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  • World Health Organ
  • According to the Joint Monitoring Program of the World Health Organization and UNICEF, in 2004 the share of population which was connected to an improved water source varied from 54% in Haiti to 100% in Uruguay. (wikipedia.org)
  • SODIS is a free and effective method for decentralized water treatment, usually applied at the household level and is recommended by the World Health Organization as a viable method for household water treatment and safe storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • hygiene
  • design includes surface water treatment using filtration and ultraviolet light disinfection along with community-based hygiene education. (ajtmh.org)
  • The primary aims of school hygiene education is to improve behavior through useful practices connected to personal, water, food, domestic and public hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • School hygiene still appears to be an active, separate discipline in other parts of the world, like Eastern Europe and developing countries where school sanitation norms are not as well established. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there are no school sanitation and hygiene facilities, or if they aren't maintained and used adequately, schools become places where diseases are likely transmitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Manual on School Sanitation and Hygiene" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level. (ajtmh.org)
  • Interventions to improve access to clean water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene behaviours (WASH) represent key opportunities to improve child health and well-being by preventing the spread of infectious diseases and improving nutritional status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pooled analyses showed diarrhea risk reductions from the following interventions: point-of-use water filtration (pooled risk ratio (RR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.62), point-of-use water disinfection (pooled RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60-0.79), and hygiene education with soap provision (pooled RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.94). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clean water, availability of toilets and good hygiene practices are essential for the survival and development of children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Poor status of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and related interventions can impact growth and development of children in multiple ways [ 4 ] and there is consensus that improvement in undernutrition would not be possible without improving WASH conditions of underprivileged children around the world. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even after going long distance and spending a lots hours per day, the water they got lack sanitation and hygiene since they use in common with livestock and other living thing. (springer.com)
  • adequate
  • Population growth, agricultural expansion, unevenly distributed services, and polluted sources have contributed to the inability of citizens to access adequate amounts of clean water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanitation faces its own set of challenges, with only 56% of the population estimated to have had access to adequate sanitation facilities in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, unstable investment and political climates, strong weather phenomena, poverty, lack of adequate capacity, and deficient infrastructures have and will continue to challenge developments to water resource management. (wikipedia.org)
  • As shown above, in urban areas 97% of the population is estimated to have access to improved water supply and 85% to adequate sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The census does not allow to determine the type of latrine used, and thus it cannot be deducted from the data what is the share of population with access to adequate sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, the water supply system's pressure is not adequate, increasing the risk of bacterial contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply is continuous (24/7), both in urban areas and in concentrated rural areas and water pressure is adequate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A survey of rural residents in the watersheds of the Baru and Guabo Rivers conducted in 2005 showed that illnesses from poor-quality piped water were common and that the community-based organizations in charge of operating the systems lacked adequate support as well as appropriate expertise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existing on-site sanitation installations, such as septic tanks, are not always an adequate solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are lot of architectural and aesthetic aspects related to a school's hygienic needs, such as: school's building plan, safe water supply, disposition of waste, emergency lighting, heating and ventilation, as well as adequate school facilities (halls, classrooms, and common areas) and furniture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innovative methods were used to provide adequate low cost sanitation , health , housing and microfinance facilities. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 2001
  • The PEAP estimated that from 2001 to 2015, about US$1.4 billion in total (US$92 million per year) was needed to increase water supply coverage up to 95 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data for water and sanitation based on the Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, July 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • Honorary Vice-President of the British Association of Former UN Civil Servants Member of the Independent Advisory Panel for the One World Trust's Global Accountability Project Senior Research Fellow at The CUNY Graduate Center The Headstrong Society - UNDP (Chairman 1998) The Headstrong Society - Columbia University (2001-present) Joint Founding Editor of the Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • KCMG for "contributions to international development" - UN Medal for "International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia" 1998: Hon. LittD (UEA) 1992: Hon. DLitt (Sussex) 2007: Hon. PhD (Erasmus) 2001: Hon. Fellow (Magdalene Coll, Cantab) Freeman of the City of London Master of the Worshipful Company of Curriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The free basic water policy, initiated by national Government in 2001, sought to provide all citizens, but particularly the poor, with a basic supply of free water. (scielo.org.za)
  • People had to pay for all their water and their ability to pay restricted access even when infrastructure was offered (Kasrils, 2001). (scielo.org.za)
  • In 2001 free basic water (FBW) was introduced as a major 'pro-poor' intervention that forms part of the 'third way' between welfarism and neoliberalism. (scielo.org.za)
