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  • bone morphoge
  • The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2 , together with Ascl1, Phox2a, Phox2b and Gata2/Gata3 , is induced by bone morphogenetic proteins in neural crest-derived precursor cells during sympathetic neuron generation. (biologists.org)
  • The development of autonomic neurons depends crucially on the presence of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), extrinsic differentiation factors that are produced in the environment of the primordia of autonomic ganglia. (biologists.org)
  • Genes
  • This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that controls cholesterol homeostasis by stimulating transcription of sterol-regulated genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF5 seems to work "either by interacting with DNA directly, or by interacting with other proteins that themselves control which genes are switched on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, our data reveal a new signaling pathway activated by amino acid starvation leading to ATF2 phosphorylation and subsequently positively affecting the transcription of amino acid-regulated genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These two kinases play a major role in the control of protein synthesis ( 71 ), transcription, and mRNA turnover of specific genes ( 24 , 46 , 69 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At a molecular level, most of the results have been obtained by studying the transcriptional regulation of the activating transcription factor 3 ( ATF3 ), C/EBP homologous protein ( CHOP ), and asparagine synthetase ( ASNS ) genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This approach allowed to discover complex regulatory circuits involving novel miRNAs and protein coding genes not considered before in the HOS such as miR-34a and miR-30 and their targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • A novel member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine family, designated TRANCE, was cloned during a search for apoptosis-regulatory genes using a somatic cell genetic approach in T cell hybridomas. (jax.org)
  • They promote DNA binding and transactivation of p53-family proteins on the promoters of proapoptotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially described as a transcription factor able to activate expression of the cytokine Interferon beta, IRF-1 was subsequently shown to function as a transcriptional activator or repressor of a variety of target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • MTA2 inhibits the expression of target genes owing to its ability to interact with chromatin remodeling complexes, and modulates pathways involved in cellular functions, including invasion, apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and growth of normal and cancer cells Expression of MTA2 is stimulated by Sp1 transcription factor and repressed by Kaiso. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, ICP0 promotes transcription from viral genes, disrupts structures in the nucleus known as nuclear dots or promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, and alters the expression of host and viral genes in combination with a neuron specific protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In HSV-1 infected cells, ICP0 activates transcription of many viral and cellular genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • After translocating to the nucleus early in infection, ICP0 promotes degradation of many cellular antiviral genes, including those for nuclear body-associated proteins promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and Sp100, causing disruption of PML nuclear bodies and reduced cellular antiviral capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction is attributed to the partial similarity of ICP0 to the human protein CoREST, also called REST corepressor 1 (RCOR1), which combines with NRSF to repress expression of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combination of ICP0 with these NRSF-like neuronal factors may silence herpes genes in neurons, blocking the production of other immediate-early genes such as ICP4 and reducing production of ICP22. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, an NRSF-binding region is located between the viral genes expressing proteins ICP4 and ICP22. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through this binding, it represses HBV core promoter activity, transcription of HBV genes, and production of HBV virions. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the one hand, SON protein is required to maintain the genome stability in order to ensure an efficient RNA processing of affected genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IRF family proteins bind to the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and regulate expression of genes stimulated by type I IFNs, namely IFN-α and IFN-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF family proteins also control expression of IFN-α and IFN-β-regulated genes that are induced by viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • In the abdomen, Grh terminates neural proliferation by regulating the competence of neuroblasts to undergo apoptosis in response to Abdominal-A expression. (biologists.org)
  • This study shows how a factor specific to late-stage neural progenitors can regulate the time at which neural proliferation stops, and identifies mechanisms linking it to the Hox axial patterning system. (biologists.org)
  • We performed an integrated analysis of miRNA expression data with gene expression profiles to refine computational target prediction approaches by means of the inversely correlation of miRNA-mRNA expressions, and we highlighted targets, which have roles in cardiac contractility, cardiomyocyte proliferation/apoptosis, and morphogenesis, crucial functions regulated by Tbx5. (frontiersin.org)
