• pathways
  • For example, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways appear to participate in neuronal allocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The following human genes encode AMPK subunits: α - PRKAA1, PRKAA2 β - PRKAB1, PRKAB2 γ - PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3 The crystal structure of mammalian AMPK regulatory core domain (α C terminal, β C terminal, γ) has been solved in complex with AMP, ADP or ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arc is a member of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a rapidly activated class of genes functionally defined by their ability to be transcribed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact size of the GPCR superfamily is unknown, but nearly 800 different human genes (or ~ 4% of the entire protein-coding genome) have been predicted to code for them from genome sequence analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Efforts to understand the role of the pattern of stimulation in synaptic plasticity may prove particularly valuable, because pronounced spontaneous frequency variations characterize hippocampal neuronal activity in behaving animals ( Fenton and Muller, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Neuronal levels of cAMP are regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase (AC). (jneurosci.org)
  • Tau is a group of neuronal microtubule-associated proteins that are formed by alternative mRNA splicing and accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. (biologists.org)
  • Tau is primarily, although not exclusively, a neuronal protein. (biologists.org)
  • enzyme
  • It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, the NAD(P)H dependent enzyme dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) converts q-BH2 back to BH4. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • Synaptically localized Arc protein interacts with dynamin and endophilin, proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and facilitates the removal of AMPA receptors from the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • These kinases belong to a diverse group of enzymes that participate in many cellular responses and are activated by increasing concentrations of intracellular Ca 2+ . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The G protein's α subunit, together with the bound GTP, can then dissociate from the β and γ subunits to further affect intracellular signaling proteins or target functional proteins directly depending on the α subunit type (Gαs, Gαi/o, Gαq/11, Gα12/13). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The types of receptors to which they bind are varied in structure and possess a variety of enzymatic activities, however, they are all protein in nature. (biologyreference.com)
  • Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupling with G proteins, they are called seven-transmembrane receptors because they pass through the cell membrane seven times. (wikipedia.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors are found only in eukaryotes, including yeast, choanoflagellates, and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligands that bind and activate these receptors include light-sensitive compounds, odors, pheromones, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases, and are also the target of approximately 34% of all modern medicinal drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As of 2012, two of the top ten global best-selling drugs (Advair Diskus and Abilify) act by targeting G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylates
  • Recent results suggest that novel CBP-mediated post-translational N-glycosylation activity alters the conformation of CBP-interacting proteins, leading to regulation of gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates several regions of CBP close to the N-terminal and close to the C-terminal region as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by phosphorylating Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1, which ultimately induces fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Self-assembly in vitro of the 68,000 molecular weight component of the mammalian neurofilament triplet proteins into intermediate-sized filaments. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS In an in vitro model of wounded colonic epithelium, u-PAR promotes cell migration through mechanisms that are not exclusively dependent on u-PA binding. (bmj.com)
  • Migration of a range of cell types over an artificial substratum in vitro is dependent on the binding of u-PA but not on its proteolytic activity. (bmj.com)
  • The mRNA (and aggregate protein) is carried along microtubules radiating out from the nucleus by kinesin (specifically KIF5) and likely translocated into dendritic spines by the actin-based motor protein myosin-Va. Arc has been shown to be associated with polyribosomes at synaptic sites,and is translated in isolated synaptoneurosomal fractions in vitro indicating that the protein is likely locally translated in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • This protein binds the cAMP response element, a DNA nucleotide sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein binds as a homodimer to the cAMP-responsive element, an octameric palindrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 The receptor for u-PA (u-PAR) is a 55-65 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein that binds the epidermal growth factor-(EGF)-like domain (amino acids 20-32) of two chain u-PA. (bmj.com)
  • not in citation given] As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on the α subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • It is known from biochemical studies that GluR1 AMPA receptor subunits can be phosphorylated within their C terminal by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is colocalized with the phosphatase calcineurin (i.e., phosphatase 2B). (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurofilaments (NFs) in the adult mammalian nervous system consist of three major subunits: low molecular weight neurofilament protein NF-L (68 kDa), NF-M (95 kDa), and NF-H (115 kDa) ( Liem, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Once transported, the translated protein is 396 residues in length, with an N-terminus located at amino acids 1-25, a C-terminus at 155-396 (note that the spectrin homology located at 228-380 within the C-terminal), and a putative coiled coil domain at amino acids 26-154. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Arc mRNA is localized to activated synaptic sites in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner, where the newly translated protein is believed to play a critical role in learning and memory-related molecular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Constitutive and regulated internalization of cell surface proteins has been extensively investigated. (springer.com)
  • CaMKII is a widely expressed protein kinase that modulates various functions ranging from learning and memory of the nervous system, muscle contraction, cell secretion to gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • They observed that targeting the Ca 2+ -binding protein parvalbumin to the nucleus significantly reduced cell proliferation and altered the proportions of cells that were in the S and G 2 -M phases of the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that CaM-K kinase-α (CaM-KKα) and CaM-KIV were localized in rat pancreatic β-cells and their cell line, INS-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma and clear cell sarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sudden exposure to elevated temperatures results in the synthesis of a set of proteins that protect the cell from heat damage. (biologyreference.com)
  • It also appears that AMPK is a sensor of AMP/ATP or ADP/ATP ratios and thus cell energy level. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • For β 2 AR subtype stimulation in the heart, a parallel activation of G i protein counterbalances G s -mediated contractile response. (ahajournals.org)
  • increases
  • Binding of one AMP to a Bateman domain cooperatively increases the binding affinity of the second AMP to the other Bateman domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • 1991) Segregation of a missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein gene with familial Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • plasticity
  • Newly generated plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) can be captured by any tagged synapses, but untagged synapses are not eligible to receive new PPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein is a plasticity protein that in humans is ecoded by the ARC gene. (wikipedia.org)