• interacts
  • The highly selective deficits observed in Gpr107 -null cells indicate that GPR107 interacts directly or indirectly with a limited subset of surface receptors. (biologists.org)
  • However, when Iron interacts at the IRE, it causes the mRNA to change its shape, thus favoring the binding of the eIFF4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand bound
  • In this pathway, ligand-bound receptors on the cell surface are entrapped by deformation of plasma membrane domains into coated pits that invaginate, detach from the plasma membrane and undergo a complex, still poorly understood, sorting process ( Pucadyil and Schmid, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • endocytic compartments
  • GPI-GFP does not accumulate within endocytic compartments containing transferrin, although it is detected in intracellular structures which are endosomes by the criteria of accessibility to a fluid phase marker and to cholera and shiga toxin B subunits (CTxB and STxB, which are also found in rafts). (rupress.org)
  • antibody
  • The method comprises administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent conjugate wherein the antibody is reactive with a transferrin receptor. (google.com)
  • Other aspects of this invention include a delivery system comprising an antibody reactive with a transferrin receptor linked to a neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent and methods for treating hosts afflicted with a disease associated with a neurological disorder. (google.com)
  • The specific nature of the antibody-antigen interaction is analogous to a lock and key fit in that the antigen will only bind to the antibody if it has the correct conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartments
  • Intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis that replicate in membrane bound compartments hijack the trafficking machinery recruiting Rab GTPases to promote their replication within the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane-bound
  • HCV entry into hepatocytes is a complex process that requires the coordinated interaction of viral and host factors for the initiation of infection, including CD81, scavenger receptor BI, claudin-1, occludin, membrane-bound host cell kinases, Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRas), CD63 and transferrin receptor 1. (mdpi.com)
  • coated pits
  • Unlike most enveloped viruses which use clathrin coated pits for cellular entry and bind to their receptors in a pH dependent fashion, Lassa and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus instead use an endocytotic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolin, dynamin and actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In contrast, Beta-1 adrenergic receptors are coupled only to Gs, and stimulation of these results in a more diffuse cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Non proliferating cells have a very low or absent expression of the receptor. (ifcc.org)
  • It has been suggested that the coupling between cell proliferation and expression of the transferrin receptor is mediated by the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. (ifcc.org)
  • Besides vividly proliferating cells a high expression of the transferrin receptor is found on immature erythrocytes, placental syncytiothrophoblasts and in the liver (Iacopetta et al 1982, Loh et al 1980). (ifcc.org)
  • interaction
  • Binding capacity appears to be retained after proteolysis because of a cooperative interaction between the two proteolyzed fragments, that together maintain an active IGF-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • At the cell surface, the p25SS mutant segregates away from both the transferrin receptor and markers of lipid rafts, which are enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. (biologists.org)
  • molecules
  • In particular, the receptor is expressed, 10 000 to 100 000 molecules per cell, on the surface of proliferating cells (Gatter et al 1983, Chitambar et al 1983). (ifcc.org)
  • Disease-causing bacteria do this in many ways, including releasing iron-binding molecules called siderophores and then reabsorbing them to recover iron, or scavenging iron from hemoglobin and transferrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding events result in a physicochemical change that in combination with a tracer, such as a fluorescent molecules, enzymes, or radioisotopes, can generate a signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • It is required for the transfer of internalized transferrin from the recycling compartment to the plasma membrane for which active Rab11b as well as GTP hydrolysis is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Transferrin plays a key role in areas where erythropoiesis and active cell division occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • TfR binds iron-loaded (diferric) Tf at the cell surface and carries it to the endosome, where the iron dissociates from Tf. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The apo-Tf remains bound to TfR until it reaches the cell surface, where apo-Tf is replaced by diferric Tf from the serum to begin the cycle again. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phagocytosis is the process by which cells bind and internalize particulate matter larger than around 0.75 µm in diameter, such as small-sized dust particles, cell debris, micro-organisms and apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are principally sorting organelles where many endocytosed ligands dissociate from their receptors in the acid pH of the compartment, and from which many of the receptors recycle to the cell surface (via tubules). (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Tfr1 is highly expressed on differentiating erythrocytes, reflecting their substantial iron requirement to support hemoglobin synthesis ( Ponka and Lok, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • cells
  • Almost all animal cells express the transferrin receptor, with the exception of terminally differentiated cells such as mature erythrocytes. (ifcc.org)
  • The receptor helps maintain iron homeostasis in the cells by controlling iron concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • After his mandatory retirement in 1999, Borst became a staff member of the NKI-AVL and continued running his lab, studying mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in cancer cells, the physiological functions of drug transporters and the biosynthesis and function of DNA Base J, a new base in DNA, discovered in trypanosomes in the Borst lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • As rapidly dividing cells have an increased demand for iron, the levels of transferrin receptors found on these cancerous cells are greatly increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor increase on cancerous cells has been document as two to twelve times that of healthy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In muscles cells, iron binds myoglobin, which regulates its release. (wikipedia.org)
  • This binding allows cells to benefit from iron while also limiting its ability to do harm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-2 adrenergic receptors have also been found to couple with Gi, possibly providing a mechanism by which response to ligand is highly localized within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemoglobin
  • Oxygen is transported from the lungs to the rest of the body bound to the heme group of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • iron
  • Although iron bound to transferrin is less than 0.1% (4 mg) of total body iron, it forms the most vital iron pool with the highest rate of turnover (25 mg/24 h). (wikipedia.org)
  • The N- and C- terminal sequences are represented by globular lobes and between the two lobes is an iron-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the iron ion to bind, an anion is required, preferably carbonate (CO2− 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • It enables ligand bonding to the transferrin, as each monomer can bind to one or two atoms of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a process called iron withholding. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, In high iron conditions in humans, IRP1 binds with an iron-sulphur complex [4Fe-4S] and adopts an aconitase conformation unsuitable for IRE binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of iron IRP binds about 10 times more avidly than the initiation factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, total iron binding capacity may be low, but can also be normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The recognition component, often called a bioreceptor, uses biomolecules from organisms or receptors modeled after biological systems to interact with the analyte of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Human transferrin is encoded by the TF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio has sometimes been used as an index of IGF bioavailability in the human circulation, but this ignores IGF-1 binding to other IGFBPs (so the ratio is affected by the concentrations of all six IGFBPs), and the fact that IGF-2, which is three times more abundant than IGF-1 in the bloodstream of adults, occupies the majority of binding sites on circulating IGFBP-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • megalin
  • This report shows that deletion of Gpr107 leads to an embryonic lethal phenotype that is characterized by a reduction in cubilin transcript abundance and a decrease in the representation of multiple genes implicated in the cubilin-megalin endocytic receptor complex (megalin is also known as LRP2). (biologists.org)