• 1992
  • KCMG for "contributions to international development" - UN Medal for "International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia" 1998: Hon. LittD (UEA) 1992: Hon. DLitt (Sussex) 2007: Hon. PhD (Erasmus) 2001: Hon. Fellow (Magdalene Coll, Cantab) Freeman of the City of London Master of the Worshipful Company of Curriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998-99, the total fertility rate was 2.9 per woman, down from 3.4 in 1992-93. (blogspot.com)
  • Between 1965 and 1992, the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Obras Sanitarias (IEOS) or Ecuadorian Institute for Sanitary Works had been responsible for water supply and sanitation services in Ecuador. (wikipedia.org)
  • adequate
  • Population growth, agricultural expansion, unevenly distributed services, and polluted sources have contributed to the inability of citizens to access adequate amounts of clean water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanitation faces its own set of challenges, with only 56% of the population estimated to have had access to adequate sanitation facilities in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, unstable investment and political climates, strong weather phenomena, poverty, lack of adequate capacity, and deficient infrastructures have and will continue to challenge developments to water resource management. (wikipedia.org)
  • As shown above, in urban areas 97% of the population is estimated to have access to improved water supply and 85% to adequate sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The census does not allow to determine the type of latrine used, and thus it cannot be deducted from the data what is the share of population with access to adequate sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, the water supply system's pressure is not adequate, increasing the risk of bacterial contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply is continuous (24/7), both in urban areas and in concentrated rural areas and water pressure is adequate. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are lot of architectural and aesthetic aspects related to a school's hygienic needs, such as: school's building plan, safe water supply, disposition of waste, emergency lighting, heating and ventilation, as well as adequate school facilities (halls, classrooms, and common areas) and furniture. (wikipedia.org)
  • A survey of rural residents in the watersheds of the Baru and Guabo Rivers conducted in 2005 showed that illnesses from poor-quality piped water were common and that the community-based organizations in charge of operating the systems lacked adequate support as well as appropriate expertise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existing on-site sanitation installations, such as septic tanks, are not always an adequate solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innovative methods were used to provide adequate low cost sanitation , health , housing and microfinance facilities. (thefullwiki.org)
  • scarcity
  • But irregular spatial and seasonal distribution, coupled with high consumption in irrigation and urban water supply, translates into water scarcity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water scarcity is reflected in increasing competition for surface water allocation and unsustainable groundwater abstraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paris - Faced with "inertia at the leadership level", the global water crisis will reach unprecedented levels in the years ahead with "growing per capita scarcity of water in many parts of the developing world", according to a United Nations report made public today. (unesco.org)
  • By the middle of this century, at worst seven billion people in 60 countries will be faced with water scarcity, at best 2 billion in 48 countries, depending on factors like population growth and policy-making. (unesco.org)
  • Climate change will account for an estimated 20% of this increase in global water scarcity, according to the report. (unesco.org)
  • 2001
  • The PEAP estimated that from 2001 to 2015, about US$1.4 billion in total (US$92 million per year) was needed to increase water supply coverage up to 95 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data for water and sanitation based on the Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, July 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • Honorary Vice-President of the British Association of Former UN Civil Servants Member of the Independent Advisory Panel for the One World Trust's Global Accountability Project Senior Research Fellow at The CUNY Graduate Center The Headstrong Society - UNDP (Chairman 1998) The Headstrong Society - Columbia University (2001-present) Joint Founding Editor of the Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nacional
  • In 1965, the DR Government created the National Institute for the Development of Water Resources (Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo de los Recursos Hidraulicos- INDRHI) responsible for planning the sustainable use of water resources and associated resources, as well as designing, formulating, executing, monitoring and evaluating projects, programs and actions aimed at controlling and regulating superficial and groundwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1977, the national public water and sanitation company SENDOS (Servicio Nacional de Obras Sanitarias) was created which had 11 regional branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Ecuador has a National Water and Sanitation Policy, Política Nacional de Agua y Saneamiento under Executive Decree No. 2766 of 30 July 2002 it is set out in relatively vague terms and avoids a clear position on sensitive issues such as investment subsidies (by national and sub-national governments) and who should receive them. (wikipedia.org)
  • progress
  • Costa Rica has made meaningful progress in expansion of water services in urban areas over the past decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compile the report, every UN agency and commission dealing with water has for the first time worked jointly to monitor progress against water-related targets in such fields as health, food, ecosystems, cities, industry, energy, risk management, economic evaluation, resource sharing and governance. (unesco.org)
  • 1994
  • UNICEF calculated that in LAC "between 1994 and 2003 the economic losses in water and sanitation were about $650 million, as a result of at least 2,100 urban systems damaged, 4,500 rural aqueducts affected, and 28,000 wells and 173,000 latrines destroyed" due to natural disasters including floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes. (prb.org)
  • 1995
