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  • genes
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing this hypothesis, we detected changes in the expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 ( Bmp2, Bmp7 ) in the interdigital and distal joint tissues, suggesting that HOXA13 may directly regulate their expression in these discrete regions. (biologists.org)
  • A multifunctional DNA-binding protein that promotes the formation of serum response factor/homeodomain complexes: identity to TFII-I". Genes Dev. (wikipedia.org)
  • SKI has been shown to interfere with normal cellular functioning by both directly impeding expression of certain genes inside the nucleus of the cell as well as disrupting signaling proteins that activate genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Three signaling pathways are involved in the UPR, and these are mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1, also known as ERN1), PKR-like ER resistant kinase (PERK, also known as EIF2AK3) and activation transcription factor 6 (ATF6), which act in concert to limit new protein synthesis and to increase the levels of chaperones. (biologists.org)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the possible cross-talk between BMP-2 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in OA progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations in the Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways are the cause of inherited polyposis syndromes as well as the initiating event in the development of sporadic gastrointestinal cancer development ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1992
  • http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/publish/facultybio/orthopaedics/faculty/54 http://www.jhu.edu/gazette/aprjun96/apr1596/chairs.html Scientists Succeed In Growing Bone, The New York Times, Oct. 22, 1996 Hopkins grows its own bone orchard, The Baltimore Sun, Jan. 24, 1992 Khouri R, Koudsi B, Reddi H. Tissue Transformation Into Bone In Vivo: A Potential Practical Application. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Work with BMP material isolated from rabbit dentin matrix protein fraction, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) has been assigned a molecular weight of about 23,000. (google.ca)
  • The molecular mechanism of bone induction studied by Professor Reddi led to the conceptual advance in tissue engineering that morphogens/metabologens bound to an insoluble extracellular matrix scaffolding act in collaboration to stimulate stem cells to form cartilage and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • LRP-5, β-catenin (phospho and active form), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 7, 9, 13, 14, ADAMTS-4, 5, as well as collagen X (COL10A1) expression levels were evaluated after LRP-5 silencing in BMP-2-treated chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LRP-5 silencing reduced nuclear β-catenin protein levels, MMPs and collagen X expression, whereas increased phospho-β-catenin protein levels in BMP-2-treated chondrocyte. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though the ECM is composed of many intracellularly-synthesized components - including a number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and fibrous proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, collagen, and elastin - it is the latter two fibers that are most influential in defining the mechanical properties of the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen is the fibrous protein that gives the ECM its tensile strength, or rigidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • This leads to the phosphorylation of the type I receptor that subsequently phosphorylates the BMP-specific Smads (Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8), allowing these receptor-associated Smads to form a complex with Smad4 and move into the nucleus where the Smad complex binds a DNA binding protein and acts as a transcriptional enhancer ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The SKI protein has a 728 amino acid sequence, with multiple domains and is expressed both inside and outside of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair. (google.com)
  • These proteins may be used to induce bone and/or cartilage formation and in wound healing and tissue repair. (google.com)
  • 1 Toward this end, tissue engineering approaches have received great deal of attention as promising alternatives to conventional autologous bone grafts that are considered the golden standard for repairing critical-sized bone defects. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 , 3 Numerous biomaterials have been developed for bone tissue engineering applications ranging from naturally derived materials to synthetic biopolymers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 - 8 In the past decades, significant progress has been made to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) porous polymeric scaffolds with controlled morphology and micro-architecture for bone tissue engineering. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the copending application and patent there are disclosed and claimed a process, (and the product of that process), for separating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) from bone tissue. (google.ca)
  • Radiation impairs bone healing due to a complex cascade of cellular and tissue events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 ,wherein said first or second portion of adipose tissue that is removed from said patient is lipoaspirate. (google.es)
  • for example, it ranges from the soft ECM of brain tissue to that of rigid bone or the stiff cell wall of plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Temporal and spatial immunolocalization of TGF-βs, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and their receptors in the intervertebral disk of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) were examined to determine the biological roles in the process of the degeneration in intervertebral disks. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunolocalization of bone morphogenetic protein and its receptors in degeneration of interneutehral disc'Spine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Reiko Takae, Shinji Matsunaga, Nobuhiko Origuchi, Takuya Yamamoto, Norio Morimoto, Shusaku Suzuki, Takashi Sakou: 'Immunolocalization of bone morphogenetic protein and its receptors in degeneration of intervertebral disc'Spine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 3FP domains occur in the extracellular domains of some cell-surface receptors as well as in GPI-anchored and secreted globular proteins, usually involved in signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • common protein targets include those involved in cholinergic signaling, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and acetylcholinesterase. (wikipedia.org)
