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  • vivo
  • Recent experimental data showed that ovarian surface epithelium and cortical tissue from both mouse and human were proved to contain very low proportion of cells able to propagate themselves, but also to generate immature oocytes in vitro or in vivo, when transplanted into immunodeficient mice ovaries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One could go in and compare certain lineage factors between in vivo and in vitro, as well as look at what factors influence the stem cells down specific pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ex vivo assay for examining the clonogenic potential of multipotent marrow cells was later reported in the 1970s by Friedenstein and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, we established that although hMSCs induced physiological angiogenesis in vivo , these cells do not alter the overall pathological angiogenesis of the tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells are relatively easy to obtain and have a remarkable capacity for extensive in vitro expansion, which allows them rapidly to reach the cell number required for in vivo therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another team used a similar technique for cell extraction and ex vivo expansion but cells were embedded within a collagen gel before being surgically re-implanted. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is known that in vitro cell culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, proving that a particular subpopulation of cells possesses stem cell properties in vivo is challenging, and so considerable debate exists as to whether some proposed stem cell populations in the adult are indeed stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • Radial glial cells are bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and serve as primary progenitor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the late stages of neurogenesis, radial glial cells divide asymmetrically in the ventricular zone, generating a new radial glial cell, as well as a postmitotic neuron or an intermediate progenitor (IPC) daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial glial cells show high levels of calcium transient activity, which is transmitted between RGCs in the ventricular zone and along the radial fibers bidirectionally to/from the cortical plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first marker protein discovered in FS cells was S-100b, which is a calcium-binding protein expressed by glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, Roskams led a team of researchers who identified radial glial cells in the periphery of the adult spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, NG2-glia or polydendrocytes, are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system, characterized by expression of the proteoglycans PDGFRA, and CSPG4. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • 2007. Cell cycle analysis and interspecies nuclear transfer of in vitro cultured skin fibroblasts of the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • We examined the immunomodulatory properties of SHED in comparison to BMMSCs and found that SHED had significant effects on inhibiting T helper 17 (Th17) cells in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007 Nov;73:1106-10) and "very small embryonic like" - "VSEL" stem cells, and display pluripotency in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Huberman is the recipient a visiting professorship at Japan's Kobe University (2000/2001), an Honorary Doctorate from the Russian Academy of Sciences Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology (1997) (10), commendation from the Japanese Society of Pediatric Oncology (1992), Prime Minister Nakasone and University of Tokyo Fellowships for Cancer Research (1986). (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • Recent research demonstrates that articular cartilage may be able to be repaired via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's). (wikipedia.org)
  • Of note, this may be one of the reasons that commercially available centrifuge systems that concentrate marrow nucleated cells have not shown as much promise in animal research for cartilage repair as have approaches where MSC's are expanded in culture to greater numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The knee microfracture surgery technique popularized by Steadman relies on the release of these cells into a cartilage lesion to initiate fibrocartilage repair in osteochondral defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate cartilage has been primarily in research with animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells has shown promising results, a more recent study using uncultured MSC's has resulted in full thickness, histologically confirmed hyaline cartilage regrowth. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • The Stem Cell Lineage Database (SCLD) is a database of resources used to identify cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the major factors that separates SCLD from other stem cell databases is that it allows users to edit information pertaining to cell types, markers, and lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the database is to provide an openly available, quick reference for information pertaining to stem cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the database only includes human and mouse stem cell lineages, but the database hopes to expand into more species. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Intermediate progenitor cells then divide symmetrically in the subventricular zone to generate neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Joseph Altman discovered adult neurogenesis, the creation of new neurons in the adult brain, in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that the brain can create new neurons even into adulthood was rediscovered by Elizabeth Gould in 1999, leading it to be one of the hottest fields in neuroscience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal
  • The February 27, 1997 issue of Nature reported it in a mundanely titled article, "Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Using the Golgi method, Giuseppe Magini then studied the mammalian fetal cerebral cortex in 1888, confirming the similar presence of elongated radial cells in the cortex (also described by Kölliker just before him), and observing "various varicosities or swellings" on the radial fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • self-renewal
  • 2004) Self-renewal, multipotency, and the existence of two cell populations within an epithelial stem cell niche. (springer.com)
  • 2004) BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. (springer.com)
  • A stem cell possesses two properties: Self-renewal, which is the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while still maintaining its undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells, both endowed with stem cell properties, whereas asymmetric division produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurogenesis
  • Adult neurogenesis has recently been proven to occur in the dentate gyrus, olfactory bulb and striatum through the measurement of Carbon-14-the levels of which changed during nuclear bomb testing throughout the 20th century-in postmortem human brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Development of a bMSC model would be invaluable for testing the efficiency and safety of these cells for future cell therapies and for the creation of human disease models. (beds.ac.uk)
  • embryos
  • Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos created by fertility treatments that would not otherwise be used. (personalmoneystore.com)
  • 1999. Bovine oocyte cytoplasm supports development of embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 2008. Effect of epigenetic modifications of donor somatic cells on the subsequent chromatin remodeling of cloned bovine embryos. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Appellants argue that the district court erroneously interpreted and applied the Court of Appeal's April 29, 2011, ruling vacating the district court's August 23, 2010, preliminary injunction of the NIH Guidelines that the Obama Administration promulgated to permit the federal funding of "research in which" human embryos are "knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death. (christiansunite.com)