  • The 1995 Interim Agreement as part of the Oslo Peace Process provided certain quantities of water to the Palestinians, but prevents them from drilling any new wells in the Mountain Aquifer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only with Jordan was Israel able to reach an agreement on the sharing of water resources in 1995 as part of the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the deduction of the minimum pipeline fee of $140 million, and the allocation of revenue as set out in paragraphs 8 (a) to (f) of resolution 986 (1995), an amount of approximately $1.98 billion would be available to finance the humanitarian supplies authorized in resolution 1153 (1998) and the oil spare parts and equipment authorized in resolution 1175 (1998). (casi.org.uk)
  • improved water
  • According to UN estimates that are not based on any household survey access to an improved water source in Lebanon is universal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty-eight percent of the population, however, still had no access to an improved water source in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time these goals were set, the government defined access to improved water supply and sanitation as follows: improved water supply in urban areas is given through an improved water source within a walking distance of 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) in rural areas and 0.2 kilometres (0.12 mi) in urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The share of the population with access to an improved water source was estimated at 98% in 2004, a very high level for a low-income country. (wikipedia.org)
  • wastewater
  • For example, only 73% of those receiving public services receive water of potable quality and in 2006 only 25% of the wastewater generated in the country underwent any kind of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • irrigation
  • Because rain falls only in the winter, and largely in the northern part of the country, irrigation and water engineering are considered vital to the country's economic survival and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the coastal plain of Judea and Samaria had few water resources, Theodor Herzl already envisioned the transfer of water from the Jordan River to the coast for irrigation and drinking water supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the operational level, there has also been a conceptual shift from single-use of water - such as through handpumps for drinking water and motorised deep tubewells for irrigation - to multiple use of water from deep tubewells since the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1927, the Law on Using National Waters (Ley Vigente de Aprovechamiento de Aguas Nacionales) was passed to approve measures addressing water use, irrigation, industrial use, and hydropower. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Honduras and the international community work together to address these hurdles, Honduras will improve water supplies, quality of water, efficiency in irrigation, important freshwater wildlife habitats, and reduce annual flood damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of shallow reservoirs inland of the coastal plain, called "water conservancies", store surface water primarily for irrigation needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is envisaged that some of the treated water will be used for the irrigation of urban parks. (wikipedia.org)
  • sewage
  • This new plant treats 67% of the sewage waters in Managua. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large scale projects to desalinate seawater, direct water from rivers and reservoirs in the north, make optimal use of groundwater, and reclaim flood overflow and sewage have been undertaken. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances have also been achieved concerning the disinfection of drinking water and in sewage treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] With endogenous research, the community was able to make an affordable sanitation system for the treatment of sewage, which helped to reduce the spread of disease. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A survey of 334 katchi abadis - Existing situation, problems and solutions related to sewage disposal, water supply, health and education. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Public water and sewage systems were damaged by civilian rebellions following the coalition offensive last year, Fine said. (mcall.com)
  • Chlorine and water pumps are in short supply, and raw sewage is being dumped onto city streets and into the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Iraq's main sources of drinking water. (mcall.com)
  • A Harvard University research team tested tap water in several cities last year and it concluded that the water reaching many Iraqi households amounted to diluted sewage, Fine said. (mcall.com)
  • Council
  • The new water law will also create a Water Authority, and the National Council of Water Resources which will serve as an advising and consultative body. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Pursuant to paragraph 5 of Security Council resolution 1153 (1998) of 20 February 1998, the enhanced distribution plan was submitted by the Government of Iraq on 27 May 1998 and was approved by the Secretary-General on 29 May 1998 (S/1998/446). (casi.org.uk)
  • It also describes developments in the implementation of the programme since the previous report, submitted to the Council on 1 September 1998 (S/1998/823). (casi.org.uk)
  • Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. (mdpi.com)
  • potable
  • The census data are not differentiated by urban or rural areas, but they differentiate by main source of drinking water supply and main source of water supply for non-potable uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply for non-potable uses The census figures for water sources for non-potable uses are different from the ones for drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innovative solutions are essential to improving global access to potable water for nearly 1 billion people. (ajtmh.org)
  • According to a survey of the Superintendencia de Servicios Públicos Domiciliarios (SSPD) or Superintendency for Residential Public Services in 2004, 72% of the users had water of potable quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, 18% of the population did not receive water of potable quality through 1,032 water systems in rural areas and small towns, operated by municipalities and community-based organizations, called ASADAS by their Spanish acronym, that consist of volunteers without specialized training. (wikipedia.org)
  • Responsibility for establishing sectoral policy is legally vested in the Subsecretaría de Agua Potable y Saneamiento" or Subministry of Potable Water and Sanitation under the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ministry