  • Nacional
  • In 1965, the DR Government created the National Institute for the Development of Water Resources (Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo de los Recursos Hidraulicos- INDRHI) responsible for planning the sustainable use of water resources and associated resources, as well as designing, formulating, executing, monitoring and evaluating projects, programs and actions aimed at controlling and regulating superficial and groundwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1977, the national public water and sanitation company SENDOS (Servicio Nacional de Obras Sanitarias) was created which had 11 regional branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Ecuador has a National Water and Sanitation Policy, Política Nacional de Agua y Saneamiento under Executive Decree No. 2766 of 30 July 2002 it is set out in relatively vague terms and avoids a clear position on sensitive issues such as investment subsidies (by national and sub-national governments) and who should receive them. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Peruvian National Statistics and Informatic Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática - INEI), about 73% of the population had access to drinking water supply in 2009, while about 57% had access to sewerage. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • A comprehensive sector policy, introduced in 1994, aimed at increasing water and sanitation investments through targeted transfers to municipalities, improving service quality and efficiency by promoting private sector participation in the poorest parts of the country where utilities were not performing well, the establishment of autonomous regulatory agencies at the national level, increased cost recovery, and protecting the poorest through cross-subsidies in the form of area-based tariffs. (wikipedia.org)
  • UNICEF calculated that in LAC "between 1994 and 2003 the economic losses in water and sanitation were about $650 million, as a result of at least 2,100 urban systems damaged, 4,500 rural aqueducts affected, and 28,000 wells and 173,000 latrines destroyed" due to natural disasters including floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes. (prb.org)
  • Despite government progress in delivering water infrastructure post-1994, ability to pay for the service limited access. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1995
  • The 1995 Interim Agreement as part of the Oslo Peace Process provided certain quantities of water to the Palestinians, but prevents them from drilling any new wells in the Mountain Aquifer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only with Jordan was Israel able to reach an agreement on the sharing of water resources in 1995 as part of the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the deduction of the minimum pipeline fee of $140 million, and the allocation of revenue as set out in paragraphs 8 (a) to (f) of resolution 986 (1995), an amount of approximately $1.98 billion would be available to finance the humanitarian supplies authorized in resolution 1153 (1998) and the oil spare parts and equipment authorized in resolution 1175 (1998). (casi.org.uk)
  • sewage
  • This new plant treats 67% of the sewage waters in Managua. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large scale projects to desalinate seawater, direct water from rivers and reservoirs in the north, make optimal use of groundwater, and reclaim flood overflow and sewage have been undertaken. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances have also been achieved concerning the disinfection of drinking water and in sewage treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] With endogenous research, the community was able to make an affordable sanitation system for the treatment of sewage, which helped to reduce the spread of disease. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A survey of 334 katchi abadis - Existing situation, problems and solutions related to sewage disposal, water supply, health and education. (thefullwiki.org)
  • irrigation
  • Because rain falls only in the winter, and largely in the northern part of the country, irrigation and water engineering are considered vital to the country's economic survival and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the coastal plain of Judea and Samaria had few water resources, Theodor Herzl already envisioned the transfer of water from the Jordan River to the coast for irrigation and drinking water supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the operational level, there has also been a conceptual shift from single-use of water - such as through handpumps for drinking water and motorised deep tubewells for irrigation - to multiple use of water from deep tubewells since the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1927, the Law on Using National Waters (Ley Vigente de Aprovechamiento de Aguas Nacionales) was passed to approve measures addressing water use, irrigation, industrial use, and hydropower. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Honduras and the international community work together to address these hurdles, Honduras will improve water supplies, quality of water, efficiency in irrigation, important freshwater wildlife habitats, and reduce annual flood damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of shallow reservoirs inland of the coastal plain, called "water conservancies", store surface water primarily for irrigation needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is envisaged that some of the treated water will be used for the irrigation of urban parks. (wikipedia.org)
  • potable
  • The census data are not differentiated by urban or rural areas, but they differentiate by main source of drinking water supply and main source of water supply for non-potable uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply for non-potable uses The census figures for water sources for non-potable uses are different from the ones for drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innovative solutions are essential to improving global access to potable water for nearly 1 billion people. (ajtmh.org)
  • According to a survey of the Superintendencia de Servicios Públicos Domiciliarios (SSPD) or Superintendency for Residential Public Services in 2004, 72% of the users had water of potable quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, 18% of the population did not receive water of potable quality through 1,032 water systems in rural areas and small towns, operated by municipalities and community-based organizations, called ASADAS by their Spanish acronym, that consist of volunteers without specialized training. (wikipedia.org)
