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  • bone marrow
  • After the germinal center reaction the memory plasma cells are located in the bone marrow which is the main site of antibody production within the immunological memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow is a major site of long-term antibody production after acute viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoid hematopoiesis is not trivial, because although lymphocytes are found in the bloodstream and their precursor originates in the bone marrow, they mainly belong to the separate lymphatic system, which interacts with the blood circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • Without normal expression of XBP1, two important plasma cell differentiation-related genes, IRF4 and Blimp1, are misregulated, and XBP1-lacking plasma cells fail to colonize their long-lived niches in the bone marrow and to sustain antibody secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • During immune activation, TIRC7 is co-localized with the T cell receptor and CTLA4 within the immune synapse of human T cells At the protein and mRNA level, its expression is induced in lymphocytes in synovial tissues obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or during rejection of solid organ transplants and bone marrow transplantation as well as in brain tissues obtained from patients with multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal
  • Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search for heterologous antisera against mouse leukemia cells, and was demonstrated by them to be present on murine thymocytes, on T lymphocytes, and on neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • There have been some reports of Thy1 monoclonal antibodies cross reacting with some cytoskeletal elements: anti Thy-1.2 with actin in marsupial, murine, and human cells and anti Thy-1.1 with vimentin, and were suggested to be due to sequence homology by studies done more than 20 years back. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Lymphocytes belong to the lymphoid lineage and are considered as divergent from other blood cells lineages as those from the myeloid or erythroid lineage. (intechopen.com)
  • the common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) can differentiate into all types of lymphocytes but lack the myeloid potential under physiological conditions, although some myeloid-related genes can be detected in CLPs depending on experimental conditions [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • soluble
  • Lower level of BAFF transcripts (or a higher level of soluble BAFF) show a higher risk of producing donor-specific antibodies in the investigated patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most are soluble intracellular proteins, but a subset associate with membranes via a membrane-targeting posttranslational modification, such as an N-terminal myristoyl group, and can act as the catalytic subunit for receptors that lack their own catalytic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, triggering the HLA-DR-TIRC7 pathway in lipopolysaccaride (LPS) activated lymphocytes using soluble HLA-DRα2 leads to inhibition of proinflammatory as well as inflammatory cytokines and induction of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • Patients were treated with escalating doses of gemcitabine given i.v. over 30 minutes on day 1 and 3 after the infusion of the yttrium-90-labeled antibody. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human antichimeric antibody responses were the primary reason for stopping treatment in 12 patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Wells TJ, Davison J, Sheehan E, Kanagasundaram S, Spickett G, MacLennan CA, Stockley RA, Cunningham AF, Henderson IR, De Soyza A. The Use of Plasmapheresis in Patients with Bronchiectasis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection and Inhibitory Antibodies . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • While most patients with HIV show an antibody response after six weeks, window periods vary and may occasionally be as long as three months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene-transfected CIK cells were first applied in 1999 for the treatment of ten patients in metastatic state of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytomegalovirus
  • Neutralizing antibodies were isolated against SARS, cytomegalovirus, avian influenza and dengue virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unusually potent antibodies that neutralize human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were isolated and their epitopes mapped to a pentameric glycoprotein complex, which is currently tested as a candidate vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In addition to the formed antibodies in the body there remains a small number of memory T and B cells that make up the cellular component of the immunological memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory B cells are plasma cells that are able to produce antibodies for a long time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The white pulp of the spleen contains germinal centers, with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages that help coordinate the immune response and play roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. (medscape.com)
  • In particular, many intermediates between established subsets have been reported, for example Th1/Th17 cells expressing both IFNγ (interferon‐gamma) and IL (interleukin)‐17. (els.net)
  • If undiagnosed or left untreated, HIV usually progresses to AIDS, defined as possessing a CD4+ lymphocyte count under 200 cells/μl or HIV infection plus co-infection with an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human monoclonal antibodies and vaccine design: Taking advantage of his studies on human memory B cells (16), Lanazvecchia developed novel and robust methods to immortalize human memory B cells and to preserve single plasma cells in culture (17, 18). (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein can bind to cells derived from T- and B-lymphocytes, and may regulate cyclosporine A-mediated immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, CIK cells have the ability to recognize infected or even malignant cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a fast and unbiased immune reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is of particular importance as harmful cells that are missing MHC markers cannot be tracked and attacked by other immune cells, such as T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others propose to classify CIK cells as subset of NKT cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that lymphocytes, when exposed to interferon-gamma, anti-CD3 antibody, interleukin-1 and interleukin 2, are capable of lysing fresh, non-cultured cancer cells, both primary and metastatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracted cells are ex-vivo exposed to interferon-gamma, anti-CD3 antibody, interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 in a time-sensitive schedule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon lymphocyte activation TIRC7 is upregulated to engage HLA-DRα2 and induce apoptotic signals in human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and natural killer cells, express B cell receptors (BCRs) on their cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three B cell subsets, FO B cells preferentially undergo T cell-dependent activation while MZ B cells and B1 B cells preferentially undergo T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccination
  • From a cohort of 656 singleton births formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999-2001, children were invited for examination with assessment of serum antibody concentrations at 5 years (before and after a booster vaccination) and at 7 years of age. (nih.gov)
  • At age 5 years, before the booster vaccination, the antidiphtheria antibody concentration was inversely associated with PCB concentrations in milk and 18-month serum. (nih.gov)
  • gene