  • In 1999 the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food (MAGA) was given responsibility for creating an Integrated Management Plan for Hydrological Resources, which will focus on water resources in terms of a political, legal and institutional framework, information and sustainability, and education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1948, during the presidency of Miguel Alemán (1946-1952), responsibility for Mexican urban water supply systems was vested in the Ministry of Water Resources (Secretaría de Recursos Hídricos - SRH) under the federal government. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest entity was the Sanitation Department (Dirección de Obras Sanitarias, DOS) of the Ministry of Public Works, which was in charge of service provision in towns outside of the two largest cities, Santiago and Valparaíso. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development also had water and sanitation departments. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 1.5 km by Ministry of Water and Energy in universal access plan and gross and transformation document of Ethiopia. (springer.com)
  • infrastructure
  • These financial setbacks prevent needed improvements in the countries' general infrastructure, such as education, public health, and water and sanitation systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimates of access to an improved source of water supply is greatly affected by the presence of arsenic in groundwater, which is estimated to affect 27% of all wells and is subtracted from the figures obtained by solely measuring the level of access to infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spatial nature of water poverty, such as the distance to the nearest water source or the water supply infrastructure, can also be incorporated easily in a GIS database. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DR government is in the process of reducing its role as main investor for water resources infrastructure and services provider decentralizing some responsibilities to local and regional government, water users organizations, and private companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • A particularly long drought in 1998-2002 had prompted the government to promote large-scale seawater desalination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2002 census offers shows a more detailed breakdown of these numbers than the WHO/UNICEF JMP data. (wikipedia.org)
  • continuity
  • The continuity of supply was best in the North where 59% said they received water every day in 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuity of supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agency examines if the services comply with the Chilean norm NCh 409, which was modified for the last time in 2005 and includes standards concerning water quality, water pressure and continuity among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • This figure apparently does not include the level of satisfaction related to the continuity or pressure of water supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • United Nations
  • however, in the case of Venezuela, the United Nations reports that Venezuela remains one of the poorest in water service provision in this region. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 10 of resolution 1153 (1998), which provides information up to 31 October 1998 on the distribution of humanitarian supplies throughout Iraq, including the implementation of the United Nations Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme in the three northern governorates of Dahuk, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah. (casi.org.uk)
  • 2 Although 16 of the 33 countries in the LAC region are on track to meet the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for sanitation and clean water, countries in LAC still need to extend water and sanitation access to an additional 6.1 million and 8.4 million people, respectively, to fully meet the MDG targets. (prb.org)
  • services
  • According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, access to water and sanitation services has slowly risen over the years in Guatemala. (wikipedia.org)
  • The government of Guatemala estimates that the population without access to water services is growing at a rate of at least 100,000 people every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SAS considers accessible services to be less than 1 kilometer from a home and that at least 20 liters of water is available to each person every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1971, during the presidency of Luis Echeverría (1970-76), a new committee for water supply and sanitation systems was introduced by SRH facing a high increase in urban population which exceeded the centralized system's capacity to provide services. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Water and sanitation services are provided by a vast array of mostly local service providers under an often fragmented policy and regulatory framework. (wikipedia.org)
  • State-level regional water companies also exist in all 26 states of Brazil, where they provide services on behalf of some (but not all) municipalities in each state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rural areas, the provision of water services is usually the responsibility of community organizations (Juntas de Agua). (wikipedia.org)
  • Service provision is the responsibility of 1,500 water and sanitation service providers in urban areas and probably more than 12,000 communal organizations providing services in rural and peri-urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before 1977, urban water and sewer services in Chile were provided by a multitude of public entities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply services are interrupted in 50% of the urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many municipalities, in particular small and medium-sized ones, did not dispose of enough capacity for providing water supply and sanitation services. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is no clear definition of roles and responsibilities between various national and sub-national actors, nor is there an independent regulator of water supply and sanitation services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impact of the drought on child health is not due solely to lack of food but has aggravated pre-existing marginal health conditions where the net consequences of weak immunization services, lack of safe drinking water and poor sanitation often prevail. (upenn.edu)
  • A string of international conferences over the past 25 years has focused on the great variety of water issues including ways to provide the basic water supply and sanitation services required in the years to come. (unesco.org)