  • these are often known as LU domains and can be found in the extracellular domains of cell-surface receptors and in either GPI-anchored or secreted globular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many LU domain containing proteins are involved in cholinergic signaling and bind acetylcholine receptors, notably linking their function to a common mechanism of 3FTx toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors are a family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases that include the type I receptors BMPR1A (this protein) and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF-betas and activins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes with 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • For example, the bHLH proteins neurogenin (Ngn) 1 and Ngn2 are essential for neurogenesis in the neocortex ( Schuurmans and Guillemot, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • receptor
  • Low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP-5) and 6, BMP-2, -4, and -7, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA and IB (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IA), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), and transcription factor 4 ( TCF-4) expression levels were investigated in normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The family is named for two representative groups of members, the small globular protein lymphocyte antigen 6 (LY6) family and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). (wikipedia.org)
  • and bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCOA3 is a transcriptional coactivator protein that contains several nuclear receptor interacting domains and an intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • LRP-5, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and LEF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were found to be significantly upregulated in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared with normal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • osteogenesis
  • Furthermore, the continuous tension on the bone produced by the distractor may facilitate stimulation of osteogenesis around the implant. (google.com)
  • In subcutaneous osteogenesis test, EPCs-BMSC sheets formed larger areas of new bone and blood vessels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • induce bone
  • BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals. (google.ca)
  • Early studies in his laboratory at the University of Chicago and National Institutes of Health unraveled the sequence of events involved in bone matrix-induce bone morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We showed that treatment of cultured chondrocytes with BMP-2 resulted in increased β-catenin nuclear translocation and LRP-5 expression and that the BMP-2-induced LRP-5 upregulation is mediated through Smad1/5/8 binding on LRP-5 promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently, non-toxic 3FP proteins have been found to be widely expressed in many different tissues in snakes, prompting the alternative hypothesis that proteins of restricted expression in saliva were selectively recruited for toxic functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • SKI is present in all adult and embryonic cells at low levels, however an over expression of the protein is characteristic of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fussel-15 has been found to play much the same role as the Ski/Sno proteins, however its expression is not as ubiquitous as the Ski/Sno proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) is a secreted protein known as a cytokine that performs many cellular functions and has a vital role during embryonic development (alternative names: Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, G-TSF, BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, Polyergin, Cetermin). (wikipedia.org)
  • morphogenesis
  • 2. The process of claim 1 wherein said BMP composition activates DNA sequences that code for bone morphogenesis. (google.ca)
  • tumors
  • 5 Metaplastic bone formation, however, is a relatively rare event in these tumors. (ispub.com)
  • The SKI protein is a nuclear proto-oncogene that is associated with tumors at high cellular concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • chondrocytes
  • our studies demonstrate that under the stimulation of ATF6 and ATF6a, chondrocytes tend to be hypertrophied and mineralized, a process leading to bone formation. (biologists.org)
  • wherein
  • 8. The composition of claim 7 wherein said protein is a dimer. (google.com)
  • 9. The composition of claim 8 wherein each subunit is characterized by amino acid #283 to #396 of FIG. 2. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a novel family of purified proteins designated BMP-2 (wherein BMP is bone morphogenic protein) proteins and processes for obtaining them. (google.com)
  • 2. The distractor of claim 1 , wherein said first member and said second member are made of bioabsorbable material. (google.com)
  • 3. The process of claim 1 wherein said BMP composition consists essentially of about 7 parts 22-kDa and about 1 part 14-kDa BMP associated proteins, and about 2 parts 18.5 0.5-kDa bBMP factor. (google.ca)
  • human
  • Human BMP-2 proteins are produced by culturing a cell transformed with a cDNA substantially as shown in Table II or Table III and recovering from the culture medium a protein containing the 97 amino acid sequence #299 to #396 of Table II or amino acid #311 to #408 of Table III, respectively. (google.com)
  • 1998). "Bone morphogenetic protein-6 production in human osteoblastic cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2008 bioinformatics study identified about 45 examples of such proteins, containing up to three three-finger domains, represented in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Members of the BMP-2A protein family may be further characterized by the ability to demonstrate cartilage and/or bone formation activity in the rat bone formation assay described below. (google.com)
  • In preferred embodiments, the proteins of the invention demonstrate activity in this rat bone formation assay at a concentration of 0.5 μg -100 μg/gram of bone. (google.com)
  • Periodontitis may cause the inflammation of the periodontal supporting tissues, formation of periodontal pocket, progressive attachment loss and alveolar bone absorption, which finally result in loose and loss of teeth. (medsci.org)
  • Publications] Nobuo Origuchi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Tomonori Nagamine, Toshiyuki Onishi, Shinji Matsunaga, Hiroki Yoshida, Takashi Sakou: 'The spatial and temporal immuolocalization of TGF-β1 and bone morlphogenetic protein-2/-4 in phalic bone formation in Inbred Sprague Dawley male rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Bone formation has been specially reported in sarcomatoid variant of RCC. (ispub.com)