  • The case began almost two years ago when, in response to President Obama's March 9, 2009 Executive Order, the NIH published and noticed for public comment regulatory guidelines allowing federal funds to be used for the first time for the creation of new stem cell lines (hESC) requiring the destruction of living human embryos. (christiansunite.com)
  • LOLP's General Counsel, Sam Casey, who has been arguing the issues in this case for more than a decade, said: "Each time grant-awarding officials and federally funded scientists support or engage in hESC research, living human embryos are 'knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death,' in violation of the federal law known as the Dickey-Wicker Amendment. (christiansunite.com)
  • The federally sponsored hESC research that the Guidelines support inevitably creates a substantial risk -- indeed, a virtual certainty -- that more human embryos will be destroyed in order to derive more hESCs for misdirected research purposes at the unwilling taxpayers' expense. (christiansunite.com)
  • These cell lines derived from embryos could be used as a model for the study of basic and applied aspects in medical therapeutics, environmental mutagenesis and disease management. (hud.ac.uk)
  • plasticity
  • Subsequent experimentation revealed the plasticity of marrow cells and how their fate is determined by environmental cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unlimited proliferative ability and plasticity to generate other cell types ensures that stem cells represent a dynamic system apposite for the identification of new molecular targets and the production and development of novel drugs. (hud.ac.uk)
  • This phenomenon is referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • Their cell bodies (somata) reside in the embryonic ventricular zone, which lies next to the developing ventricular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have long cytoplasmic processes which interlock to form a mesh, within which the endocrine cells reside. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • Bouwens L, De Blay E (1996) Islet morphogenesis and stem cell markers in rat pancreas. (springer.com)
  • Experiments have been carried out to assess the protein markers they express, in order to determine their cell-type and thus exact function in the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some populations of FS cells have also been found to express different cell markers, including GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), cytokeratin, vimentin and fibronectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the different array of markers expressed in these cells, it is difficult to specify their exact cell-type and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they have multiple markers, it is plausible that these cells are a hybrid of several different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1981
  • There, from 1981 to 1999, Huberman served as Division Director for Biological Research and from 1999 to 2006 as a distinguished Argonne Fellow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sir Martin John Evans FRS FMedSci (born 1 January 1941 in Stroud, Gloucestershire) is a British biologist who, with Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Smith GH, Chepko G (2001) Mammary epithelial stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Chepko G, Smith GH (1999) Mammary epithelial stem cells: our current understanding. (springer.com)
  • Shackleton M (2006) Generation of a functional mammary gland from a single stem cell. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian
  • This new threatening-dogma perspective states that renewable germline stem cells (GSCs) are present in the postnatal mammalian ovary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1999, he became Professor of Mammalian Genetics and Director of the School of Biosciences at Cardiff University, where he worked until he retired at the end of 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute Lymphobl
  • Development of a combination of immunotoxins and chemotherapy for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia Combotox is a mixture of anti-CD19 and anti CD22 antibodies that are linked with a poison (ricin) that can target leukemic cells. (montefiore.org)
  • Establishment
  • 2004: Culture of Human Limbal Stem Cells on Chorionic Membrane and use them for corneal injuries 2005: Establishment of the first Private Cord Blood Bank in Iran (Royan Stem Cell Technology Co.) 2006: The first IVM-IVF sheep born in Iran 2006: Iran's first cloned sheep, named Royana. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Shortly after the details of the procedure used to produce Dolly were published, scientists began to report one success story after another using the same procedure (or ones similar to it) to clone additional mammals from adult cells, including mice (Wakayama, et al. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Currently, the SCLD has stem cell information for only human stem cells and mice stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the ethical constraints of conducting stem cell research on humans, the use of mice has been for advances in this field of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • We engrafted nude mice with luciferase-positive mouse adenocarcinoma cells (TSA-Luc + ) to obtain subcutaneous or lung tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He is also known, along with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, for his work in the development of the knockout mouse and the related technology of gene targeting, a method of using embryonic stem cells to create specific gene modifications in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • He genetically modified and implanted it into adult female mice with the intent of creating genetically modified offspring, work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, genetically modified mice are considered vital for medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies for their work in discovering a method for introducing homologous recombination in mice employing embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • Appellants are appealing the United States District Court for the District of Columbia's July 27, 2011, decision dismissing their challenge to the Obama administration's unprecedented and unlawful federal funding of destructive human embryo research. (christiansunite.com)
  • It aims to improve the population's health through infertility treatments and to research different aspects of infertility and its treatment in order to increase the success rate alongside improving embryo health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Faculty of Medic
  • Dr Rhodes continued his research at the University of Liverpool, being appointed a Lecturer within the faculty of medicine in 1999, followed by Senior Lecturer in 2003, then Reader in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Chan EF, Gat U, McNiff JM, Fuchs EA (1999) Common human skin tumour is caused by activating mutations in beta-catenin. (springer.com)
  • subpopulations
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • GFAP expression implies these cells could be of a neuroectodermal origin, whereas keratin-positive FS cells express epithelial-like characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was also a professor at the University of Chicago (1982-1997) in the departments of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics & Cell Biology, and Radiation & Cellular Oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Huberman served on various national and international advisory and review committees including, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Environmental Protection agency, Leukemia Research foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO) Leukemia Research Foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Moscow's Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, and National Institute for Environmental Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • oogenesis
  • The restricted supply of oocytes in adult female mammals has been disputed in recent years by supporters of postnatal neo-oogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)