  • capita
  • Nicaragua is a water-rich country with a water availability of 35,000 cubic meter/capita/year, corresponding to more than five times the average for Central America and the Caribbean. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average net urban water use (i.e. excluding distribution losses) was estimated at about 240 liter/capita/day, a level that is about as high as in the United States and almost twice as high as in Central Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest water use can be found in some utilities in Chile and Argentina, where water resources are abundant and water use is almost 500 liter/capita/day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lowest water use is in Aguas de Illimani serving La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, with less than 50 liter/capita/day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DR's internal water resources per capita is 2,430 cubic meters, which is below the average for Central American and the Caribbean region, 6,645. (wikipedia.org)
  • safe water
  • According to this report, in 2011, access to "safe water" was 66 percent while access to improved sanitation was 70 percent in rural areas and 81 percent in urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence is high because of the lack of safe water sources and an increased prevalence of diarrheal illness in the local population. (cmaj.ca)
  • In addition, the creation of safe water sources and effective sanitation systems does not guarantee protection from contamination or destruction from natural disasters. (prb.org)
  • drought
  • This paper has been prepared by UNICEF Ethiopia as an informal review of the 1999 Ethiopia drought response based on field missions, analysis of available data sources and consultation with other UN agencies, NGOs and government counterparts at central, regional and sub-regional levels. (upenn.edu)
  • 20th century
  • Early 20th century developments in Honduran water resources management were in some ways a response to an expanding export market for bananas during the twenties. (wikipedia.org)
  • rural
  • In Guatemala, 93% of the total population had access to "improved" water, 98% of the urban population and 87% of the rural population. (wikipedia.org)
  • As for sanitation, 64% of the total population, 78% and 49%, urban and rural respectively, had access to "improved" sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking water and sanitation in Nicaragua are provided by a national public utility in urban areas and water committees in rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a substantial increase in access to water supply and sanitation has been reached in rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Access to at least basic water was 39 percent of the total population, or 73% of the urban population and 32% of the rural population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common technology options for rural water supply are protected springs, boreholes, protected wells, and gravity flow schemes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 1993 it was discovered that groundwater, the source of drinking water for 97% of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population, is in many cases naturally contaminated with arsenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rural areas, users contribute 34% of investment costs, and at least in piped water schemes supported by the Rural Development Academy recover operating costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, 87% of the population had access to "improved" water, and the figure was identical to rural and urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding sanitation, 61% of the total population had access to "improved" sanitation, or 58% and 62%, in urban and rural areas, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without taking into account the presence of arsenic, 99% of the urban population and 97% of the rural population actually had access to an improved source of water supply according to the Demographic and Health Survey of 2004, which is an unusually high level of access for a low-income country. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rural areas, the respective shares are 91% for water and 79% for sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rural areas water use is sometimes even lower than this level. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study presents an independent investigation of one alternative by examining for-profit water-vending kiosks, WaterHealth Centers (WHCs), in rural Ghana to determine their association with household drinking water quality. (ajtmh.org)
  • In 2015, in Colombia 91% of the population had access to "improved" water, 97% and 74%, in urban and rural areas, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, rationing of water and interrupted sanitation are ordinary incidents in small towns and rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, in Costa Rica, 98% of the population had access to "improved" water, 99.5% and 92%, in urban and rural areas, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year, 95% of the population had access to "improved" sanitation, 95% and 92%, in urban and rural areas, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rural areas, however, in a sample consisting of 1,630 analyzed systems, 59% do not disinfect the water because of lacking the necessary facilities or the lack of chlorine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering that locations with less than 2,000 inhabitants have around 11,800 systems, it can be estimated that around 7,000 rural water systems provide water without disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, almost the entire population had access to improved water sources (100 and 99 percent in urban and rural areas respectively) and 94 percent of the total population had access to improved sanitation (94 and 95 percent in urban and rural areas respectively) (JMP, 2015). (fao.org)
  • urban areas
  • Access to water in urban areas is irregular, as 80% of urban water systems function for an average of 12 hours every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite relatively high levels of investment, access to drinking water in urban areas has barely kept up with population growth, access to urban sanitation has actually declined and service quality remains poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another challenge is the low level of cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency, especially in urban areas where revenues from water sales do not even cover operating costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 30% of the urban areas, there is no treatment of drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urban areas received water service for an average of 17 hours per day in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • substantial
