• RANKL
  • One receptor/ligand pair known as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulates bone remodeling, mammary gland development, and lymph node organogenesis. (springer.com)
  • RANKL is primarily expressed by T cells and bone marrow cells ( 8 , 9 , 13 , 14 ), implying that it functions within the immune system in addition to bone metabolism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Also, in vitro studies suggest that RANKL and RANK may play a role in DC survival and function ( 13 , 14 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Indeed, both RANK and RANKL were originally described in studies of T cell and DC activation ( 13 , 14 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A weak NF-κB activator, Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL) is likewise ineffective. (springer.com)
  • RANK is the receptor for RANK-Ligand (RANKL) and part of the RANK/RANKL/OPG signaling pathway that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RANKL (Receptor Activator for Nuclear factor κ B Ligand) is found on the surface of stromal cells, osteoblasts, and T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other members of the TNFSF, each surface interaction in RANK-RANKL is continuous. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system is balanced by the relative expression of OPG to RANKL, which are highly regulated by many factors including hormones, immune signals, and growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The balance between RANKL and OPG is a target for therapy in many diseases including estrogen deficiency-associated osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease, periodontal disease, and bone tumors and malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the tumor is seeded in the bone, the tumor cells stimulate bone resorption by secreting factors such as RANKL or prompting the surrounding stroma to express growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • 7. MONTGOMERY, R., WARNER, M., LUM, B. AND SPEAR, P. Herpes simplex virus-1 entry into cells mediated by a novel member of the TNF/NGF receptor family. (130.88.97)
  • In addition, novel apoptotic players such as miRNAs and sphingolipid family members in various kind of cancer are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Oncogene
  • Degradation of I-kB liberates transcription factor NF-kB1(p50) and v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A ( RelA(p65) ), allowing its rapid translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • expression
  • For example, NFAT1 regulates the expression of TWEAKR and its ligand TWEAK (this protein) with lipocalin 2 to increase breast cancer cell invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • RT "Human tumour necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and RT homology to lymphotoxin. (genome.jp)
  • RT "Molecular cloning and expression of human tumor necrosis factor and RT comparison with mouse tumor necrosis factor. (genome.jp)
  • TWEAK mRNA expression was detected in many tumor types by cDNA array hybridization analysis, and TWEAK protein expression was confirmed in human colon cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TL1A expression has also been confirmed on antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes that are activated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, enteric bacteria, and Fc γ receptor (Fc γ R) crosslinking [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It was recently shown that DR3 expression on B cells was induced by anti-IgM stimulation, although its expression was not detectable on resting B cells [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Rather, concomitant stimulation of the innate immune system leads to increased expression of factors, such as cytokines, that may influence the adaptive immune system to promote the injury of the transplant organ ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • activates
  • TNF receptor family member BCMA (B cell maturation) associates with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 and activates NF-kappa B, elk-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. (nih.gov)
  • It is supposed, that TACI activates Calcium modulating ligand ( CAML )/ Peptidylprolyl isomerase B ( Cyclophilin B )/ Catalytic (A) subunit isoforms of calcineurin ( Calcineurin A (catalytic)) cascade , . (pathwaymaps.com)
  • TRAF6
  • RANK interacts with five members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family, of which TRAF6 is indispensable for its signaling capability. (springer.com)
  • The signal is transduced by cytoplasmatic kinases (such as IRAKs) and by other adaptors, such as tumor necrosis factor 6 (TRAF6). (wikipedia.org)
  • TRAF6 stimulates the activation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-kB) pathways which trigger differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • One of the most important APRIL / BAFF -induced mechanisms is an activation of Nuclear factors of kappa light polypeptide in B-cells (NF-kB) signaling cascades. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • inhibitor
  • The exact mechanism of BAFF-R -dependent signaling is unknown, but it is believed, that BAFF-R may repress action of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 ( TRAF3 ) - inhibitor of TRAF2 and NIK . (pathwaymaps.com)
  • mice
  • We found that although TWEAK-overexpressing cells do not have a growth advantage in vitro , they form larger and more highly vascularized tumors in athymic mice when compared with control, vector-transfected cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • macrophage
  • After activation, NK cells also secrete several cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and chemokines (CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL8) that can modulate the function of other innate and adaptive immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Macrophage colony stimulating factor, the primary macrophage survival and differentiation factor, does not activate NF-κB or protect macrophages from MTX-induced apoptosis. (springer.com)