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  • snRNAs
  • The Sm proteins bind to the conserved Sm-binding site (Sm, consensus RAUU U / G UUGR) of Pol-II-specific spliceosomal snRNAs. (biologists.org)
  • These are small RNA molecules that play an essential role in RNA biogenesis and guide chemical modifications of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and other RNA genes (tRNA and snRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lsm-class snRNAs contain a 5'-γ-monomethylphosphate cap and a 3' stem-loop, terminating in a stretch of uridines that form the binding site for a distinct heteroheptameric ring of Lsm proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four of these snRNAs (U1, U2, U4 and U5) were found to be tightly bound to several small proteins, which were named SmB, SmD, SmE, SmF, and SmG in decreasing order of size. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • For example, in Chironomus tentans Balbiani ring mRNA export, the mRNP is formed cotranscriptionally as multiple different RNA binding proteins assemble on the elongating transcript ( Daneholt, 2001 ). (embopress.org)
  • gene
  • Methylosome subunit pICln is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLNS1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Sm-like protein HF-I encoded by the gene hfq was described in 1968 as an essential host factor for RNA bacteriophage Qβ replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is no longer a surprise that improper splicing of protein-coding gene transcripts is the underlying cause of 20% of genetic diseases. (le.ac.uk)
  • There is a second gene that also plays a role in producing the SMN protein-namely, SMN2 , often called the SMA "backup gene. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in the SMN1 gene, which encodes the protein survival motor neuron (SMN), are responsible for the disease. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • CLC proteins form a gene family that comprises nine members in mammals, at least four of which are involved in human genetic diseases. (hmdb.ca)
  • specific proteins
  • DM arises from the expansion of two similar non-coding microsatellites in the DMPK and CNBP genes which have been proposed to cause disease through a common mechanism, a toxic RNA gain-of-function which can either inhibit or activate specific proteins. (ufl.edu)
  • fibrillarin
  • Fibrillarin is an essential protein that is well known as a molecular marker of transcriptionally active RNA polymerase I. Fibrillarin methyltransferase activity is the primary known source of methylation for more than 100 methylated sites involved in the first steps of preribosomal processing and required for structural ribosome stability. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We previously showed that SMN relocated to damaged interphase centromeres, together with the Cajal-body-associated proteins coilin and fibrillarin, during the so-called interphase centromere damage response (iCDR). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • distinct
  • Mbnl3 expression patterns, particularly in tissues affected in CDM including skeletal muscle and lung, as well as the cellular localization of Mbnl3 protein isoforms, suggest a function that is distinct from other Mbnl family members. (ufl.edu)
  • Splicing
  • Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial step of splicing is the bonding of the U1 snRNP and its associated proteins to the 5' splice end to the hnRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on which LSm proteins and RNA molecule are involved, this ribonucleoprotein complex facilitates a wide variety of RNA processing including degradation, editing, splicing, and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, splicing results in a complex of proteins known as the exon junction complex (EJC) being assembled 20-24 nucleotides upstream of the exon-exon boundary. (embopress.org)
  • When the nuclear export signal of RSV Gag is mutated (Gag.L219A), the protein accumulates in discrete subnuclear foci reminiscent of nuclear bodies such as splicing speckles, paraspeckles, and PML bodies. (frontiersin.org)
  • interactions
  • Frilander MJ, Steitz JA (1999) Initial recognition of U12-dependent introns requires both U11/5′ splice-site and U12/branchpoint interactions. (springer.com)
  • One of these candidates, the muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of proteins encoded by three genes, MBNL1, MBNL2, and MBNL3, are sequestered into discrete nuclear foci by RNA repeat expansions, preventing interactions with endogenous RNA targets and compromising their activity. (ufl.edu)
  • Lamond
  • Similarly, the events of rDNA processing and ribosome biogenesis predominantly occur within the nucleolus ( Lamond and Earnshaw, 1998 ). (embopress.org)
  • localization
  • Despite its abundant use as a household protein, little is known about its exact cellular localization and dynamics. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Here we ask whether using bioinformatics tools to analyse the sequence of proteins whose subnuclear localizations have been determined can reveal characteristics or signatures that might allow us to predict localization for novel protein sequences. (embopress.org)
  • recombinant
  • The analysis of PM/Scl-75 cleavage by recombinant caspase proteins shows that PM/Scl-75 is efficiently cleaved by caspase-1, to a smaller extent by caspase-8, and relatively inefficiently by caspase-3 and caspase-7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1997
  • PhD: Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, 1997-1999. (le.ac.uk)
  • Feng D-F, Cho G, Doolittle RF (1997) Determining divergence times with a protein clock: Update and re-evaluation. (springer.com)
  • eukaryotes
  • Subsequently, as more eukaryotes genomes were sequenced, it became clear that eukaryotes, in general, share homologs to the same set of seven Sm and eight LSm proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein-coding genes in humans have unequalled coding potential among all eukaryotes. (le.ac.uk)
  • molecules
  • The smith antigen was found to be a complex of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In total, the reaction requires the assembly of 5 small RNA molecules and about 200 proteins. (le.ac.uk)
  • regulation
  • Although it is known that both GI transcript and GI protein are clock controlled, the regulation of its abundance and functions at the molecular level are still some of the unexplored areas of intensive research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both the GI transcript and GI protein are under the control of diurnal regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • cerevisiae