  • For example, a water crisis was generated by tourist and real estate developments in the area of the popular Manuel Antonio National Park: Since the existing water supply systems could not cope with the substantial increase in demand, for more than a year hotels and real estate developments had to receive water from AyA water tankers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking
  • Conflicting statistics as to the percentages of the population using improved drinking water sources present difficulties in assessing the seriousness of the problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriological urban drinking water quality was considered acceptable by the WHO based on samples analyzed by the national utility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking arsenic contamination into account, it was estimated that in 2004 still 74% of the population had access to arsenic-free drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since arsenic was discovered in Bangladeshi groundwater in 1993, the share of population with access to safe drinking water had to be adjusted downward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data on access to drinking water supply and sanitation in Guyana differ depending on the source of information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Piped into dwelling 26% (23%) Piped into yard 34% (28%) Public standpipe 5% (10%) Rainwater harvesting 15% (20%) Other improved source 2% (2%) Bottled water 8% (6%) Water vendor 3% (1%) Other unimproved source 7% (10%) The census and the cluster survey consider rainwater harvesting as an improved source of drinking water supply, but does not consider bottled water as such. (wikipedia.org)
  • Access to an improved source for drinking water supply is lowest in the Hinterland, in particular in regions 8 and 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout the coastal area of the country the aquifer that supplies most of the drinking water has a high level of iron, making the water red. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even for those having access to water supply, poor quality of service is often experienced, in the form of intermittent supply, low pressure and poor drinking water quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to sunlight has been shown to deactivate diarrhea-causing organisms in polluted drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • After sufficient time, the treated water can be consumed directly from the bottle or poured into clean drinking cups. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in sharp contrast to the morbidity and mortality from waterborne illness in the local population, which are significantly higher owing to a lack of safe drinking water and food, repeated pathogen exposure, chronic infection and underlying malnutrition. (cmaj.ca)
  • Water can be made safe for drinking with the use of heat, chemical treatment or filtration. (cmaj.ca)
  • A stable form of chlorine dioxide is available as a single-step method to disinfect drinking water. (cmaj.ca)
  • The optimal method to ensure safe drinking water depends on the quantity of water required, the quality of the water source and the fuel availability. (cmaj.ca)
  • Drinking water quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quality of drinking water of some communities is affected by pesticides used on pineapple plantations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking water supply and sanitation in Ecuador is characterized by a number of achievements and challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it contributed little to access to clean and safe drinking water supply and socio-economic development. (springer.com)
  • The result of the study identified river (49.24 %) as major source of drinking water followed by unprotected spring, pond, hand dung boreholes and improved water supply point which account about 41.11, 7.11, 2.03 and 0.51 % respectively. (springer.com)
  • Access to safe drinking water is the major strange, as reiterated by 95 % of the respondent. (springer.com)
  • Poor access to safe drinking water coupled with illiteracy (73.1 %) and water borne disease prevalence, greatly influenced the participation of girls and female in education, agricultural production and other development activities at study area. (springer.com)
  • Hence, urgent response with regard to providing access to safe drinking water should be given to the community by concerned body. (springer.com)
  • Safe drinking water and improved sanitation play a significant role in reducing the risk of diarrheal diseases. (prb.org)
  • public
  • The UN figures on water access may not give an accurate picture of the real situation: A representative survey carried out by the World Bank in 2008 estimated that the average connection rate to the public water network was 80%, varying from 96% in Beirut to 55% in the North. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008 the public utility Guyana Water Inc. (GWI) was in the process of implementing a Turnaround Plan to reduce non-revenue water and to financially consolidate the utility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many households have access to several sources of water supply - such as rainwater harvesting, public supply and bottled water - balancing the availability and quality of the various sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Service quality for customers connected to the public system is poor, including low water pressure in most service areas, intermittent supply in all service areas, and a high risk of bacterial contamination due to the fact that about half of the public supplies receive no disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • National public water and sewer companies, which have for the most part been created in the 1960s and 1970s, still exist in Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Panama, Paraguay and Uruguay. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most urban service providers are public, in 2004 there were 125 private and 48 mixed public-private water companies in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • and by 6 percent to 25 percent with improved water supply such as protected dug wells, public taps, and tube wells. (prb.org)
  • Sustainable management of water resources is seen as vital for economic growth, public health, food security and stable societies [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Ingeborg Jille Traas holds a Masters in Public Health and has over 15 years experience of working in pharmaceutical procurement and supply management, particularly for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-related health commodities, and in health systems strengthening. (ennonline.net)