  • Responsibility for establishing sectoral policy is legally vested in the Subsecretaría de Agua Potable y Saneamiento" or Subministry of Potable Water and Sanitation under the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • A particularly long drought in 1998-2002 had prompted the government to promote large-scale seawater desalination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2002 census offers shows a more detailed breakdown of these numbers than the WHO/UNICEF JMP data. (wikipedia.org)
  • disinfection
  • Service quality for customers connected to the public system is poor, including low water pressure in most service areas, intermittent supply in all service areas, and a high risk of bacterial contamination due to the fact that about half of the public supplies receive no disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar water disinfection ('SoDis') is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make biologically-contaminated (e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms) water safe to drink. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar water disinfection is usually accomplished using some mix of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels (solar PV), heat (solar thermal), and solar ultraviolet light collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar disinfection using the effects of electricity generated by photovoltaics typically uses an electric current to deliver electrolytic processes which disinfect water, for example by generating oxidative free radicals which kill pathogens by damaging their chemical structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second approach uses stored solar electricity from a battery, and operates at night or at low light levels to power an ultraviolet lamp to perform secondary solar ultraviolet water disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar thermal water disinfection uses heat from the Sun to heat water to 70-100 °C for a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some solar thermal water disinfection processes are batch-based, while others (through-flow solar thermal disinfection) operate almost continuously while the Sun shines. (wikipedia.org)
  • At water temperatures higher than 45 °C (113 °F), synergistic effects of UV radiation and temperature further enhance the disinfection efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering that locations with less than 2,000 inhabitants have around 11,800 systems, it can be estimated that around 7,000 rural water systems provide water without disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improvements to the water supply and water disinfection at source did not show significant effects on diarrhea risk, nor did the one eligible study examining the effect of latrine construction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • services
  • According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, access to water and sanitation services has slowly risen over the years in Guatemala. (wikipedia.org)
  • The government of Guatemala estimates that the population without access to water services is growing at a rate of at least 100,000 people every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SAS considers accessible services to be less than 1 kilometer from a home and that at least 20 liters of water is available to each person every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1971, during the presidency of Luis Echeverría (1970-76), a new committee for water supply and sanitation systems was introduced by SRH facing a high increase in urban population which exceeded the centralized system's capacity to provide services. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Water and sanitation services are provided by a vast array of mostly local service providers under an often fragmented policy and regulatory framework. (wikipedia.org)
  • State-level regional water companies also exist in all 26 states of Brazil, where they provide services on behalf of some (but not all) municipalities in each state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rural areas, the provision of water services is usually the responsibility of community organizations (Juntas de Agua). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, despite improvements, the quality of water and sanitation services remains inadequate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Service provision is the responsibility of 1,500 water and sanitation service providers in urban areas and probably more than 12,000 communal organizations providing services in rural and peri-urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agency examines if the services comply with the Chilean norm NCh 409, which was modified for the last time in 2005 and includes standards concerning water quality, water pressure and continuity among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before 1977, urban water and sewer services in Chile were provided by a multitude of public entities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Costa Rica has made meaningful progress in expansion of water services in urban areas over the past decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the vast majority of indigenous peoples living in the 24 reserves in the country do not have access to safe drinking water or sanitation services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply services are interrupted in 50% of the urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many municipalities, in particular small and medium-sized ones, did not dispose of enough capacity for providing water supply and sanitation services. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is no clear definition of roles and responsibilities between various national and sub-national actors, nor is there an independent regulator of water supply and sanitation services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impact of the drought on child health is not due solely to lack of food but has aggravated pre-existing marginal health conditions where the net consequences of weak immunization services, lack of safe drinking water and poor sanitation often prevail. (upenn.edu)
  • This article is based on an in-depth case study of urban water services to poor households in the community of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for the period 2005-2007. (scielo.org.za)
  • Via the optic of free basic water, this research considers how much, and how, water services are offered through the FBW Policy and the Indigent Policy. (scielo.org.za)
  • Water services are understood as more than a resource and positioned within a closer proximity to poor households' notions of time, dignity and citizenship within the post-apartheid context. (scielo.org.za)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the 1927 law marked the beginning of policy measures designed specifically to manage water resources-albeit not yet integrating sectoral policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • drought
  • This paper has been prepared by UNICEF Ethiopia as an informal review of the 1999 Ethiopia drought response based on field missions, analysis of available data sources and consultation with other UN agencies, NGOs and government counterparts at central, regional and sub-regional levels. (upenn.edu)
