• vivo
  • Recent experimental data showed that ovarian surface epithelium and cortical tissue from both mouse and human were proved to contain very low proportion of cells able to propagate themselves, but also to generate immature oocytes in vitro or in vivo, when transplanted into immunodeficient mice ovaries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One could go in and compare certain lineage factors between in vivo and in vitro, as well as look at what factors influence the stem cells down specific pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, we established that although hMSCs induced physiological angiogenesis in vivo , these cells do not alter the overall pathological angiogenesis of the tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells are relatively easy to obtain and have a remarkable capacity for extensive in vitro expansion, which allows them rapidly to reach the cell number required for in vivo therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another team used a similar technique for cell extraction and ex vivo expansion but cells were embedded within a collagen gel before being surgically re-implanted. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is known that in vitro cell culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, proving that a particular subpopulation of cells possesses stem cell properties in vivo is challenging, and so considerable debate exists as to whether some proposed stem cell populations in the adult are indeed stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • F. M. Watt and B. L. M. Hogan, "Out of Eden: Stem Cells and Their Niches," Science, 284, 1427-1430 (2000). (google.com)
  • Huberman is the recipient a visiting professorship at Japan's Kobe University (2000/2001), an Honorary Doctorate from the Russian Academy of Sciences Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology (1997) (10), commendation from the Japanese Society of Pediatric Oncology (1992), Prime Minister Nakasone and University of Tokyo Fellowships for Cancer Research (1986). (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • Radial glial cells originate from the transformation of neuroepithelial cells that form the neural plate during the early phases of pre-natal neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial glial cells show high levels of calcium transient activity, which is transmitted between RGCs in the ventricular zone and along the radial fibers bidirectionally to/from the cortical plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first marker protein discovered in FS cells was S-100b, which is a calcium-binding protein expressed by glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, Roskams led a team of researchers who identified radial glial cells in the periphery of the adult spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasticity
  • Subsequent experimentation revealed the plasticity of marrow cells and how their fate is determined by environmental cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unlimited proliferative ability and plasticity to generate other cell types ensures that stem cells represent a dynamic system apposite for the identification of new molecular targets and the production and development of novel drugs. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This phenomenon is referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • As a result, that leaves the very small number of MSC's in the marrow as cells capable of differentiating into tissues of interest to joint preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To survive into adulthood, long-lived organisms such as man need to maintain the many diverse organs and tissues that are necessary for the myriads of essential functions such as absorption of nutrients, protection from infection, and replacement of cells damaged by insults including toxins, radiation and trauma. (springer.com)
  • The prior art describes the development, from stem cell to differentiated cells, of various tissues throughout the body. (google.com)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent findings suggest that pluripotent stem cells may reside in blood and adult tissues in a dormant state. (wikipedia.org)
  • As BLSC's and VSEL cells are present in virtually all adult tissues, including lung, brain, kidneys, muscles, and pancreas Co-purification of BLSC's and VSEL cells with other populations of adult stem cells may explain the apparent pluripotency of adult stem cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • Bouwens L, De Blay E (1996) Islet morphogenesis and stem cell markers in rat pancreas. (springer.com)
  • Balabanov R, Washington R, Wagnerova J, Dore-Duffy P (1996) CNS microvascular pericytes express macrophage-like function, cell surface integrin alpha M, and macrophage marker ED-2. (springer.com)
  • Between 1996 and 1999, he was an assistant professor at Osaka City University Medical School, but found himself mostly looking after mice in the laboratory, not doing actual research. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Development of a bMSC model would be invaluable for testing the efficiency and safety of these cells for future cell therapies and for the creation of human disease models. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This complicates the design of drugs, for instance neural stem cell targeted therapies for the treatment of clinical depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • Recent research demonstrates that articular cartilage may be able to be repaired via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's). (wikipedia.org)
  • Of note, this may be one of the reasons that commercially available centrifuge systems that concentrate marrow nucleated cells have not shown as much promise in animal research for cartilage repair as have approaches where MSC's are expanded in culture to greater numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The knee microfracture surgery technique popularized by Steadman relies on the release of these cells into a cartilage lesion to initiate fibrocartilage repair in osteochondral defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • At some point, a signal is introduced (either in culture or after transplant to the damaged tissue) for the cells to differentiate into the end tissue (in this discussion, cartilage). (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate cartilage has been primarily in research with animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells has shown promising results, a more recent study using uncultured MSC's has resulted in full thickness, histologically confirmed hyaline cartilage regrowth. (wikipedia.org)
