• vivo
  • Recent experimental data showed that ovarian surface epithelium and cortical tissue from both mouse and human were proved to contain very low proportion of cells able to propagate themselves, but also to generate immature oocytes in vitro or in vivo, when transplanted into immunodeficient mice ovaries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One could go in and compare certain lineage factors between in vivo and in vitro, as well as look at what factors influence the stem cells down specific pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ex vivo assay for examining the clonogenic potential of multipotent marrow cells was later reported in the 1970s by Friedenstein and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are relatively easy to obtain and have a remarkable capacity for extensive in vitro expansion, which allows them rapidly to reach the cell number required for in vivo therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another team used a similar technique for cell extraction and ex vivo expansion but cells were embedded within a collagen gel before being surgically re-implanted. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is known that in vitro cell culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, proving that a particular subpopulation of cells possesses stem cell properties in vivo is challenging, and so considerable debate exists as to whether some proposed stem cell populations in the adult are indeed stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts isolated from mice lacking the myogenic transcription factor MyoD (MyoD-/-) differentiate into myocytes poorly in vivo and in vitro (Megeney et al. (rutgers.edu)
  • In the present study, we investigated the growth attenuation potential of naïve hUCMSC on MDA 231 human breast carcinoma cells using in vitro cell culture studies and an in vivo mouse xenograft study. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • embryos
  • Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos created by fertility treatments that would not otherwise be used. (personalmoneystore.com)
  • 1999. Bovine oocyte cytoplasm supports development of embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 2008. Effect of epigenetic modifications of donor somatic cells on the subsequent chromatin remodeling of cloned bovine embryos. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Appellants argue that the district court erroneously interpreted and applied the Court of Appeal's April 29, 2011, ruling vacating the district court's August 23, 2010, preliminary injunction of the NIH Guidelines that the Obama Administration promulgated to permit the federal funding of "research in which" human embryos are "knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death. (christiansunite.com)
  • The case began almost two years ago when, in response to President Obama's March 9, 2009 Executive Order, the NIH published and noticed for public comment regulatory guidelines allowing federal funds to be used for the first time for the creation of new stem cell lines (hESC) requiring the destruction of living human embryos. (christiansunite.com)
  • LOLP's General Counsel, Sam Casey, who has been arguing the issues in this case for more than a decade, said: "Each time grant-awarding officials and federally funded scientists support or engage in hESC research, living human embryos are 'knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death,' in violation of the federal law known as the Dickey-Wicker Amendment. (christiansunite.com)
  • The federally sponsored hESC research that the Guidelines support inevitably creates a substantial risk -- indeed, a virtual certainty -- that more human embryos will be destroyed in order to derive more hESCs for misdirected research purposes at the unwilling taxpayers' expense. (christiansunite.com)
  • These cell lines derived from embryos could be used as a model for the study of basic and applied aspects in medical therapeutics, environmental mutagenesis and disease management. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Unlike for embryonic stem cells, the use of human adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered to be controversial, as they are derived from adult tissue samples rather than human embryos designated for scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sherley and Deisher had argued that awarding funds for hESC research violates the Dickey-Wicker amendment, a provision attached to the Labor, Health and Human Services appropriations bill that bars federal funding for research resulting in the destruction of human embryos. (faseb.org)
  • Stem cells can be derived from a variety of sources such as embryos (embryonic stem cells, ESCs), bone marrow (BMSCs), fetal tissues, cord blood, etc. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • glial cells
  • Radial glial cells are bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and serve as primary progenitor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial glial cells show high levels of calcium transient activity, which is transmitted between RGCs in the ventricular zone and along the radial fibers bidirectionally to/from the cortical plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first marker protein discovered in FS cells was S-100b, which is a calcium-binding protein expressed by glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, Roskams led a team of researchers who identified radial glial cells in the periphery of the adult spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • 2002. Enhanced survivability of cloned calves derived from roscovitine-treated adult somatic cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • His first two books, Refuting Evolution in 1999, and Refuting Evolution 2 in 2002, are intended as rebuttals to the National Academy of Sciences' publication Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science and the PBS/Nova series "Evolution", respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • F. M. Watt and B. L. M. Hogan, "Out of Eden: Stem Cells and Their Niches," Science, 284, 1427-1430 (2000). (google.com)
  • Huberman is the recipient a visiting professorship at Japan's Kobe University (2000/2001), an Honorary Doctorate from the Russian Academy of Sciences Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology (1997) (10), commendation from the Japanese Society of Pediatric Oncology (1992), Prime Minister Nakasone and University of Tokyo Fellowships for Cancer Research (1986). (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Using the Golgi method, Giuseppe Magini then studied the mammalian fetal cerebral cortex in 1888, confirming the similar presence of elongated radial cells in the cortex (also described by Kölliker just before him), and observing "various varicosities or swellings" on the radial fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Wnt These developmental pathways are also strongly implicated as stem cell regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exploring cell markers and signaling pathways specific to lung CSCs may lead to progress in therapy and improve the prognosis of patients with lung cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we report that un-engineered naïve hUCMSC are capable of attenuating human breast cancer cells through attenuating primarily the Akt and MAPK pathways and stimulating the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MSCs