  • Council
  • The new water law will also create a Water Authority, and the National Council of Water Resources which will serve as an advising and consultative body. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Pursuant to paragraph 5 of Security Council resolution 1153 (1998) of 20 February 1998, the enhanced distribution plan was submitted by the Government of Iraq on 27 May 1998 and was approved by the Secretary-General on 29 May 1998 (S/1998/446). (casi.org.uk)
  • It also describes developments in the implementation of the programme since the previous report, submitted to the Council on 1 September 1998 (S/1998/823). (casi.org.uk)
  • United Nations
  • however, in the case of Venezuela, the United Nations reports that Venezuela remains one of the poorest in water service provision in this region. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 10 of resolution 1153 (1998), which provides information up to 31 October 1998 on the distribution of humanitarian supplies throughout Iraq, including the implementation of the United Nations Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme in the three northern governorates of Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah. (casi.org.uk)
  • 2 Although 16 of the 33 countries in the LAC region are on track to meet the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for sanitation and clean water, countries in LAC still need to extend water and sanitation access to an additional 6.1 million and 8.4 million people, respectively, to fully meet the MDG targets. (prb.org)
  • safe water
  • According to this report, in 2011, access to "safe water" was 66 percent while access to improved sanitation was 70 percent in rural areas and 81 percent in urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence is high because of the lack of safe water sources and an increased prevalence of diarrheal illness in the local population. (cmaj.ca)
  • In addition, the creation of safe water sources and effective sanitation systems does not guarantee protection from contamination or destruction from natural disasters. (prb.org)
  • 20th century
  • Early 20th century developments in Honduran water resources management were in some ways a response to an expanding export market for bananas during the twenties. (wikipedia.org)
  • capita
  • Nicaragua is a water-rich country with a water availability of 35,000 cubic meter/capita/year, corresponding to more than five times the average for Central America and the Caribbean. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average net urban water use (i.e. excluding distribution losses) was estimated at about 240 liter/capita/day, a level that is about as high as in the United States and almost twice as high as in Central Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest water use can be found in some utilities in Chile and Argentina, where water resources are abundant and water use is almost 500 liter/capita/day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lowest water use is in Aguas de Illimani serving La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, with less than 50 liter/capita/day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DR's internal water resources per capita is 2,430 cubic meters, which is below the average for Central American and the Caribbean region, 6,645. (wikipedia.org)
  • diarrhea
  • Exposure to sunlight has been shown to deactivate diarrhea-causing organisms in polluted drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children under the age of five years are the most affected as they are prone to water-borne diseases, especially diarrhea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • substantial
  • For example, a water crisis was generated by tourist and real estate developments in the area of the popular Manuel Antonio National Park: Since the existing water supply systems could not cope with the substantial increase in demand, for more than a year hotels and real estate developments had to receive water from AyA water tankers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking
  • Conflicting statistics as to the percentages of the population using improved drinking water sources present difficulties in assessing the seriousness of the problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriological urban drinking water quality was considered acceptable by the WHO based on samples analyzed by the national utility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking arsenic contamination into account, it was estimated that in 2004 still 74% of the population had access to arsenic-free drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since arsenic was discovered in Bangladeshi groundwater in 1993, the share of population with access to safe drinking water had to be adjusted downward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data on access to drinking water supply and sanitation in Guyana differ depending on the source of information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Piped into dwelling 26% (23%) Piped into yard 34% (28%) Public standpipe 5% (10%) Rainwater harvesting 15% (20%) Other improved source 2% (2%) Bottled water 8% (6%) Water vendor 3% (1%) Other unimproved source 7% (10%) The census and the cluster survey consider rainwater harvesting as an improved source of drinking water supply, but does not consider bottled water as such. (wikipedia.org)
  • Access to an improved source for drinking water supply is lowest in the Hinterland, in particular in regions 8 and 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout the coastal area of the country the aquifer that supplies most of the drinking water has a high level of iron, making the water red. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even for those having access to water supply, poor quality of service is often experienced, in the form of intermittent supply, low pressure and poor drinking water quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • After sufficient time, the treated water can be consumed directly from the bottle or poured into clean drinking cups. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in sharp contrast to the morbidity and mortality from waterborne illness in the local population, which are significantly higher owing to a lack of safe drinking water and food, repeated pathogen exposure, chronic infection and underlying malnutrition. (cmaj.ca)
  • Water can be made safe for drinking with the use of heat, chemical treatment or filtration. (cmaj.ca)
  • A stable form of chlorine dioxide is available as a single-step method to disinfect drinking water. (cmaj.ca)
  • The optimal method to ensure safe drinking water depends on the quantity of water required, the quality of the water source and the fuel availability. (cmaj.ca)