  • self-renewal
  • 2004) Self-renewal, multipotency, and the existence of two cell populations within an epithelial stem cell niche. (springer.com)
  • 2004) BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. (springer.com)
  • A stem cell possesses two properties: Self-renewal, which is the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while still maintaining its undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurogenesis
  • Joseph Altman discovered adult neurogenesis, the creation of new neurons in the adult brain, in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult neurogenesis has recently been proven to occur in the dentate gyrus, olfactory bulb and striatum through the measurement of Carbon-14-the levels of which changed during nuclear bomb testing throughout the 20th century-in postmortem human brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian
  • This new threatening-dogma perspective states that renewable germline stem cells (GSCs) are present in the postnatal mammalian ovary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1999. Bovine oocyte cytoplasm supports development of embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Using the Golgi method, Giuseppe Magini then studied the mammalian fetal cerebral cortex in 1888, confirming the similar presence of elongated radial cells in the cortex (also described by Kölliker just before him), and observing "various varicosities or swellings" on the radial fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999, he became Professor of Mammalian Genetics and Director of the School of Biosciences at Cardiff University, where he worked until he retired at the end of 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • The database allows user to update information found from the organic developmental stages and it also allows users to discuss experimental practices that altered the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local environmental cues such as Notch and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, developmental period, and differing abilities of radial glia to respond to environmental cues have all been shown to influence the type of radial glia and radial glia-derived daughter cells that will be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wnt These developmental pathways are also strongly implicated as stem cell regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Merck is discontinuing the clinical development program of its investigational MUC1 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy tecemotide (L-BLP25) as a monotherapy in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (science20.com)
  • Royan Institute is an Iranian clinical, research and educational institute dedicated to biomedical, translational and clinical researches, stem cell research and infertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human clinical experience with adipose precursor cells seeded on hyaluronic acid-based spongy scaffolds. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos created by fertility treatments that would not otherwise be used. (personalmoneystore.com)
  • 2008. Effect of epigenetic modifications of donor somatic cells on the subsequent chromatin remodeling of cloned bovine embryos. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Appellants argue that the district court erroneously interpreted and applied the Court of Appeal's April 29, 2011, ruling vacating the district court's August 23, 2010, preliminary injunction of the NIH Guidelines that the Obama Administration promulgated to permit the federal funding of "research in which" human embryos are "knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death. (christiansunite.com)
  • The case began almost two years ago when, in response to President Obama's March 9, 2009 Executive Order, the NIH published and noticed for public comment regulatory guidelines allowing federal funds to be used for the first time for the creation of new stem cell lines (hESC) requiring the destruction of living human embryos. (christiansunite.com)
  • LOLP's General Counsel, Sam Casey, who has been arguing the issues in this case for more than a decade, said: "Each time grant-awarding officials and federally funded scientists support or engage in hESC research, living human embryos are 'knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death,' in violation of the federal law known as the Dickey-Wicker Amendment. (christiansunite.com)
  • The federally sponsored hESC research that the Guidelines support inevitably creates a substantial risk -- indeed, a virtual certainty -- that more human embryos will be destroyed in order to derive more hESCs for misdirected research purposes at the unwilling taxpayers' expense. (christiansunite.com)
  • These cell lines derived from embryos could be used as a model for the study of basic and applied aspects in medical therapeutics, environmental mutagenesis and disease management. (hud.ac.uk)
  • reside
  • Their cell bodies (somata) reside in the embryonic ventricular zone, which lies next to the developing ventricular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have long cytoplasmic processes which interlock to form a mesh, within which the endocrine cells reside. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • Experiments have been carried out to assess the protein markers they express, in order to determine their cell-type and thus exact function in the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some populations of FS cells have also been found to express different cell markers, including GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), cytokeratin, vimentin and fibronectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the different array of markers expressed in these cells, it is difficult to specify their exact cell-type and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they have multiple markers, it is plausible that these cells are a hybrid of several different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • The fact that the brain can create new neurons even into adulthood was rediscovered by Elizabeth Gould in 1999, leading it to be one of the hottest fields in neuroscience. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1981
