• 2001
  • Apweiler R, Attwood TK, Bairoch A et al (2001) The InterPro database, an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites. (springer.com)
  • particles
  • Although Gag was previously thought to localize exclusively to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane where particles are released, we found that the Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus, an alpharetrovirus, undergoes transient nuclear trafficking. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteins assembled on the snoRNA after injection into Xenopus oocyte nuclei were identified by cross‐linking, and reconstituted particles characterized by functional rescue and mutational analyses. (embopress.org)
  • inhibits
  • Consideration of the novel ones suggests many aspects of NFAT5 regulation, interaction and function that were not previously appreciated, for example, hypertonicity inhibits NFAT5 by sumoylating it and the NFAT5 protein preys include components of the CHTOP complex that desumoylate proteins, an action that should contribute to activation of NFAT5. (physiology.org)
  • ribosome biogenesis
  • Similarly, the events of rDNA processing and ribosome biogenesis predominantly occur within the nucleolus ( Lamond and Earnshaw, 1998 ). (embopress.org)
  • PRMT5 is highly conserved among yeast, animals, and higher plants, and is implicated in diverse cellular and biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, RNA metabolism ( 1 , 2 ), ribosome biogenesis ( 3 ), Golgi apparatus structure maintenance ( 4 ), and cell cycle regulation ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Subsequently, as more eukaryotes genomes were sequenced, it became clear that eukaryotes, in general, share homologs to the same set of seven Sm and eight LSm proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein-coding genes in humans have unequalled coding potential among all eukaryotes. (le.ac.uk)
  • Protein arginine methylation, one of the most abundant and important posttranslational modifications, is involved in a multitude of biological processes in eukaryotes, such as transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. (pnas.org)
  • Approximately 113 of these families or individual proteins showed clear homology with WDR proteins from the other eukaryotes analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show that most Arabidopsis WDR proteins are strongly conserved across eukaryotes, including those that have been found to play key roles in plant-specific processes, with diversity in function conferred at least in part by divergence in upstream signaling pathways, downstream regulatory targets and /or structure outside of the WDR regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene
  • Methylosome subunit pICln is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLNS1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Sm-like protein HF-I encoded by the gene hfq was described in 1968 as an essential host factor for RNA bacteriophage Qβ replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is no longer a surprise that improper splicing of protein-coding gene transcripts is the underlying cause of 20% of genetic diseases. (le.ac.uk)
  • Mutations in the SMN1 gene, which encodes the protein survival motor neuron (SMN), are responsible for the disease. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are effectors and regulators of posttranscriptional gene regulation (PTGR). (springer.com)
  • Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, protein 61K is encoded by a gene ( PRPF31 ) that has been shown to be linked to autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. (embopress.org)
  • cellular
  • In molecular biology, LSm proteins are a family of RNA-binding proteins found in virtually every cellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show fibrillarin domain conservation, structure and interacting molecules in different cellular processes as well as with several viral proteins during virus infection. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Despite its abundant use as a household protein, little is known about its exact cellular localization and dynamics. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Furthermore, it is well established that PTB recruitment in internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activates the translation of picornaviral and cellular proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The WD motif (also known as the Trp-Asp or WD40 motif) is found in a multitude of eukaryotic proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Where conservation was found, it often extended across all of these organisms, suggesting that many of these proteins are linked to basic cellular mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The so-called WD-repeat (WDR) proteins comprise an astonishingly diverse superfamily of regulatory proteins, representing the breadth of biochemical mechanisms and cellular processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WDR proteins are intimately involved in a variety of cellular and organismal processes, including cell division and cytokinesis, apoptosis, light signaling and vision, cell motility, flowering, floral development, and meristem organization, to name a few. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fibrillarin
  • Fibrillarin is an essential protein that is well known as a molecular marker of transcriptionally active RNA polymerase I. Fibrillarin methyltransferase activity is the primary known source of methylation for more than 100 methylated sites involved in the first steps of preribosomal processing and required for structural ribosome stability. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We previously showed that SMN relocated to damaged interphase centromeres, together with the Cajal-body-associated proteins coilin and fibrillarin, during the so-called interphase centromere damage response (iCDR). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • genomic
  • The full-length viral RNA can be used for the translation of the Gag and Gag-Pol structural proteins or as the genomic RNA (gRNA) for encapsidation into new virions by the Gag protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • complex