  • Adipose tissue is a rich source of MSCs (or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, AdMSCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have gained considerable interest because of their potential use in the treatment of a variety of diseases and injuries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some evidence suggests that MSCs can spontaneously generate a population of cells with tumorigenic potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ca 2+ is a second messenger that mediates a wide range of cellular responses, including the regulation of cell proliferation, but little is known about its function in MSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FACS analysis revealed that Ad-PV-NES-DsRed did not induce cell death in AT-MSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic stromal cells that have generated a great amount of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their unique biological properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the past decade, many publications on MSCs reported experimental and clinical applications for these cells and demonstrated encouraging results. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once these MSCs are ready for re-implanation, they are usually transferred with growth factors to allow for continued cell growth and engraftment to the damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • By counting cardiomyocytes and c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) undergoing apoptosis, cellular senescence and proliferation, the authors concluded that from 20 to 100 years of age, the entire cardiomyocyte compartment of women is replaced 15 times, whereas that of men is renewed 11 times. (intechopen.com)
  • Its role in control of stem cell proliferation has now been demonstrated for several cell types including haematopoietic, neural, and mammary stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Dr. Khay-Yong Saw and his team evaluated the quality of the repair knee cartilage after arthroscopic microdrilling (also microfracture) surgery followed by post-operative injections of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) in combination with hyaluronic acid(HA). (wikipedia.org)
  • PBPC's are a blood product containing MSC's, which is obtained by mobilizing stem cells into the peripheral blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1). (mdpi.com)
  • self-renewal
  • A stem cell possesses two properties: Self-renewal, which is the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while still maintaining its undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-renewal is defined as the ability to go through unlimited cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • developmental
  • The database allows user to update information found from the organic developmental stages and it also allows users to discuss experimental practices that altered the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local environmental cues such as Notch and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, developmental period, and differing abilities of radial glia to respond to environmental cues have all been shown to influence the type of radial glia and radial glia-derived daughter cells that will be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Institute is providing a comprehensive and coordinated "bench to bedside" approach to regenerative medicine, including a greater understanding of fundamental biology of stem cells, developmental biology, tissue engineering programs, the development of translational research of stem cell therapeutics, and administration of new cell therapies approaches that can restore tissue function to patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RI-SCBT consists of three departments and one center including Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Department of Biological Engineering, Department of Regenerative Medicine, and Cell Therapy Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1981
  • Sir Martin John Evans FRS FMedSci (born 1 January 1941 in Stroud, Gloucestershire) is a British biologist who, with Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • There, from 1981 to 1999, Huberman served as Division Director for Biological Research and from 1999 to 2006 as a distinguished Argonne Fellow. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was also a professor at the University of Chicago (1982-1997) in the departments of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics & Cell Biology, and Radiation & Cellular Oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Huberman served on various national and international advisory and review committees including, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Environmental Protection agency, Leukemia Research foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO) Leukemia Research Foundation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Moscow's Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, and National Institute for Environmental Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • The Stem Cell Lineage Database (SCLD) is a database of resources used to identify cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the major factors that separates SCLD from other stem cell databases is that it allows users to edit information pertaining to cell types, markers, and lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the database is to provide an openly available, quick reference for information pertaining to stem cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the database only includes human and mouse stem cell lineages, but the database hopes to expand into more species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our experiments clearly demonstrate that satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts, expressing myogenic markers such as MyoD, Myf5, Pax7 and desmin, differentiated only into osteocytes or adipocytes following treatment with BMPs or adipogenic inducers, respectively However, satellite cells on isolated muscle fibers cultured in Matrigel readily differentiated into myocytes as well as osteogenic and adipogenic lineages, whereas primary myoblasts did not. (rutgers.edu)
  • cardiomyocytes
  • Piero Anversa's group published a series of articles claiming that ongoing cell death of cardiomyocytes in the heart requires extensive replacement of cardiomyocytes. (intechopen.com)
  • One of the major challenges in the field has been the detection of newly formed cardiomyocytes and/or the visualization of cell division events. (intechopen.com)
  • 1984)). According to the IdU study, the turnover rate of cardiomyocytes is 22% per year (20% and 13% for fibroblasts and endothelial cells, respectively). (intechopen.com)
  • tissue
  • Stromal cells are connective tissue cells that form the supportive structure in which the functional cells of the tissue reside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further methods of the present invention are directed to utilizing the neural progenitor cells cultured in this fashion in the treatment of various neuropathological conditions, and in targeting delivery of cells transfected with a particular gene to diseased or damaged tissue. (google.com)
  • It is the progenitor cells that proliferate into the various lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and other cells that comprise blood tissue of the body. (google.com)
  • Stem cell populations are established in niches, which are defined as specific locations that regulate how these cells participate in tissue regeneration, maintenance, and repair [ 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The "benign" tumor-associated tissue includes blood vessels, stromal fibroblasts, and infiltrating inflammatory cells [ 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Malignant cells induce de novo formation of connective tissue in order to provide enough stroma to support cancer growth [ 13 , 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • markers