  • A recent study suggested that SON may be a novel therapeutic molecular target for pancreatic cancer as the results of a recent study show that this protein is very important as far as proliferation, survival and tumorigenicity of cancer cells are concerned. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • INT2-31 caused a disruption of protein interactions between FAK and IGF-1R in vitro in cancer cells starting at a concentration of 2.5 microM. (ufl.edu)
  • To determine whether interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling directs the expression of pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) in vitro and in vivo. (docme.ru)
  • These molecules are sufficient to activate caspase-3 in vitro, but other regulatory proteins are necessary in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells have been called "naturally occurring" regulatory T cells to distinguish them from "suppressor" T cell populations that are generated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • Zebrafish homozygous for the lockjaw ( low ) mutation show defects in all of these derivatives and we show that low (allelic with montblanc ) encodes a zebrafish tfap2a , one of a small family of transcription factors implicated in epidermal and neural crest development. (biologists.org)
  • Cross-hybridization of the mouse cDNA to a human thymus library yielded the human homolog, which encodes a protein 83% identical to the mouse ectodomain. (jax.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • MTA2 is acetylated at lysine 152 within the BAH domain This gene encodes a protein that has been identified as a component of NuRD, a nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex identified in the nucleus of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • MTA2 was initially recognized as an MTA1 like 1 gene, named MTA1-L1, from a large scale sequencing of randomly selected clones from human cDNA libraries in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Antiapoptotic protein BCL2-associated athanogene 4 (BAG4/SODD) and adaptor proteins TRADD and TRAF2 have been shown to interact with this receptor, and thus play regulatory roles in the signal transduction mediated by the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF-1 has been shown to play roles in the immune response, regulating apoptosis, DNA damage and tumor suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF8 is a transcription factor that plays critical roles in the regulation of lineage commitment and in myeloid cell maturation including the decision for a common myeloid progenitor (CMP) to differentiate into a monocyte precursor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Such an intimate cellular relationship involves regulatory crosstalk between partners that allows the interaction to persist. (biologists.org)
  • Our data suggest that the FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction is an important target and disruption of this protein-protein interaction with a small molecule has a potential anti-neoplastic therapeutic effect. (ufl.edu)
  • Some recent studies have been conducted for computational prediction of new interactions based on the experimentally validated information stored in a HIV-1-human protein-protein interaction database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these techniques do not predict any regulatory mechanism between HIV-1 and human proteins by considering interaction types and direction of regulation of interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prediction of possible viral-host interactions is one of the major tasks in Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) research for antiviral drug discovery and treatment optimization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the DP (double-positive) stage, they are selected by their interaction with the cells within the thymus, begin the transcription of Foxp3, and become Treg cells, although they may not begin to express Foxp3 until the single-positive stage, at which point they are functional Tregs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also facilitates the interaction of SR proteins with RNA polymerase II and is required for processing of weak constitutive splice sites, having also strong implications in cancer and other human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • It has been shown that the extreme C-terminus of IRF-1 regulates its ability to activate transcription, nanobodies targeting this domain (MF1) are able to increase IRF-1 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to the founding family member MTA1, MTA2 functions as a chromatin remodeling factor and regulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • But as we could read in the article called "SON protein regulates GATA-2 through transcriptional control of the microRNA 23a-27-24-a clúster", SON protein has even more functions in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Early in development, neuroblasts switch through a temporal series of transcription factors modulating neuronal fate according to the time of birth. (biologists.org)
  • This protein is a neuronal-specific form of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • The Agobacterium tumefaciens Transcriptional Factor BlcR Is Regulated via Oligomerization. (indiana.edu)
  • It may represent one member of a small gene family that encode different but related proteins involved either directly or indirectly in transcriptional regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only the SON protein interferes in the splicing but also makes complex mechanisms such as the RNA post-transcriptional to cooperate with the splicing-mRNA processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • ROS causes major cellular damage including oxidizing membranes, denaturing proteins and damaging nucleic acids ( Lesser, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • The most commonly used group of adenoviruses is serotype 5 (Ad5), whose binding to host cells is initiated by interactions between the cellular coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), and the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein trimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • CoREST and NRSF combine with another cellular protein, histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC) to form a HDAC/CoREST/NRSF complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Regulation of preB cell colony-enhancing factor by STAT-3dependent interleukin-6 trans-signalingImplications in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. (docme.ru)