  • The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's Yeast) was sequenced in the mid-1990s, providing a rich resource for identifying homologs of these human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight Lsm proteins have been identified in S. cerevisiae . (biologists.org)
  • Gunjan A, Verreault A. A Rad53 kinase-dependent surveillance mechanism that regulates histone protein levels in S. cerevisiae. (springer.com)
  • form
  • The Sm proteins were first discovered as antigens targeted by so-called Anti-Sm antibodies in a patient with a form of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a debilitating autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion. (hmdb.ca)
  • ubiquitously expressed
  • This protein is ubiquitously expressed in all cells, and the reason why the motor neurons are primarily affected in the disease is widely debated. (le.ac.uk)
  • Cyclophilin B (CypB) is an ubiquitously expressed protein, which performs several intra- and extracellular functions. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Molecular
  • The most fundamental characteristics of primary protein sequence are size (molecular weight, MW) and isoelectric point (pI). (embopress.org)
  • human
  • A comparison of snRNP-associated Sm-autoantigens: human N, rat N and human B/B'". Nucleic Acids Res. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PM/Scl autoantigen is the human homologue of the yeast exosome, which consists of at least nine core proteins, all displaying exoribonuclease characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • known
  • SMN belongs to the Tudor domain protein family, whose members are known to interact with methylated arginine (R) or lysine (K) residues. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • sequences
  • Binding of Sm proteins is a prerequisite for hypermethylation of the 7mG cap to 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) by the Tgs1 methyltransferase, as well as for exonucleolytic removal of the 3′ trailer sequences. (biologists.org)
  • inhibits
  • Consideration of the novel ones suggests many aspects of NFAT5 regulation, interaction and function that were not previously appreciated, for example, hypertonicity inhibits NFAT5 by sumoylating it and the NFAT5 protein preys include components of the CHTOP complex that desumoylate proteins, an action that should contribute to activation of NFAT5. (physiology.org)
  • Immunodepletion of protein 61K from HeLa nuclear extracts inhibits tri‐snRNP formation and subsequent spliceosome assembly and pre‐mRNA splicing. (embopress.org)
  • mRNAs
  • Burge CB, Tuschl T, Sharp PA (1999) Splicing of precursors to mRNAs by the spliceosomes. (springer.com)
  • Cap addition requires three enzymatic activities - an RNA triphosphatase, a guanyltransferase, and an m 7 guanine methyltransferase - that are present in two proteins that make up the enzymatic components of the human capping enzyme [ 13 ] that HIV usurps to cap its own mRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the absence of this quality control, spurious transcripts and misprocessed mRNAs would be exported to the cytoplasm and then translated into toxic proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genome-length retroviral transcript may be spliced to create subgenomic mRNAs, which are exported from the nucleus to synthesize other viral proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • To explore the functions of these alphaCP/mRNA interactions, we identified mRNAs whose levels are altered in K562 cells acutely depleted of the two major alphaCP proteins, alphaCP1 and alphaCP2. (genes2cognition.org)
  • humans
  • Magmas forms a stable subcomplex with J-protein Pam18 or DnaJC19 through its C-terminal region and is tethered to TIM23 complex of yeast and humans. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Methylosome subunit pICln is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLNS1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • snRNA are often divided into two classes based upon both common sequence features as well as associated protein factors such as the RNA-binding LSm proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Transcription factors often contain unstructured regions that bind co-regulatory proteins that are crucial for their function. (physiology.org)
  • Gene
  • Interestingly, protein 61K is encoded by a gene ( PRPF31 ) that has been shown to be linked to autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. (embopress.org)
  • In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Sm-like protein HF-I encoded by the gene hfq was described in 1968 as an essential host factor for RNA bacteriophage Qβ replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • In this report, we have showed that human Magmas is an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pam16 having similar functions and is critical for protein translocation across mitochondrial inner membrane. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Importantly, amino acid alterations in Magmas leads to reduced stability of the subcomplex with Pam18 that results in temperature sensitivity and in vivo protein translocation defects in yeast cells. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The OM-embedded C-terminal secretin domain likely provides an aperture for DNA and protein translocation through the OM, connecting the periplasm to the extracellular environment. (elifesciences.org)
  • characteristic
  • LSm proteins are defined by a characteristic three-dimensional structure and their assembly into rings of six or seven individual LSm protein molecules, and play a large number of various roles in mRNA processing and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • Alternatively, the full-length RNA may remain unspliced with two potential outcomes: it may serve as the mRNA template for the translation of the Gag and Gag-Pol structural proteins or it may be bound by the Gag protein for packaging into new virions as the gRNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • transcript
  • Although it is known that both GI transcript and GI protein are clock controlled, the regulation of its abundance and functions at the molecular level are still some of the unexplored areas of intensive research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experiments aimed at understanding the abundance of the transcript and the protein are typically carried out in controlled cabinets, where the subjective time of the diurnal cycle are referred as the Zeitgeber time (ZT). (frontiersin.org)
  • Both the GI transcript and GI protein are under the control of diurnal regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • encodes
  • Encodes a protein similar to animal presenilin whose expression is increased in response to potassium (K+) deprivation. (gifu-u.ac.jp)