• Flaviviridae
  • HCV is an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. (google.com)
  • These viruses, which belong to the families Flaviviridae , Togaviridae , Bunyaviridae , and Reoviridae, are usually highly adapted to particular reservoir hosts and are spread from animal to animal via the bite of an infected arthropod, usually a specific mosquito or tick species ( table 1 ). (uptodate.com)
  • vaccine
  • This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • No specific treatment is available for WNV encephalitis, and no licensed vaccine is available for its prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for use of inactivated Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine in adults and children aged [greater than or equal to] 2 months traveling to JE-endemic areas * * JE vaccine is recommended for travelers who plan to spend a month or longer in endemic areas during the JE virus transmission season. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was reported yesterday that Sanofi Pasteur, the Sanofi vaccines division, has introduced a Japanese encephalitis vaccine, IMOJEV, in Australia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pseudotype viruses have also been applied in neutralization tests for antibodies and vaccine development (Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • viremia
  • While the virus is inside the host, it undergoes a process called amplification, where the virus replicates at sufficient levels to induce viremia, a condition in which there are large numbers of viruses present in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • If viremia is not achieved in a vertebrate, the species can be called a "dead-end host", as the virus cannot be transmitted back to the vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • endemic
  • It is a subtype of West Nile Virus endemic to Oceania. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistence of the virus and its spread to other states on the eastern seaboard during 2000 and 2001 suggest that WNV is now endemic in the United States and that its geographic range probably will continue to expand until it extends over much of the continent ( 2 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • infections
  • West Nile infections in free ranging wild birds in the Coachella Valley, Riverside Co., California. (ajtmh.org)
  • During the latter half of the 20th century, Dengue fever reemerged as a global disease, with the virus spreading geographically due to urbanization, population growth, increased international travel, and global warming, and continues to cause at least 50 million infections per year, making Dengue fever the most common and clinically important arboviral disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis C vir
  • More than 40 million people worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this represents one of the most serious threats to the public health of developed nations (Hoofnagle et al. (google.com)
  • severe
  • Although typical manifestation of WNV is asymptomatical, the virus can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause severe illness, paralysis , and even death in humans and animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mosquito
  • West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne viral illness that can manifest with varying seriousness, ranging from no symptoms or mild flu-like symptoms to brain damage and death . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When a mosquito feeds on the infected bird, the virus is passed to the insect along with the blood meal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • California State Mosquito-borne Virus Surveillance and Response Plan. (ajtmh.org)
  • The virus then replicates in the mosquito or tick tissues, ultimately infecting the salivary glands. (uptodate.com)
  • The mosquito or tick transmits the virus to a new host when it injects infective salivary fluid while taking a blood meal. (uptodate.com)
  • vectors
  • As occurs with hosts, not all infected vectors transmit the virus efficiently, but just those in which the virus replicates systemically and reach enough virus levels in the salivary glands to enable transmission after biting the host. (mdpi.com)
  • When uninfected vectors become infected from feeding, they are then capable of transmitting the virus to uninfected hosts, resuming amplification of virus populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemiologic
  • In addition to their antigenic and genetic relatedness, these four viruses have many epidemiologic similarities ( 3 , 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • viral
  • The N-terminal region of NS3, and its cofactor NS2B fold into a protease that is responsible for viral polyprotein processing, and the C-terminal domain of NS3 possesses NTPase/RNA helicase activities and is involved in viral RNA replication and virus particle formation. (springer.com)
  • These viruses possess a reporter gene instead of a VSV G gene in their genome, and therefore it is easy to evaluate their infectivity in the study of viral entry, including identification of viral receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Identification of viral entry receptors that are composed of membrane proteins, lipids, or carbohydrates is important for examining the life cycle of a virus and for further developing entry inhibitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, receptors or co-receptors of several viruses have been difficult to identify because of the lack of reliable cell culture systems, an insufficient amount of native viral particles, or difficulty in handling because of the requirement for biosafety level (BSL)-3 or -4 containment. (frontiersin.org)
  • As for the application of a pseudotype virus system for VSV, a recombinant virus system with a heterologous viral envelope gene together with a reporter gene encoded into its own genome instead of the G gene has also been developed. (frontiersin.org)
  • This topic will review the major characteristics of most of the arthropod-borne viral encephalitides. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Viral encephalitis in adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • Louis
  • Our data have broad implications for free-ranging avian serological diagnostics and possibly for the recent disappearance of St. Louis encephalitis virus from California. (ajtmh.org)
  • protein
  • The RNA helicase, nucleotide 5′-triphosphatase, and RNA 5′-triphosphatase activities of Dengue virus protein NS3 are Mg2+-dependent and require a functional Walker B motif in the helicase catalytic core. (springer.com)
  • Zika
  • After 10 days all mice that were inoculated intracerebrally were sick, and a filterable transmissible agent, later named Zika virus, was isolated from the mouse brains. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximate known distribution of Zika virus, 1947-2007. (cdc.gov)
  • transmits the virus
  • Arboviruses maintain themselves in nature by going through a cycle between a host, an organism that carries the virus, and a vector, an organism that carries and transmits the virus to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)