  • Drinking water quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quality of drinking water of some communities is affected by pesticides used on pineapple plantations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking water supply and sanitation in Ecuador is characterized by a number of achievements and challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it contributed little to access to clean and safe drinking water supply and socio-economic development. (springer.com)
  • The result of the study identified river (49.24 %) as major source of drinking water followed by unprotected spring, pond, hand dung boreholes and improved water supply point which account about 41.11, 7.11, 2.03 and 0.51 % respectively. (springer.com)
  • Access to safe drinking water is the major strange, as reiterated by 95 % of the respondent. (springer.com)
  • Poor access to safe drinking water coupled with illiteracy (73.1 %) and water borne disease prevalence, greatly influenced the participation of girls and female in education, agricultural production and other development activities at study area. (springer.com)
  • Hence, urgent response with regard to providing access to safe drinking water should be given to the community by concerned body. (springer.com)
  • Safe drinking water and improved sanitation play a significant role in reducing the risk of diarrheal diseases. (prb.org)
  • The cost excludes drinking water sold in bottles or containers, and hot water or steam supplied by distinct heating plants. (zanran.com)
  • Groundwater
  • Groundwater is the main source for municipal water supply in Nicaragua. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the National Water Commission, groundwater overextraction is at almost 40 percent of total groundwater use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater, which consists of three distinct aquifers, provides about 90% of the domestic water needs of the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • With surface water resources of 20 billion m3 (BCM) per year, of which 12 BCM are groundwater recharge, water resources in the Dominican Republic (DR) could be considered abundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • WRM issues associated with tourism include: dumping of untreated waste water and solid waste along the coast, overexploitation of groundwater, destruction of forest cover, and overfishing of coral reef and marine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • quality
  • The quality of water service provision is poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor water quality and intermittent supply impose high costs on households to cope with these deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water is also commonly stored in roof tanks, which imposes both an additional cost and jeopardizes water quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor quality and efficiency of water service are serious concerns in the Managua region. (wikipedia.org)
  • One consequence of poor access and quality is that water-borne diseases are a major cause of infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • and new attributes, such as better details on water quality, can be incorporated into the data structure, ensuring that the relevance of the data is sustained over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • and a structured questionnaire is completed to document main characteristics, such as: location, functionality, category of water supply, water quality perception, management issues, ownership and water tariff payment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many households have access to several sources of water supply - such as rainwater harvesting, public supply and bottled water - balancing the availability and quality of the various sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyses of water samples for Escherichia coli and household surveys from 49 households across five villages collected one time per year for 3 years indicate that households using WHCs had improved water quality compared with households using untreated surface water (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.07, 95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.21). (ajtmh.org)
  • Recontamination during water transport and storage is an obstacle to maintaining WHC-vended water quality. (ajtmh.org)
  • Rapid economic growth and increased urbanization have also affected environmental quality and placed strains on the DR's water resources base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water resources management in the country, in particular water quality, quantity and Watershed management faces major challenges today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourism depends to a great extent on the quality of water resources and the coastal environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply and sanitation in Chile is characterized by high levels of access and good service quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, water service quality is low in Ecuador. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a national survey conducted in 2008, 64% of respondents indicated that they were satisfied with the quality of the water they received. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aguas
  • Water consumption is highest in the capital region, ranging from 44m3/month (Aguas Cordillera) to 125m3/month (Aguas de Manquehue). (wikipedia.org)
  • public
  • The UN figures on water access may not give an accurate picture of the real situation: A representative survey carried out by the World Bank in 2008 estimated that the average connection rate to the public water network was 80%, varying from 96% in Beirut to 55% in the North. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008 the public utility Guyana Water Inc. (GWI) was in the process of implementing a Turnaround Plan to reduce non-revenue water and to financially consolidate the utility. (wikipedia.org)
  • National public water and sewer companies, which have for the most part been created in the 1960s and 1970s, still exist in Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Panama, Paraguay and Uruguay. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most urban service providers are public, in 2004 there were 125 private and 48 mixed public-private water companies in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest entity was the Sanitation Department (Dirección de Obras Sanitarias, DOS) of the Ministry of Public Works, which was in charge of service provision in towns outside of the two largest cities, Santiago and Valparaíso. (wikipedia.org)
  • and by 6 percent to 25 percent with improved water supply such as protected dug wells, public taps, and tube wells. (prb.org)
  • Accordingly
  • Accordingly, a new 180-day period commenced at 0001 hours United States Eastern Standard Time on 30 May 1998. (casi.org.uk)
  • abundant
  • Honduras has abundant water resources as the country is located in the tropics but there in lies another major challenge, Honduras must constantly prepare for and recover from frequent heavy storms and flooding. (wikipedia.org)