  • PBEF regulation by the IL-6- related cytokines, IL-6, sIL-6R, oncostatin M (OSM), IL-11, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. (docme.ru)
  • To maintain the pluripotency of the embryonic stem cells, transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers play an important role despite the fact that little is known about the regulation of pluripotency throughout the process of splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinases
  • They involve protein kinases mTORC1, activated by amino acid supplementation, and GCN2, activated by amino acid starvation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Their activation by phosphorylation is achieved by a signaling cascade of three serially linked protein kinases. (jneurosci.org)
  • nucleus
  • MTA2 protein localizes in the nucleus and is a component of the nucleosome remodeling and the deacetylation complex (NuRD). (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is present in the cytosol and only translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, where it becomes a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells transcription complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • During these early stages of infection, ICP0 protein is synthesized and transported to the nucleus of the infected host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • SON protein is essential for maintaining the subnuclear organization of the factors that are processed in the nucleus highlighting its direct role in pre-mRNA splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • I studied the effect of this compound on FAK-IGF-1R protein interactions, when administered alone or in combination with 5-FU or gemcitabine chemotherapy on cell signaling, viability and apoptosis in human melanoma (A375, C8161, SK-Mel28), esophageal (KYSE 70, 140) and pancreatic (Miapaca-2, Panc-1) cancer cells and on in vivo tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. (ufl.edu)
  • Discovering novel interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins would greatly contribute to different areas of HIV research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we present an association rule mining technique based on biclustering for discovering a set of rules among human and HIV-1 proteins using the publicly available HIV-1-human PPI database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These rules are subsequently utilized to predict some novel interactions among HIV-1 and human proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover the predicted rules have also been analyzed to discover regulatory relationship between some human proteins in course of HIV-1 infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have also highlighted some human proteins that are likely to act against the HIV-1 attack. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We pose the problem of identifying new regulatory interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins based on the existing PPI database as an association rule mining problem based on biclustering algorithm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We discover some novel regulatory interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human Herpes Virus (HHV) Infected Cell Polypeptide 0 (ICP0) is a protein, encoded by the DNA of herpes viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO-1) is a protein produced by human cells that is involved in the modification of many proteins, including human PML protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resting human cholangiocytes express PD-L1 mRNA, but not the protein, due to translational suppression by microRNA miR-513. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • Then, we progressed backwards up the signal transduction pathway and showed that the GTPase Rac1/Cdc42 and the protein Gα12 control the MAPK module, ATF2 phosphorylation, and AARE-dependent transcription. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • immune system
  • The regulatory T cells (Tregs /ˈtiːrɛɡ/), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • T regulatory cells are a component of the immune system that suppress immune responses of other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a 40kDa type 1 transmembrane protein that has been speculated to play a major role in suppressing the immune system during particular events such as pregnancy, tissue allografts, autoimmune disease and other disease states such as hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Comparison of the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP) gene of mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) and hamster SFPD strains of Chlamydia trachomatis with other Chlamydia strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • HspB1 was also detected as a surface membrane protein in some cancer cell types (Shin et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • One of the major factors thought to contribute to the chronic milieu is interleukin-6 (IL-6), exerting its effects through 2 membrane-bound receptors, namely, IL-6R and gp130 (2). (docme.ru)
  • intracellular
  • Potential factors for MDR includes enhanced drug detoxification, decreased drug uptake, increased intracellular nucleophiles levels, enhanced repair of drug induced DNA damage, overexpression of drug transporter such as P-glycoprotein(P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1, MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). (frontiersin.org)