  • As a result, government may be less accountable for reaching public health results and supply chain resources may be stretched. (ennonline.net)
  • disinfection
  • Solar water disinfection ('SoDis') is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make biologically-contaminated (e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms) water safe to drink. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar water disinfection is usually accomplished using some mix of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels (solar PV), heat (solar thermal), and solar ultraviolet light collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar disinfection using the effects of electricity generated by photovoltaics typically uses an electric current to deliver electrolytic processes which disinfect water, for example by generating oxidative free radicals which kill pathogens by damaging their chemical structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second approach uses stored solar electricity from a battery, and operates at night or at low light levels to power an ultraviolet lamp to perform secondary solar ultraviolet water disinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar thermal water disinfection uses heat from the Sun to heat water to 70-100 °C for a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some solar thermal water disinfection processes are batch-based, while others (through-flow solar thermal disinfection) operate almost continuously while the Sun shines. (wikipedia.org)
  • At water temperatures higher than 45 °C (113 °F), synergistic effects of UV radiation and temperature further enhance the disinfection efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater
  • Groundwater is the main source for municipal water supply in Nicaragua. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the National Water Commission, groundwater overextraction is at almost 40 percent of total groundwater use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater, which consists of three distinct aquifers, provides about 90% of the domestic water needs of the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • With surface water resources of 20 billion m3 (BCM) per year, of which 12 BCM are groundwater recharge, water resources in the Dominican Republic (DR) could be considered abundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • WRM issues associated with tourism include: dumping of untreated waste water and solid waste along the coast, overexploitation of groundwater, destruction of forest cover, and overfishing of coral reef and marine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • quality
  • The quality of water service provision is poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor water quality and intermittent supply impose high costs on households to cope with these deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water is also commonly stored in roof tanks, which imposes both an additional cost and jeopardizes water quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poor quality and efficiency of water service are serious concerns in the Managua region. (wikipedia.org)
  • One consequence of poor access and quality is that water-borne diseases are a major cause of infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • and new attributes, such as better details on water quality, can be incorporated into the data structure, ensuring that the relevance of the data is sustained over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • and a structured questionnaire is completed to document main characteristics, such as: location, functionality, category of water supply, water quality perception, management issues, ownership and water tariff payment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyses of water samples for Escherichia coli and household surveys from 49 households across five villages collected one time per year for 3 years indicate that households using WHCs had improved water quality compared with households using untreated surface water (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.07, 95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.21). (ajtmh.org)
  • Recontamination during water transport and storage is an obstacle to maintaining WHC-vended water quality. (ajtmh.org)
  • Rapid economic growth and increased urbanization have also affected environmental quality and placed strains on the DR's water resources base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water resources management in the country, in particular water quality, quantity and Watershed management faces major challenges today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourism depends to a great extent on the quality of water resources and the coastal environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water supply and sanitation in Chile is characterized by high levels of access and good service quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, water service quality is low in Ecuador. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a national survey conducted in 2008, 64% of respondents indicated that they were satisfied with the quality of the water they received. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water quality will worsen with rising pollution levels and water temperatures. (unesco.org)
  • households
  • For example, many urban households that are not connected to the network rely on water bought from tanker trucks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only one quarter of Lebanese households received water every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many households also use pumps to make sure that water reaches the upper floors of houses, which imposes more costs on households. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, only 38% of households used WHCs by the third year, and 60% of those households had E. coli in their water. (ajtmh.org)
  • service
  • Municipalities are in charge of water and sanitation service provision in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average duration of daily water service has increased from 15.36 hours in 1993 to 19.82 hours in 2003 at the national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the beginning of the 1990s, there were problems regarding the chlorination systems of some water service providers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aguas
  • Water consumption is highest in the capital region, ranging from 44m3/month (Aguas Cordillera) to 125m3/month (Aguas de Manquehue). (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly
  • Accordingly, a new 180-day period commenced at 0001 hours United States Eastern Standard Time on 30 May 1998. (casi.org.uk)