• microsatellite
  • A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1-6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the first microsatellite was characterised in 1984 at the University of Leicester by Weller, Jeffreys and colleagues as a polymorphic GGAT repeat in the human myoglobin gene, the term "microsatellite" was introduced later, in 1989, by Litt and Luty. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992). A microsatellite is a tract of tandemly repeated (i.e. adjacent) DNA motifs that range in length from one to six or up to ten nucleotides (the exact definition and delineation to the longer minisatellites varies from author to author), and are typically repeated 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, Verma was appointed as a scientist at the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD) where he continued his research on the DNA-based identification system, and in 1999, he received the Emerging Forensic Scientist Continental Award from the International Association of Forensic Sciences at the University of California, USA for his work on DNA microsatellite based identification of wild animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • accessions
  • Verma started his research career at G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, where he worked on the DNA fingerprinting of Indian scented basmati rice for identification of duplicate accessions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • In recent years, the availability of dense polymorphic marker linkage maps and robust statistical methods for estimating map positions and effects of QTL by linkage to these markers has generated an explosion of QTL maps for morphological, disease susceptibility, behavioral, and fitness-related traits in multiple species ( M ackay 2001 ). (genetics.org)
  • 1975
  • For example, there are the terms established in ecological genetics by E.B. Ford (1975), and for classical genetics by John Maynard Smith (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different that it is possible to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic ("identical") twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable, called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), in particular short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, and minisatellites. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Lee, 1998), but the biological mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are unknown. (healingtaousa.com)
  • The technique has been extended to the study of other biological macromolecules that have been separated in a variety of supports. (wikipedia.org)
  • Verma is primarily known for his contributions to the development of "universal primer technology", a DNA barcoding method, that can identify any bird, fish, reptile or mammal from a small biological sample, and satisfy legal evidence requirements in a court of law. (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA
  • After the release of the mtDNA to the cytoplasm, due to the mitochondrial alteration and morphological changes, mtDNA is transferred into the nucleus by one of the various predicted methods and are eventually inserted by double-stranded break repair processes into the nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integration and recombination of cytoplasmic mtDNA into the nuclear DNA is called Nuclear Mitochondrial DNA, which is abbreviated as NUMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimates of the mutation rate of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) vary greatly depending on the available data and the method used for estimation. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Asif, M., Rahman, M. and Zafar, Y. (2006) Genotyping Analysis of Maize ( Zea mays L.). Hybrids Using DNA Fingerprinting Technology. (springer.com)
  • This analysis can be done in two ways, with current DNA of individuals or historic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first methods for finding out genetics used for DNA profiling involved RFLP analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are widely used for DNA profiling in cancer diagnosis, in kinship analysis (especially paternity testing) and in forensic identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • DNA is collected from cells, such as a blood sample, and cut into small pieces using a restriction enzyme (a restriction digest). (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • In the PCR process, the DNA sample is denatured into the separate individual polynucleotide strands through heating. (wikipedia.org)
  • repetitive
  • The telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes, thought to be involved in ageing/senescence, consist of repetitive DNA, with the hexanucleotide repeat motif TTAGGG in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerase slippage is more likely to occur when a repetitive sequence (such as CGCGCG) is replicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • DNA fingerprinting has also been used in the study of animal and floral populations and in the fields of zoology, botany, and agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has revolutionized the whole field of DNA study. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, called a DNA profile, that is very likely to be different in unrelated individuals, thereby being as unique to individuals as are fingerprints (hence the alternative name for the technique). (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • These techniques can provide information on long-term conservation of genetic diversity and expound demographic and ecological matters such as taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • With the invention of the PCR technique, DNA profiling took huge strides forward in both discriminating power and the ability to recover information from very small (or degraded) starting samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • paternity
  • DNA profiling has also been used to help clarify paternity, in immigration disputes, in parentage testing and in genealogical research or medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Silver staining aids the visualization of targets of interest, namely intracellular and extracellular cellular components such as DNA and proteins, such as type III collagen and reticulin fibres by the deposition of metallic silver particles on the targets of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • After this initial observation, Ellis coined the name "promiscuous DNA" in order to signify the transfer of DNA intracellularly from one organelle to the other and is the presence of organelle DNA in multiple cellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Outbreeding depression Fragmented populations Taxonomic uncertainties, which can lead to a reprioritization of conservation efforts Genetic drift as the main evolutionary process, instead of natural selection Management units within species Specific genetic techniques are used to assess the genomes of a species regarding specific conservation issues as well as general population structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historic DNA is important because it allows geneticists to understand how species reacted to changes to conditions in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA profiling with the aim of identifying not an individual but a species is called DNA barcoding. (wikipedia.org)
  • microsatellites
  • Microsatellites and their longer cousins, the minisatellites, together are classified as VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, a process was reported by which specific portions of the sample DNA can be amplified almost indefinitely (Saiki et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • this allows them to accumulate mutations unhindered over the generations and gives rise to variability that can be used for DNA fingerprinting and identification purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Random genetic drift may also cause the loss of mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • To be classified as such, morphs must occupy the same habitat at the same time and belong to a panmictic population (one with random mating). (wikipedia.org)