  • Sir Martin John Evans FRS FMedSci (born 1 January 1941 in Stroud, Gloucestershire) is a British biologist who, with Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • There, from 1981 to 1999, Huberman served as Division Director for Biological Research and from 1999 to 2006 as a distinguished Argonne Fellow. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Regardless of the tumour model and mode of hMSC injection, hMSC administration was always associated with decreased tumour growth due to an inhibition of tumour cell proliferation, likely resulting from deep modifications of the tumour angiogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This effect is clearly correlated with an inhibition of tumour cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its role in control of stem cell proliferation has now been demonstrated for several cell types including haematopoietic, neural, and mammary stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was also a professor at the University of Chicago (1982-1997) in the departments of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics & Cell Biology, and Radiation & Cellular Oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Huberman served on various national and international advisory and review committees including, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Environmental Protection agency, Leukemia Research foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO) Leukemia Research Foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Moscow's Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, and National Institute for Environmental Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Currently, the SCLD has stem cell information for only human stem cells and mice stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the ethical constraints of conducting stem cell research on humans, the use of mice has been for advances in this field of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • We engrafted nude mice with luciferase-positive mouse adenocarcinoma cells (TSA-Luc + ) to obtain subcutaneous or lung tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But these stem cells were unable to improve EAE symptoms, whereas stem cells collected from healthy mice retained all their therapeutic potential and improved EAE symptoms. (cellmedicine.com)
  • He is also known, along with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, for his work in the development of the knockout mouse and the related technology of gene targeting, a method of using embryonic stem cells to create specific gene modifications in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • He genetically modified and implanted it into adult female mice with the intent of creating genetically modified offspring, work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, genetically modified mice are considered vital for medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies for their work in discovering a method for introducing homologous recombination in mice employing embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Establishment
  • 2004: Culture of Human Limbal Stem Cells on Chorionic Membrane and use them for corneal injuries 2005: Establishment of the first Private Cord Blood Bank in Iran (Royan Stem Cell Technology Co.) 2006: The first IVM-IVF sheep born in Iran 2006: Iran's first cloned sheep, named Royana. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • 2006. Evaluation of the embryonic preimplantation potential of human adult somatic cells via an embryo interspecies bioassay using bovine oocytes. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Appellants are appealing the United States District Court for the District of Columbia's July 27, 2011, decision dismissing their challenge to the Obama administration's unprecedented and unlawful federal funding of destructive human embryo research. (christiansunite.com)
  • To clarify this issue, we studied the impact of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) injection on pre-established tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have been identified as a population of postnatal stem cells capable of differentiating into osteogenic and odontogenic cells, adipogenic cells, and neural cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chan EF, Gat U, McNiff JM, Fuchs EA (1999) Common human skin tumour is caused by activating mutations in beta-catenin. (springer.com)
  • 2005) Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Human ES cell lines may, therefore, prove clinically relevant to the development of safer and more effective drugs for patients presenting with diabetes mellitus. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Later he and his team generated iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts, again as the first group to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Effects of donor cell type and genotype on the efficiency of mouse somatic cell cloning. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 2010. Impeding Xist Expression from the Active X Chromosome Improves Mouse Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 2007. Birth of viable female dogs produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • A cloned toy poodle produced from somatic cells derived from an aged female dog. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These mutations could progressively accumulate and enhance the resistance and fitness of cells that allow them to outcompete other tumor cells, better known as the somatic evolution model. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • Blood vessels consist of an inner endothelial cell layer lining the vessel wall and perivascular pericytes, also known as mural cells, which envelop the vascular tube surface. (springer.com)
  • Antonelli-Orlidge A, Saunders KB, Smith SR, D'Amore PA (1989) An activated form of transforming growth factor beta is produced by cocultures of endothelial cells and pericytes. (springer.com)
  • Faculty of Medic
  • Dr Rhodes continued his research at the University of Liverpool, being appointed a Lecturer within the faculty of medicine in 1999, followed by Senior Lecturer in 2003, then Reader in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Cells must be able to replicate in order to replace the old or damaged cells, but this replication must be tightly regulated to prevent the accumulation of errors that result in the development of tumors and eventually cancer (1,2). (springer.com)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells are hypothesized to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • subpopulations
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • oogenesis
  • The restricted supply of oocytes in adult female mammals has been disputed in recent years by supporters of postnatal neo-oogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)