  • In a mouse model of intracellular infection, L. monocytogenes induced PD-L1 protein expression in T cells, NK cells, and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • HSV-1 ICP0 and several of its homologs in other herpes viruses bind to SUMO-1 in a manner similar to endogenous proteins, causing depletion of SUMO-1, and disruption of nuclear bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulates
  • Recent studies in the developing central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila have identified a striking example of an expression sequence of transcription factors that modulates neural progenitor potential with time (reviewed by Pearson and Doe, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • Among the transcription factors, MYC represents a central hub, which modulates and integrates multiple mechanisms involved both in the maintenance of pluripotency and in cell reprogramming. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell Cycle
  • Among them, D-type G1 cyclins and a Cdk inhibitor, p27Kip1, function as the target of growth factors to integrate extracellular signals into cell cycle regulators. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For adenovirus replication to occur, the host cell must be induced into S phase by viral proteins interfering with cell cycle proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • SON is the name that has been given to a large Ser/Arg (SR)-related protein, which is a splicing co-factor that contributes to an efficient splicing within cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Although there is a lack of knowledge about its exact splicing control in the progression of the cell cycle and it has remained largely unexplored, it's certain that this splicing-associated protein is necessary for the maintenance of the embryonic stem cells because it influences the splicing of pluripotency regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusion
  • These molecules are fusion proteins that are made up of an antibody raised against the knob domain of the adenovirus coat protein, fused to a natural ligand for a cell-surface receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translocation breakpoint led to the loss of the controlling elements of the NFATc2 protein and the fusion of the N terminal region of the EWSR1 gene conferred constant activation of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we report that the expression of Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SphK1) protein was preferentially elevated in MPM tumor tissues (49 epithelioid and 13 sarcomatoid) compared to normal tissue (n = 13). (docplayer.net)
  • The expression of this gene is also found to be induced by tumor suppressor protein p53 in colon cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • In particular, the BTG2 protein has been shown to negatively control a cell cycle checkpoint at the G1 to S phase transition in fibroblasts and neuronal cells by direct inhibition of the activity of cyclin D1 promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • mrna
  • In addition, we also observed significantly elevated levels of SphK1 and SphK2 mrna and SphK1 protein expression in MPM cell lines such as H2691, H513 and H2461 compared to the non-malignant mesothelial Met5 cells. (docplayer.net)
  • Intron A may sometimes be included to improve mRNA stability and hence increase protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, these mRNA molecules are silenced, by one or more of the following processes: Cleavage of the mRNA strand into two pieces, Destabilization of the mRNA through shortening of its poly(A) tail, and Less efficient translation of the mRNA into proteins by ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolated the lin-4 gene, they found that instead of producing an mRNA encoding a protein, it produced short non-coding RNAs, one of which was a ~22-nucleotide RNA that contained sequences partially complementary to multiple sequences in the 3' UTR of the lin-14 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complementarity was proposed to inhibit the translation of the lin-14 mRNA into the LIN-14 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is involved in the trafficking of proteins to the plasma membrane and can be expressed on the cell surface as a receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The underlying cause of most RTT cases is mutations in the gene methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 ( MECP2 ). (pnas.org)
  • For example, p97 mutant proteins carrying single point mutations found in patients with IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia) (see below) have 2-3fold increase in ATPase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other S-100 proteins, the second EF-hand of protein p11 is incapable of binding calcium due to a series of mutations caused by deletions and substitutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells coordinate an immune response upon the detection of foreign proteins (antigens), producing antibodies that bind to these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • proapoptotic
  • Thus, it may carry out this function by disrupting mitochondrial morphology and releasing proapoptotic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in organs such as the heart, there may be additional regulatory mechanisms to suppress its proapoptotic function. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Moreover, UBE2T protein was shown to bind FANCL, the Fanconi anaemia core complex, and to be necessary for the efficient DNA damage-induced monoubiquitination of FANCD2, one of Fanconi anaemia core complex subunits ( 13 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factor is assembled through the dimerization of a characteristic bZIP domain (basic region leucine zipper) in the Fos and Jun subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The leucine zipper is responsible for dimerization of the Jun and Fos protein subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). (wikipedia.org)
  • ubiquitination