  • The spliceosome is a large, protein-RNA complex that consists of five small nuclear RNAs (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) and over 150 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, U2 snRNP is recruited to the spliceosome binding site and forms complex A. U2 snRNP changes the conformation of the hnRNA-snRNP complex, exposing the nucleotide favorably for splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smith antigen was found to be a complex of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that, in yeast, the nuclear accumulation of Lsm proteins depends on complex formation and that the Lsm8p subunit plays a crucial role. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to sequential structural rearrangements catalyzed by ATP-dependent DExH/D-box RNA helicases, catalytic activation of the spliceosome is critically dependent on its association with the NineTeen Complex (NTC) named after its core E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit PRP19. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, splicing results in a complex of proteins known as the exon junction complex (EJC) being assembled 20-24 nucleotides upstream of the exon-exon boundary. (embopress.org)
  • Some of these RNA binding proteins, such as hrp36 and hrp84, are associated with the RNA from transcription through to translation at the polysome, whereas others, such as hrp23 and hrp45, dissociate from the mRNP coincident with export through the nuclear pore complex. (embopress.org)
  • SMN associates with more than eight other proteins to form an RNA-binding complex involved in assembly of the spliceosome. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • This complex associates in turn with U5 snRNP to yield the U4/U6·U5 tri‐snRNP. (embopress.org)
  • Several antigens including Ro, small nuclear ribonuclear protein (snRNP), and Smith complex relocalized from their normal nuclear address to the cell surface membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PRMT5
  • PRMT5 is a type II protein arginine methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of monomethylarginine and symmetric ω- N G , N ′ G -dimethylarginine (SDMA) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • AtPRMT5, an Arabidopsis homolog of human PRMT5, was defined as a type II enzyme for its ability to symmetrically dimethylate histone H4, H2A, and myelin basic protein in vitro ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • splice
  • The initial step of splicing is the bonding of the U1 snRNP and its associated proteins to the 5' splice end to the hnRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The boundaries between exons and introns (splice sites, SS) are demarcated by the binding of U1 snRNP at the 5'SS and U2 snRNP at the 3'SS. (le.ac.uk)
  • yeast
  • The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's Yeast) was sequenced in the mid-1990s, providing a rich resource for identifying homologs of these human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the three paralogous yeast Lsm proteins, Lsm8p, Lsm2p and Lsm4p, also contain basic C-termini, they might form a nuclear-localization signal in a similar fashion. (biologists.org)
  • We analyzed the predicted complement of WDR proteins from Arabidopsis, and compared this to those from budding yeast, fruit fly and human to illustrate both conservation and divergence in structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • locus
  • Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, splicing defects at the flowering regulator FLOWERING LOCUS KH DOMAIN ( FLK ) in atprmt5 mutants reduce its functional transcript and protein levels, resulting in the up-regulation of a flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC ) and consequently late flowering. (pnas.org)
  • novel
  • However, genome databases now contain predicted sequences for a large number of potentially novel proteins that have yet to be studied in any way, let alone have their subcellular localization determined. (embopress.org)
  • Here we ask whether using bioinformatics tools to analyse the sequence of proteins whose subnuclear localizations have been determined can reveal characteristics or signatures that might allow us to predict localization for novel protein sequences. (embopress.org)
  • Here we use a variety of web‐based bioinformatics tools to address the question of whether the sequence characteristics of almost 400 human/mouse proteins known to concentrate in different nuclear compartments might allow us to predict potential localization for novel protein sequences in databases. (embopress.org)
  • Aravin A, Gaidatzis D, Pfeffer S et al (2006) A novel class of small RNAs bind to MILI protein in mouse testes. (springer.com)
  • The protein preys include many that were previously known, but also many novel ones. (physiology.org)
  • transcriptional
  • These proteins have been found to play key roles in such disparate mechanisms as signal transduction, cytoskeletal dynamics, protein trafficking, nuclear export, and RNA processing, and are especially prevalent in chromatin modification and transcriptional mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations
  • Amir RE, Van den Veyver IB, Wan M et al (1999) Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. (springer.com)
  • Thus, our studies suggest that disruptions in tri‐snRNP formation and function resulting from mutations in the 61K protein may contribute to the manifestation of this disease. (embopress.org)
  • subnuclear
  • When the nuclear export signal of RSV Gag is mutated (Gag.L219A), the protein accumulates in discrete subnuclear foci reminiscent of nuclear bodies such as splicing speckles, paraspeckles, and PML bodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • abundance
  • Although it is known that both GI transcript and GI protein are clock controlled, the regulation of its abundance and functions at the molecular level are still some of the unexplored areas of intensive research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experiments aimed at understanding the abundance of the transcript and the protein are typically carried out in controlled cabinets, where the subjective time of the diurnal cycle are referred as the Zeitgeber time (ZT). (frontiersin.org)
  • highly conserved
  • This review will address the potential role played by death-specific modifications of autoantigens in bypassing tolerance to highly conserved autoantigens, including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antigens
  • The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called Anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a debilitating autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • Cancer cells produce protein isoforms favourable for cell survival and invasion. (le.ac.uk)
  • motifs
  • Repositioning the guide sequence of U25 upstream of box D instead of D′ revealed that both C/D motifs have the potential to function as guide centers, but, surprisingly, there was no alteration in protein cross‐linking. (embopress.org)
  • interact
  • SMN belongs to the Tudor domain protein family, whose members are known to interact with methylated arginine (R) or lysine (K) residues. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Accordingly, PTB can interact with selected RNA targets, structural elements and proteins. (mdpi.com)