  • On average, surface water in Peru is abundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor
  • Despite scarce resources in many Mexican regions water consumption is at a high level, partly favored by poor payment rates and low tariffs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water pressure is well below standard, particularly in poor outlying areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the exploration of actual water consumption patterns of urban poor households, the ideological assumptions and 'scientific' calculations underpinning this discourse were found to have ignored the fluidness of use as well as the value of water beyond mere physiological need. (scielo.org.za)
  • This paper explores the issue of the volumes of water received and required by poor households to meet their consumption needs. (scielo.org.za)
  • This moves a step beyond the quantitative basic water requirement debates and contributes to a more robust picture of the water volumes within an understanding of the notions of water-related needs, dignity and gendered equity as perceived by poor women. (scielo.org.za)
  • million
  • In 2015, around 1 million people lacked access to "improved" water and 6 million lacked access to "improved" sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These installations would supply 305 million m3/yr of desalinated water by the year 2010 and 500 million m³/yr by 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, around 23 million people lacked access to "at least basic water" in Uganda. (wikipedia.org)
  • It gradually emerged that 70 million people drank water which exceeds the WHO guidelines of 10 microgram of arsenic per litre, and 30 million drank water containing more than the Bangladesh National Standard of 50 microgram per litre, leading to chronic arsenic poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, there were still around 21 million lacking access to "improved" water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, the total water consumption was 958 million m³. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that the average quantity of oil exported from Iraq has increased from 1.3 million barrels per day during the previous 180-day period, to 1.7 million barrels per day during the current reporting period up to 31 October 1998. (casi.org.uk)
  • As at 31 October 1998, of the $5.256 billion authorized under resolution 1153 (1998) for the 180-day period starting on 30 May 1998 (phase IV), $2,039.5 million had been deposited into the account for this period, bringing the total oil proceeds deposited to the account since inception to $8,399.2 million. (casi.org.uk)
  • Dr Akhtar Hameed Khan (1914-99) was the founder and first Director of the project [ 6 ] , and through his dynamic and innovative skills [ 7 ] managed to bring modern sanitation to the squatter community of 1 million people. (thefullwiki.org)
  • More than a million Iraqi civilians have died, according to UNICEF, in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War. (casi.org.uk)
  • households
  • For example, many urban households that are not connected to the network rely on water bought from tanker trucks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only one quarter of Lebanese households received water every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many households also use pumps to make sure that water reaches the upper floors of houses, which imposes more costs on households. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only 38% of households used WHCs by the third year, and 60% of those households had E. coli in their water. (ajtmh.org)
  • was found to have no resonance with actual water volumes consumed by the majority of Eastwood households. (scielo.org.za)
  • contamination
  • The risk of re-contamination is minimized if the water is stored in the bottles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Springs and wells may be contaminated, and locally bottled water may be unsafe owing to unsanitary bottling practices or contamination of the water source itself. (cmaj.ca)
  • unimproved sanitation is a major source of contamination for clean water sources. (prb.org)
  • disinfect
  • However, these filters do not disinfect water and can become colonized with microorganisms. (cmaj.ca)
  • Ministry of Water
  • Since 1948, during the presidency of Miguel Alemán (1946-1952), responsibility for Mexican urban water supply systems was vested in the Ministry of Water Resources (Secretaría de Recursos Hídricos - SRH) under the federal government. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 1.5 km by Ministry of Water and Energy in universal access plan and gross and transformation document of Ethiopia. (springer.com)
  • estimates
  • In addition, CONAGUA estimates that 52% of the superficial water is very polluted, whereas only 9% are in an acceptable condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millennium Deve
  • Although the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving the number of people who did not have access to clean water by 2015, was reached five years ahead of schedule in 2010, there are still 783 million people who rely on unimproved water sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Sanitation Policy of 2006 aims to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) concerning sanitation by 2015 and to also reach universal access by 2025. (wikipedia.org)
  • groundwater
  • At some point, however, this increased demand becomes overuse, leading to depletion and pollution of surface and groundwater supplies that can cause chronic water shortages. (scribd.com)
  • However, in 1993 it was discovered that groundwater, the source of drinking water for 97% of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population, is in many cases naturally contaminated with arsenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since arsenic was discovered in Bangladeshi groundwater in 1993, the share of population with access to safe drinking water had to be adjusted downward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimates of access to an improved source of water supply is greatly affected by the presence of arsenic in groundwater, which is estimated to affect 27% of all wells and is subtracted from the figures obtained by solely measuring the level of access to infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, the poorer southern regions have abundant water resources ;however, surface and groundwater are overexploited and polluted thus leading to an insufficient water availability to support economic development and environmental sustainability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mexico has a long and well-established tradition on water resources management (WRM) which started approximately in the 1930s when the country began investing heavily in water storage facilities and groundwater development to expand irrigation and supply water to the rapidly increasing population. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the environmental side, in some cities such as Berlin water tables are rising and cause damage to the foundations of buildings because of decreased pumping of groundwater by utilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sources of public water supply are as follows: 65% from groundwater 9% from springs 5% from bank filtration, i.e. from wells close to rivers and lakes, drawing essentially surface water 20% from surface water Water supply in Germany is continuous, at good pressure, and drinking water quality is excellent, as evidenced by the universal compliance with the EU drinking water directive. (wikipedia.org)
