• Flaviviridae
  • These viruses, which belong to the families Flaviviridae , Togaviridae , Bunyaviridae , and Reoviridae, are usually highly adapted to particular reservoir hosts and are spread from animal to animal via the bite of an infected arthropod, usually a specific mosquito or tick species ( table 1 ). (uptodate.com)
  • 2001
  • M. W. Service (2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistence of the virus and its spread to other states on the eastern seaboard during 2000 and 2001 suggest that WNV is now endemic in the United States and that its geographic range probably will continue to expand until it extends over much of the continent ( 2 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • Persistence and amplification of St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Coachella Valley of California, 2000-2001. (ajtmh.org)
  • viremia
  • While the virus is inside the host, it undergoes a process called amplification, where the virus replicates at sufficient levels to induce viremia, a condition in which there are large numbers of viruses present in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • If viremia is not achieved in a vertebrate, the species can be called a "dead-end host", as the virus cannot be transmitted back to the vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • mosquitoes
  • The virus was first isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes in Australia in 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus been isolated in mosquitoes in South East Asia but in humans, only in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all infected hosts transmit the virus, but only those in which the virus replicates efficiently enough to reach viremias sufficiently high to infect mosquitoes through blood feeding. (mdpi.com)
  • Ecology of mosquitoes and St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Los Angeles Basin of California, 1987-1990. (ajtmh.org)
  • Mosquito control is a vital public-health practice throughout the world and especially in the tropics because mosquitoes spread many diseases, such as malaria and the Zika virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This geographic spreading caused dengue fever epidemics throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, and later, in 1906, transmission by the Aedes mosquitoes was confirmed, making yellow fever and dengue fever the first two diseases known to be caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • But wet or dry, extreme conditions favoured certain species of mosquitoes (also known as vectors) that went on to cause outbreaks of illnesses like the potentially-fatal Rift Valley Fever . (wordpress.com)
  • infections
  • West Nile infections in free ranging wild birds in the Coachella Valley, Riverside Co., California. (ajtmh.org)
  • During the latter half of the 20th century, Dengue fever reemerged as a global disease, with the virus spreading geographically due to urbanization, population growth, increased international travel, and global warming, and continues to cause at least 50 million infections per year, making Dengue fever the most common and clinically important arboviral disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • No specific treatment is available for WNV encephalitis, and no licensed vaccine is available for its prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Pseudotype viruses have also been applied in neutralization tests for antibodies and vaccine development (Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • vectors
  • As occurs with hosts, not all infected vectors transmit the virus efficiently, but just those in which the virus replicates systemically and reach enough virus levels in the salivary glands to enable transmission after biting the host. (mdpi.com)
  • When uninfected vectors become infected from feeding, they are then capable of transmitting the virus to uninfected hosts, resuming amplification of virus populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Correlation of Culex tarsalis indices with the incidence of St. Louis encephalitis and western equine encephalomyelitis in California. (ajtmh.org)
  • severe
  • Although typical manifestation of WNV is asymptomatical, the virus can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause severe illness, paralysis , and even death in humans and animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • fever
  • From these, NASA makes this awesome 'NDVI' map of how well vegetated crop-growing regions across the world are , while the USDA includes them in monthly Rift Valley Fever risk reports . (wordpress.com)
  • Louis
  • Our data have broad implications for free-ranging avian serological diagnostics and possibly for the recent disappearance of St. Louis encephalitis virus from California. (ajtmh.org)
  • Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • viral
  • These viruses possess a reporter gene instead of a VSV G gene in their genome, and therefore it is easy to evaluate their infectivity in the study of viral entry, including identification of viral receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Identification of viral entry receptors that are composed of membrane proteins, lipids, or carbohydrates is important for examining the life cycle of a virus and for further developing entry inhibitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, receptors or co-receptors of several viruses have been difficult to identify because of the lack of reliable cell culture systems, an insufficient amount of native viral particles, or difficulty in handling because of the requirement for biosafety level (BSL)-3 or -4 containment. (frontiersin.org)
  • As for the application of a pseudotype virus system for VSV, a recombinant virus system with a heterologous viral envelope gene together with a reporter gene encoded into its own genome instead of the G gene has also been developed. (frontiersin.org)
  • This topic will review the major characteristics of most of the arthropod-borne viral encephalitides. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Viral encephalitis in adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • transmits the virus
  • Arboviruses maintain themselves in nature by going through a cycle between a host, an organism that carries the virus, and a vector, an organism that carries and transmits the virus to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mosquito or tick transmits the virus to a new host when it injects infective salivary fluid while taking a blood meal. (uptodate.com)
  • characteristic
  • This is called "host competence" and is a characteristic of each host species in a specific host-virus-vector system. (mdpi.com)