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  • genes
  • The following human genes encode AMPK subunits: α - PRKAA1, PRKAA2 β - PRKAB1, PRKAB2 γ - PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3 The crystal structure of mammalian AMPK regulatory core domain (α C terminal, β C terminal, γ) has been solved in complex with AMP, ADP or ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc is a member of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a rapidly activated class of genes functionally defined by their ability to be transcribed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact size of the GPCR superfamily is unknown, but nearly 800 different human genes (or ~ 4% of the entire protein-coding genome) have been predicted to code for them from genome sequence analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by phosphorylating Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1, which ultimately induces fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, the NAD(P)H dependent enzyme dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) converts q-BH 2 back to BH 4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • Synaptically localized Arc protein interacts with dynamin and endophilin, proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and facilitates the removal of AMPA receptors from the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • This protein binds the cAMP response element, a DNA nucleotide sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein binds as a homodimer to the cAMP-responsive element, an octameric palindrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • not in citation given] As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on the α subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 The receptor for u-PA (u-PAR) is a 55-65 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein that binds the epidermal growth factor-(EGF)-like domain (amino acids 20-32) of two chain u-PA. (bmj.com)
  • intracellular
  • These kinases belong to a diverse group of enzymes that participate in many cellular responses and are activated by increasing concentrations of intracellular Ca 2+ . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The G protein's α subunit, together with the bound GTP, can then dissociate from the β and γ subunits to further affect intracellular signaling proteins or target functional proteins directly depending on the α subunit type (Gαs, Gαi/o, Gαq/11, Gα12/13). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupling with G proteins, they are called seven-transmembrane receptors because they pass through the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors are found only in eukaryotes, including yeast, choanoflagellates, and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligands that bind and activate these receptors include light-sensitive compounds, odors, pheromones, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases, and are also the target of approximately 34% of all modern medicinal drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As of 2012, two of the top ten global best-selling drugs (Advair Diskus and Abilify) act by targeting G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • The mRNA (and aggregate protein) is carried along microtubules radiating out from the nucleus by kinesin (specifically KIF5) and likely translocated into dendritic spines by the actin-based motor protein myosin-Va. Arc has been shown to be associated with polyribosomes at synaptic sites,and is translated in isolated synaptoneurosomal fractions in vitro indicating that the protein is likely locally translated in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS In an in vitro model of wounded colonic epithelium, u-PAR promotes cell migration through mechanisms that are not exclusively dependent on u-PA binding. (bmj.com)
  • Migration of a range of cell types over an artificial substratum in vitro is dependent on the binding of u-PA but not on its proteolytic activity. (bmj.com)
  • subunits
  • It is known from biochemical studies that GluR1 AMPA receptor subunits can be phosphorylated within their C terminal by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is colocalized with the phosphatase calcineurin (i.e., phosphatase 2B). (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurofilaments (NFs) in the adult mammalian nervous system consist of three major subunits: low molecular weight neurofilament protein NF-L (68 kDa), NF-M (95 kDa), and NF-H (115 kDa) ( Liem, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Once transported, the translated protein is 396 residues in length, with an N-terminus located at amino acids 1-25, a C-terminus at 155-396 (note that the spectrin homology located at 228-380 within the C-terminal), and a putative coiled coil domain at amino acids 26-154. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Additionally, the protein has binding sites for endophilin 3 and dynamin 2 at amino acids 89-100 and 195-214, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Arc mRNA is subject to degradation by NMD, the translated protein contains a PEST sequence at amino acids 351-392, indicating proteasome-dependent degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • CaMKII is a widely expressed protein kinase that modulates various functions ranging from learning and memory of the nervous system, muscle contraction, cell secretion to gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • domains
  • The AMPK α1 protein consists of several domains (Figure 1). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Specifically, the γ subunit includes four particular Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) domains giving AMPK its ability to sensitively detect shifts in the AMP:ATP ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four CBS domains create two binding sites for AMP commonly referred to as Bateman domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • For β 2 AR subtype stimulation in the heart, a parallel activation of G i protein counterbalances G s -mediated contractile response. (ahajournals.org)
  • subunit
  • AMPK is regulated allosterically mostly by competitive binding on its gamma subunit between ATP (which allows phosphatase access to T172) and AMP or ADP (each of which blocks access to phosphatases). (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • 1998). A UBA-like auto-inhibitory domain (AID) is present between the α-RIM sensor loop and the kinase domain. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Binding of one AMP to a Bateman domain cooperatively increases the binding affinity of the second AMP to the other Bateman domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that this domain might be an intrinsically unstructured protein, which has no clearly defined tertiary structure, but so far no evidence has been presented supporting this claim. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Mammalian neurofilament proteins, particularly midsized (NF-M) and heavy (NF-H) molecular weight neurofilament proteins, are highly phosphorylated in axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Arc mRNA is localized to activated synaptic sites in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner, where the newly translated protein is believed to play a critical role in learning and memory-related molecular processes. (wikipedia.org)