  • Interestingly, in vivo ubiquitination assay indicated BRCA1 to be polyubiquitinated by incubation with wild-type UBE2T protein, but not with C86A-UBE2T protein, an E2 activity-dead mutant, in which the 86th residue of cysteine was replaced with alanine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The addition of ubiquitin to a substrate protein is called ubiquitination or less frequently ubiquitylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Apoptosis or programmed cell death is associated with liver injury caused by ConA [ 15 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Cornforth earned his BS in Chemistry and PhD from the University of California at Irvine where he studied cell signaling in prostate cancer apoptosis. (tcr2.com)
  • p16 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray composed of 123 oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers with a mean patient follow-up time of 33 months. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cohort was assembled from patients with either primary or recurrent oropharyngeal cancer of squamous cell histology treated at Yale-New Haven hospital between 1980 and 1999. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unregulated expression of this protein activates other proteins that are involved in cell cycle and cell division which can cause a cell to grow and divide uncontrollably (the cell becomes cancerous). (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein BTG2 also known as BTG family member 2 or NGF-inducible anti-proliferative protein PC3 or NGF-inducible protein TIS21, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTG2 gene (B-cell translocation gene 2) and in other mammals by the homologous Btg2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • P11's involvement with the cytoskeleton may aid the transport of other proteins throughout the cell and to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the transported proteins are cell surface receptors in signal transduction pathways and ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • alanine
  • The features of hepatitis are the release of inflammatory cytokines, the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. (hindawi.com)
  • phosphatase
  • Calcineurin (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase). (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • This unique structure design prevents random encounter between proteolytic active sites and protein substrate, which makes protein degradation a well-regulated process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this sequential cascade is to bind ubiquitin to lysine residues on the protein substrate via an isopeptide bond, cysteine residues through a thioester bond, serine and threonine residues through an ester bond, or the amino group of the protein's N-terminus via a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heat-stable polypeptide present in these extracts, ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was found to become covalently attached to the model protein substrate lysozyme in an ATP- and Mg2+-dependent process. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it can be stimulated by heat or by a putative substrate protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Thus, palmitate not only decreases adiponectin expression at the level of transcription but may also stimulate lysosomal degradation of newly synthesized adiponectin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, AGAF was examined for the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and related protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. (hindawi.com)
  • In multivariate analysis, p16 expression status remained an independent prognostic factor for local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription is deeply involved in the modulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, PAX3 protein expression and function can be modulated by post-translational modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike
  • Unlike proteins and RNA, DNA usually lacks tertiary structure and therefore damage or disturbance does not occur at that level. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine-threonine
  • The first ubiquitin molecule is covalently bound through its C-terminal carboxylate group to a particular lysine, cysteine, serine, threonine or N-terminus of the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Since its discovery, AP-1 has been found to be associated with numerous regulatory and physiological processes, and new relationships are still investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • When normal repair processes fail, and when cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur, including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand crosslinks or ICLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Stat5a protein was further quantified in four archival cohorts totaling 686 patients with clinical outcome data by using multivariate models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • progression
  • Stat5a and Stat5b protein levels were quantified in situ in breast-cancer progression material. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current data support the concept of dual roles of Stat5a/b proteins as promoters of mammary tumorigenesis, and as suppressors of the progression of established breast cancer [ 11 , 12 ], although our knowledge of individual roles of Stat5a and Stat5b in breast cancer remains rudimentary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • eukaryotes
  • DNA is, however, supercoiled and wound around "packaging" proteins called histones (in eukaryotes), and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • half of the protein
  • A structural feature common to all IAP family proteins is that they all contain at least one baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain characterized by a conserved zinc-coordinating Cys/His motif at the N-terminal half of the protein. (wikipedia.org)