  • provision
  • The largest entity was the Sanitation Department (Dirección de Obras Sanitarias, DOS) of the Ministry of Public Works, which was in charge of service provision in towns outside of the two largest cities, Santiago and Valparaíso. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously service provision had been the responsibility of a single National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation as well as of a few local utilities established since 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the passage of the act service provision was gradually decentralised to 91 local Water Service Providers (WSPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • These were linked to 8 regional Water Services Boards (WSBs) in charge of asset management through Service Provision Agreements (SPAs) with the WSPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • gradually
  • It gradually emerged that 70 million people drank water which exceeds the WHO guidelines of 10 microgram of arsenic per litre, and 30 million drank water containing more than the Bangladesh National Standard of 50 microgram per litre, leading to chronic arsenic poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water use has gradually decreased since 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • This recent tumultuous history, along with a fairly new constitution written in 1985 and then again amended in 1993, can explain a lack of information regarding water and sanitation, as well as low service coverage. (wikipedia.org)
  • shortages
  • The uncontrolled odours [ 7 ], social/cultural issues and water shortages led to the abandonment of the aqua privy technology [ 8 ] in Ghana. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In most of the regions of the country, water production capacity is close to current demand, so the risk of facing water deficits future is high and, in fact, various cities already suffer from water shortages and rationing. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsibility
  • In 1999 the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food (MAGA) was given responsibility for creating an Integrated Management Plan for Hydrological Resources, which will focus on water resources in terms of a political, legal and institutional framework, information and sustainability, and education. (wikipedia.org)
  • The responsibility for water and sanitation is spread over a wide number of institutions and is regulated by numerous laws and regulations, some of which are outdated. (wikipedia.org)
  • poor
  • For many environmental and social reasons, including crowded living and working conditions, inadequate sanitation, and disproportionate occupation as sex workers, the poor are more likely to be exposed to infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each year many children and adults die as a result of a lack of access to clean drinking water and poor sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to UNICEF, 3,000 children die every day, worldwide due to contaminated drinking water and poor sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water and sanitation sector in Guatemala is characterized by "low coverage, poor quality services, and deteriorating physical assets," related to a need for increased investments in basic infrastructures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another challenge is the low level of cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency, especially in urban areas where revenues from water sales do not even cover operating costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sector also prides itself of having a modern and effective regulatory framework, including an innovative subsidy to water demand by the poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor drinking water quality and sanitation lead to major outbreaks of waterborne diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The poor, in particular women and girls, spend a significant amount of time fetching water in both rural and urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • toilets
  • National government mapping and monitoring efforts as well as post-project monitoring by NGOs or researchers, have identified the failure of water supply systems (also known as water points, wells, boreholes, or similar) and sanitation systems (one part of sanitation systems are the toilets). (wikipedia.org)
  • losses
  • One weakness of the sector is the relatively high water losses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the unit cost of production, the nationwide losses due to non-revenue water in 2014 were estimated at 5.2 billion KSh, equivalent to US$52 million. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nations
  • In 2010 the United Nations declared access to clean water a fundamental human right, integral to the achievement of other rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) passed the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100,000
  • The 2012 Rockefeller Foundation Innovation Challenge receives 2,000 submissions and the eight winners are given the opportunity to apply for $100,000 grants to implement their ideas for addressing water insecurity, food insecurity, and challenges posed by urbanization. (rockefellerfoundation.org)
  • It is estimated that the total number of those directly employed in German water and sanitation utilities is far more than 100,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems
