)
  • The 1999 appearance of the West Nile virus in New York City may prove to be the best-documented introduction of a new, vector-borne human pathogen into the United States in the past century (1) . (annals.org)