  • Their analysis probed gene expression of human B and T lymphocytes during cellular activation and/or stimulation with cytokines, a type of signaling regulatory molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • He also co-authored a series of papers which utilized human plasmablasts after immunization to define the human immune response to influenza vaccine and generated human monoclonal antibodies from the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most striking examples are antibodies with exceptional breadth, being able to neutralize all influenza A viruses and even four different paramyxoviruses (18,19). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • These studies led to a single cell FACS-sorting based technology for the generation of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial models of highly stable T‐cell subsets were useful but underestimated diversity. (els.net)
  • Detailed protocols are now available that can be used to label lymphocytes (and other cell types) with a high degree of reliability and precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-mediated autoimmunity in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with anti-Hu antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Many of the activated genes in stimulated T lymphocytes were known to be involved in the G0/G1 cell cycle transition or encoding for chemokines, signaling molecules involved in inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • XBP1 in turn controls the expression of IL-6 which promotes plasma cell growth and of immunoglobulins in B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two isoforms are: long isoform a, also named OC116 short isoform b, also named TIRC7 (N-terminus truncated, lacks amino acid residues 1-216 of the long isoform) TIRC7 is expressed in T lymphocytes and is essential for normal T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant induced memory cell subset and reduction of CTLA4 expression observed in TIRC7 knock out mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependence
  • The main objective was to assess the possible dependence of antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in children with regard to prenatal and postnatal PCB exposures. (nih.gov)
  • genes
  • The expression of this protein is required for the transcription of a subset of class II major histocompatibility genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • The strongest associations suggested a decrease in the antibody concentration by about 20% for each doubling in PCB exposure. (nih.gov)
  • response
  • Feasibility of combining gemcitabine with an yttrium-90-labeled anti-CEA antibody is shown with preliminary evidence of clinical response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Childhood
  • In this study we applied serum concentrations of specific antibodies against childhood vaccines as sentinels of immunotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • genomic
  • s 1999 article was another to reveal the importance of applying genomic technologies to immunological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • protective
  • At age 5 years, the odds of an antidiphtheria antibody concentration below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/L increased by about 30% for a doubling in PCB in milk and 18-month serum. (nih.gov)
  • clinical
  • Moreover, there are two antigenic epitopes (CypB84-92 and CypB91-99) recognized by HLA-A24-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes which could be used as cancer vaccines, and in fact, were used to treat lung cancer in a clinical trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Developmental PCB exposure is associated with immunotoxic effects on serum concentrations of specific antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations. (nih.gov)
  • high
  • While not widely used for routine testing due to high cost and requirements in laboratory equipment, these direct testing techniques have confirmed the validity of the antibody tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • significant
  • Antibody targeting of TIRC7 reveals significant prevention of inflammation in variety of animal models e.g. rejection of transplanted kidney and heart allografts as well as progression of arthritis and EAE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specificity
  • because of this, many different antibodies are produced, each with specificity to bind a different antigen while sharing the same basic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antibodies can be subdivided according to their specificity, and each subset has different propensities for specific disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV antibody tests exceed the performance of most other infectious disease tests in both sensitivity (the ability of the screening test to give a positive finding when the person tested truly has the disease) and specificity (the ability of the test to give a negative finding when the subjects tested are free of the disease under study). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many current HIV antibody tests have sensitivity and specificity in excess of 96% and are therefore extremely reliable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17
  • To determine the functional role of CCR7 in DED, mice were treated topically with either anti-CCR7, a control isotype antibody, or left untreated, and clinical disease severity, Th17 responses, and molecular markers of DED were quantified. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mice treated topically with anti-CCR7 antibody displayed a significant reduction in clinical disease severity and Th17 response compared to the isotype and untreated groups. (arvojournals.org)
  • 5 Both CD4 T cells subsets (Th1 and Th17 cells) have been shown to contribute to the development of ocular surface inflammation in DED. (arvojournals.org)
  • Chronic infusion of an AT1-R agonist results in hypertension and vascular remodeling that is dependent upon the integrity of T cells in the immune system [ 12 , 13 ] and more specifically the Th17 lymphocyte subset [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • reactivity
  • the latter effect was dependent on the presence of adherent cells.In vivo, significant enhancement of lymphocyte reactivity to T-mitogens and increase of CD4+ helper-inducer T lymphocytes were observed 3 d after a subcutaneous application of Olimunostim to mice with cellular immune deficiency. (naver.com)
  • Herve M, Xu K, Ng Y-S, Wardemann H, Albesiano E, Messmer BT, Chiorazzi N, Meffre E. (2005) Unmutated and mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia derive from self-reactive B cell precursors despite expressing different antibody reactivity" J Clin Invest 115: 1636-1643. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Paturzo, F X. "Detection of antibody to epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM) virus. (osu.edu)
  • autoimmune
  • Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, also known as SS-A and SS-B, respectively, are commonly found in primary Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Ro antibodies are also found less frequently in other disorders including autoimmune liver diseases, coeliac disease, autoimmune rheumatic diseases, cardiac neonatal lupus erythematosus and polymyositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third are antibodies to LAG3 in order to blunt an autoimmune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • Unusually potent antibodies that neutralize human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were isolated and their epitopes mapped to a pentameric glycoprotein complex, which is currently tested as a candidate vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD160 is a 27 kDa glycoprotein which was initially identified with the monoclonal antibody BY55. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The most striking examples are antibodies with exceptional breadth, being able to neutralize all influenza A viruses and even four different paramyxoviruses (18,19). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of both antibodies is found in 30-60% of Sjögren's syndrome, anti-Ro antibodies alone are found in 50-70% of Sjögren's syndrome and 30% of SLE with cutaneous involvement, and anti-La antibodies are rarely found in isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Immunobiological activity of the polybacterial lysate Olimunostim (P. acnes, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus) was examined by investigating its effects on murine lymphocytes. (naver.com)
  • CD160 is a ligand for HVEM, and considered a proposed immune checkpoint inhibitor with anti-cancer activity alongside with anti- PD-1 antibodies. (wikipedia.org)