  • Access to water in urban areas is irregular, as 80% of urban water systems function for an average of 12 hours every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a water crisis was generated by tourist and real estate developments in the area of the popular Manuel Antonio National Park: Since the existing water supply systems could not cope with the substantial increase in demand, for more than a year hotels and real estate developments had to receive water from AyA water tankers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence of well-planned streets, a drainage system and water supply reveals their knowledge of urban planning, which included the first-known urban sanitation systems and the existence of a form of municipal government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failures of water supply and sanitation systems describe situations where water supply and sanitation systems (also called WASH systems) have been put in place (for example by the government or by non-government organizations (NGOs) but have failed to meet the expected outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nationally, 45% of water supply systems in public schools need extensive repair or replacement (2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • 14.5% of rural water supply systems do not meet microbial quality standards and 30.1% do not meet chemical standards (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • 70% customers of 443 small water supply systems receive water that is not in compliance with the respective quality standards (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2011 sustainability assessment of 61 rural water systems found that 18% are unlikely to be sustainable (it is unlikely the community will be able to overcome significant challenges). (wikipedia.org)
  • A sustainability study conducted by the Secretariat for Water in 2004 found that 13% of the systems were sustainable, 29% had mild problems, 20% had severe problems, and 38% were broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the beginning of the 1990s, there were problems regarding the chlorination systems of some water service providers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remainder is connected to various types of on-site sanitation systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remainder is accounted for by industries supplied from public water systems (14 percent) and other users (6 percent). (wikipedia.org)
  • source
  • The source of chlorine can be sodium hypochlorite (such as household bleach or electronically generated from a solution of salt and water), chlorinated lime, or high test hypochlorite (chlorine tablets). (hetv.org)
  • In India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of Latin America, women are required to travel long distances in order to access a clean water source and then bring some water home. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only 10% of the wells and boreholes provide safe water despite these being the main source of water for urban dwellers (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • The share of the population with access to an improved water source was estimated at 98% in 2004, a very high level for a low-income country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without taking into account the presence of arsenic, 99% of the urban population and 97% of the rural population actually had access to an improved source of water supply according to the Demographic and Health Survey of 2004, which is an unusually high level of access for a low-income country. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Pakistan Social And Living Standards Measurement Survey of 2010-11, the main source of drinking water was as follows: 32% tap water, 28% hand pump, 27% motor pump, 4% dug well and 9% others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assuming that other sources are identical to unimproved water sources, access to an improved water source was 91%, almost identical to the 2010 figure estimated by the JMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Source: Joint Monitoring Program WHO/UNICEF(JMP/2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Mombasa is supplied from a source located 220 km from the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another important source of information is the annual "impact report" published by the water regulatory agency WASREB since 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • According
  • According to a 2009 report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to water and sanitation after a visit to Costa Rica, there is a "duplication of responsibilities, lack of inter-agency coordination and, at times, conflicting competencies in the planning and development of water and sanitation policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The share with access to improved sanitation increased from 27% to 48% during the same period, according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the 2010 figures of the JMP above, however, the water target had been reached at that time already, while the sanitation target did not look as if it was going to be reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the National Drinking Water Policy (NDWP) of 2009, Pakistan's goal is to provide universal access to drinking water in an equitable, efficient and sustainable manner by 2025. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2007 national survey for the business association BDEW (BDEW customer barometer) 92% of customers were satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of their drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, according to the definition called "weighted access" (see above), the 2009 Impact Report had estimated that in 2006-2007 only 37% of Kenyans had access to sufficient and safe drinking water close to their homes at an affordable price. (wikipedia.org)
  • safe
  • In particular, impoverished communities experience reductions in safe drinking water as well as food security as a result of climate change (OECD 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Bas Congo only 39% of functional water points provided safe drinking water while in Kinshasa it was just 32% (2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • They do not assess whether water is safe to drink, sufficient in quantity, continuously available or affordable. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • The world's rapid population growth over the last century has been a major factor in increasing global water usage. (scribd.com)
  • Program
  • Statistics on those who know about and are conducting household-based water disinfection will be evaluated and compared to statistics before program implementation. (hetv.org)
  • Scarce
  • Scarce and degraded water supplies also often cause critical health problems. (scribd.com)
  • The world, especially water-scarce countries (those with less than 1,000 cubic meters per person per year) that are afflicted with rapid population growth, must slow the growth in demand for water by slowing population growth as soon as possible. (scribd.com)
  • Water is not scarce in Germany, except for occasional localized droughts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although urban water tariffs are high by regional standards (60 KSh or US$0.60 per m3 on average in 2014), these tariffs only allow the recovery of operating costs, but not the recovery of capital costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • The Water Point Data Exchange (WPDx), launched in 2015, is a global platform for sharing water point data collected by governments, non-profit organizations, researchers, and others. (wikipedia.org)