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  • microsatellite
  • In order to increase the genetic molecular markers in P. radiata , two inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and twelve selective amplifications of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) primer combinations were tested, using a first-generation full-sib family of 86 individuals. (scielo.cl)
  • Microsatellite markers (also known as simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) are robust and, coupled with their co-dominant expression, make them the current marker of choice for phylogenetic/evolutionary studies, development of genome maps and the identification of DNA markers linked to desirable traits for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton. (springer.com)
  • A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1-6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the first microsatellite was characterised in 1984 at the University of Leicester by Weller, Jeffreys and colleagues as a polymorphic GGAT repeat in the human myoglobin gene, the term "microsatellite" was introduced later, in 1989, by Litt and Luty. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992). A microsatellite is a tract of tandemly repeated (i.e. adjacent) DNA motifs that range in length from one to six or up to ten nucleotides (the exact definition and delineation to the longer minisatellites varies from author to author), and are typically repeated 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, Verma was appointed as a scientist at the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) where he continued his research on the DNA-based identification system, and in 1999, he received the Emerging Forensic Scientist Continental Award from the International Association of Forensic Sciences at the University of California, USA for his work on DNA microsatellite based identification of wild animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • A number of means can express the level of genetic diversity: observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, the mean number of alleles per locus, or the percentage of polymorphic loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, Karl Brown's original technique looked at many minisatellite loci at the same time, increasing the observed variability, but making it hard to discern individual alleles (and thereby precluding paternity testing). (wikipedia.org)
  • accessions
  • In banana, several DNA marker techniques have been used to investigate genetic relationships between Musa accessions, and to determine differences in somaclonal variants and radiation-induced mutants. (fao.org)
  • Verma started his research career at G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, where he worked on the DNA fingerprinting of Indian scented basmati rice for identification of duplicate accessions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1975
  • For example, there are the terms established in ecological genetics by E.B. Ford (1975), and for classical genetics by John Maynard Smith (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different that it is possible to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic ("identical") twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable, called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), in particular short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, and minisatellites. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Lee, 1998), but the biological mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are unknown. (healingtaousa.com)
  • The technique has been extended to the study of other biological macromolecules that have been separated in a variety of supports. (wikipedia.org)
  • Verma is primarily known for his contributions to the development of "universal primer technology", a DNA barcoding method, that can identify any bird, fish, reptile or mammal from a small biological sample, and satisfy legal evidence requirements in a court of law. (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA
  • After the release of the mtDNA to the cytoplasm, due to the mitochondrial alteration and morphological changes, mtDNA is transferred into the nucleus by one of the various predicted methods and are eventually inserted by double-stranded break repair processes into the nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integration and recombination of cytoplasmic mtDNA into the nuclear DNA is called Nuclear Mitochondrial DNA, which is abbreviated as NUMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimates of the mutation rate of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) vary greatly depending on the available data and the method used for estimation. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • DNA fingerprinting has also been used in the study of animal and floral populations and in the fields of zoology, botany, and agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has revolutionized the whole field of DNA study. (wikipedia.org)
  • microsatellites
  • Microsatellites and their longer cousins, the minisatellites, together are classified as VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • In the PCR process, the DNA sample is denatured into the separate individual polynucleotide strands through heating. (wikipedia.org)
  • repetitive
  • The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the hexanucleotide repeat motif TTAGGG in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • It can also detect variation in DNA profiles of induced mutant clones which are otherwise morphologically indistinguishable, and detect variation between the induced mutant parent clones and their derived suckers. (fao.org)
  • mutation
  • Induced mutation (either by chemicals or irradiation), coupled with in vitro propagation technique such as shoot-tip culture, has been established as a tool to generate variation in a number of vegetatively propagated crops [2- (fao.org)
  • They have a higher mutation rate than other areas of DNA leading to high genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Outbreeding depression Fragmented populations Taxonomic uncertainties, which can lead to a reprioritization of conservation efforts Genetic drift as the main evolutionary process, instead of natural selection Management units within species Specific genetic techniques are used to assess the genomes of a species regarding specific conservation issues as well as general population structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, a process was reported by which specific portions of the sample DNA can be amplified almost indefinitely (Saiki et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, called a DNA profile, that is very likely to be different in unrelated individuals, thereby being as unique to individuals as are fingerprints (hence the alternative name for the technique). (wikipedia.org)
  • genealogical
  • DNA profiling has also been used to help clarify paternity, in immigration disputes, in parentage testing and in genealogical research or medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • These techniques can provide information on long-term conservation of genetic diversity and expound demographic and ecological matters such as taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Silver staining aids the visualization of targets of interest, namely intracellular and extracellular cellular components such as DNA and proteins, such as type III collagen and reticulin fibres by the deposition of metallic silver particles on the targets of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • After this initial observation, Ellis coined the name "promiscuous DNA" in order to signify the transfer of DNA intracellularly from one organelle to the other and is the presence of organelle DNA in multiple cellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Historic DNA is important because it allows geneticists to understand how species reacted to changes to conditions in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA profiling with the aim of identifying not an individual but a species is called DNA barcoding. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • With the invention of the PCR technique, DNA profiling took huge strides forward in both discriminating power and the ability to recover information from very small (or degraded) starting samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • this allows them to accumulate mutations unhindered over the generations and gives rise to variability that can be used for DNA fingerprinting and identification purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Random genetic drift may also cause the loss of mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • eliminate
  • However, the number of vegetative propagation cycles for the shoot-tip technique used may not be sufficient to eliminate chimeras completely in the mutated populations. (fao.org)
  • DNA profiling is most commonly used as a forensic technique in criminal investigations to identify an unidentified person or whose identity needs to be confirmed, or to place a person at a crime scene or to eliminate a person from consideration. (wikipedia.org)