  • Experiments have been carried out to assess the protein markers they express, in order to determine their cell-type and thus exact function in the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some populations of FS cells have also been found to express different cell markers, including GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), cytokeratin, vimentin and fibronectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the different array of markers expressed in these cells, it is difficult to specify their exact cell-type and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they have multiple markers, it is plausible that these cells are a hybrid of several different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such cells are hypothesized to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Intermediate progenitor cells then divide symmetrically in the subventricular zone to generate neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that the brain can create new neurons even into adulthood was rediscovered by Elizabeth Gould in 1999, leading it to be one of the hottest fields in neuroscience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly generated neuroblasts in the SVZ migrate to become granule and periglomerular neurons in the olfactory bulb and neurons born in the SGZ migrate into the granule cell layer of the DG and. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • subpopulation
  • Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory refers to a subpopulation of cancer cells, also named tumor-initiating cells, that can drive cancer development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Substantial growing experimental evidence has suggested that many cancers, including lung cancer, may be driven by a small subpopulation of self-renewing cells that could sustain malignant growth [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mammalian
  • This new threatening-dogma perspective states that renewable germline stem cells (GSCs) are present in the postnatal mammalian ovary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies from our group have underscored that the mammalian FoxOs function redundantly to promote the stability of long-lived cells such as thymocytes and endothelial cells and to maintain hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reserves which produce countless blood cells over a life-time. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In 1999, he became Professor of Mammalian Genetics and Director of the School of Biosciences at Cardiff University, where he worked until he retired at the end of 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • The study of fibronectin expression in these cells suggests that FS cells may help regulate pituitary function, by interacting with hormone secreting cells through fibronectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGFβ The TGFβ family of cytokines regulate the stemness of both normal and cancer stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stromal
  • In this assay system, stromal cells were referred to as colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-f). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stromal fibroblasts offer structural support for malignant cells and influence the behavior and aggressiveness of cancers [ 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Establishment
  • 2004: Culture of Human Limbal Stem Cells on Chorionic Membrane and use them for corneal injuries 2005: Establishment of the first Private Cord Blood Bank in Iran (Royan Stem Cell Technology Co.) 2006: The first IVM-IVF sheep born in Iran 2006: Iran's first cloned sheep, named Royana. (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • Recent research demonstrates that articular cartilage may be able to be repaired via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's). (wikipedia.org)
  • Of note, this may be one of the reasons that commercially available centrifuge systems that concentrate marrow nucleated cells have not shown as much promise in animal research for cartilage repair as have approaches where MSC's are expanded in culture to greater numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The knee microfracture surgery technique popularized by Steadman relies on the release of these cells into a cartilage lesion to initiate fibrocartilage repair in osteochondral defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate cartilage has been primarily in research with animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells has shown promising results, a more recent study using uncultured MSC's has resulted in full thickness, histologically confirmed hyaline cartilage regrowth. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • Appellants are appealing the United States District Court for the District of Columbia's July 27, 2011, decision dismissing their challenge to the Obama administration's unprecedented and unlawful federal funding of destructive human embryo research. (christiansunite.com)
  • After Kaufman left, Evans continued his work, upgrading his laboratory skills to the newest technologies, isolated the embryonic stem cell of the early mouse embryo and established it in a cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • It aims to improve the population's health through infertility treatments and to research different aspects of infertility and its treatment in order to increase the success rate alongside improving embryo health. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs
  • Innovative therapy could target this specific population of "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) or "tumor-initiating cells" in order to improve patients' outcome, with complete eradication of tumor growth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CSCs might arise from normal stem cells that have acquired mutations that enable them to escape from niche control [ 15 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of CSCs is under debate, because many studies found no cells with their specific characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • Their cell bodies (somata) reside in the embryonic ventricular zone, which lies next to the developing ventricular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have long cytoplasmic processes which interlock to form a mesh, within which the endocrine cells reside. (wikipedia.org)
  • subpopulations
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Currently, the SCLD has stem cell information for only human stem cells and mice stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the ethical constraints of conducting stem cell research on humans, the use of mice has been for advances in this field of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is also known, along with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, for his work in the development of the knockout mouse and the related technology of gene targeting, a method of using embryonic stem cells to create specific gene modifications in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • He genetically modified and implanted it into adult female mice with the intent of creating genetically modified offspring, work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, genetically modified mice are considered vital for medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies for their work in discovering a method for introducing homologous recombination in mice employing embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • We also found that hUCMSC engineered to secrete the cytokine IFN-β (UCMS-IFN-β) are capable of reducing growth of MDA 231 human breast carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis [ 16 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have also studied the expression level of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) and apoptosis-related signaling components in MDA 231 cells alone and MDA 231 cells co-cultured with hUCMSC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)