  • GDF6 has been shown to play an important role in the patterning of the epidermis and bone and joint formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently it is thought that the SKI protein prevents response to TFG- β levels, causing tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • By taking into consideration the natural and fluorescent properties of the two classes of heterocycles, we envisaged to mix both porphyrin and pyrrolo[1,2- em a /em RAF265 ]quinoxaline systems within a molecular framework to create book em meso /em -substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalinoporphyrin analogues. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • Moreover, R-spondin proteins were shown to interact with the extracellular domain of LRG5 although the molecular mechanism is not yet fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perlecan consists of a core protein of molecular weight 470 kDa to which three long chains (each approximately 70-100 kDa) of glycosaminoglycans (often heparan sulfate, HS but can be chondroitin sulfate, CS) are attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor cells
  • Normal hematopoiesis in adult humans occurs within the bone marrow and is critically dependent on interactions of the hematopoietic progenitor cells with the surrounding microenvironment,[1,2] including various stromal cells, cytokines, and a complex extracellular matrix. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Expression
  • A change in the expression or timing of these inhibitory signals was proposed to determine the eventual size of M 2 and M 3 , by altering the relative timing of molar initiation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Each phase of EO is accompanied by a change in cell shape or cell arrangement [ 3 , 4 ] (Figure 1 ) and the expression of a specific protein repertoire. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sheau Hsu, Shan Liang and Aaron Hsueh first identified LGR5, together with LGR4, in 1998 at the University Medical School Stanford, California using expression sequence tags based on putative glycoprotein hormone receptors in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • E proteins heterodimerize with tissue restricted bHLH proteins such as Myod, NeuroD, etc. to form active transcription complexes so by sequestering E proteins, Id proteins can inhibit tissue restricted gene expression in multiple cell lineages using the same biochemical mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Formation of the vertebrate heart can be subdivided into distinct but partially overlapping phases, such as specification of cardiac progenitors and the formation of the linear heart tube by cell migration and morphogenetic movements, followed by cardiac looping, chamber formation, septation, and maturation [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The hnRNP proteins have distinct nucleic acid binding properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core protein consists of five distinct structural domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • By expressing a recombinant form of the N-terminal domain I of the protein and demonstrating that digestion of the peptide with either heparanase or chondroitinase did not lead to complete loss of the peptide's activity, it was shown that chondroitin sulfate chains can be added to human perlecan. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was in agreement with previous data showing chondroitin sulfate GAG chains attached to bovine perlecan produced by chondrocytes and that recombinant human domain I protein was glycosylated with both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains when expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Stromberg PC, Capen CC. In vivo and in vitro effects of interleukin-1 and cyclosporin A on bone and lymphoid tissues in mice. (dentisty.org)
  • germ
  • The two germ layers are spatially structured by an ECM in which embedded, interstitial (stem) cells give rise to nematocysts, mucous glands, and sensory or nerve cells ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Noggin proteins play a role in germ layer-specific derivation of specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion
  • Secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein by bovine mammary cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Although HS chains are not required for correct folding and secretion of the protein, lack of HS or decreased sulfation can decrease perlecan's ability to interact with matrix proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • As a result, in continuation of our initiatives to develop basic and efficient strategies [44Cfor the formation of different porphyrin derivatives from em meso /em -tetraarylporphyrins, we desire to survey herein the initial synthesis and spectroscopic properties of the novel group of em meso /em -substituted pyrrolo[1,2- em a /em ]quinoxalinoporphyrins. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • homolog
  • MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1 (MECOM) also known as ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog (EVI-1) or positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 3 (PRDM3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MECOM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Following transcription, mature microRNA are generated through a series of coordinated processing events mediated by large protein complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The MECOM protein contains 2 domains characterized by 7 zinc finger motifs followed by a proline-rich transcription repression domain, 3 more zinc finger motifs and an acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with members of the basic HLH family of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It acts as a regulator of TGFβ family (such as bone morphogenetic proteins) activity by competing with SMAD4 and preventing the transcription of SMAD4's gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Chordin was originally identified in Xenopus laevis in the laboratory of Edward M. De Robertis as a key developmental protein that dorsalizes early vertebrate embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noggin, also known as NOG, is a protein that is involved in the development of many body tissues, including nerve tissue, muscles, and bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMP5
  • In addition, the fact that this BMP is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 has led to speculation of possible bone inductive activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulate
  • Thus, perlecan core protein and HS chains could modulate matrix assembly, cell proliferation, lipoprotein binding and cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • 2] Now, however, it is considered a coelurosaur, specifically one of the earliest known members of Tyrannosauroidea, the clade of basal relatives of the tyrannosaurs. (blogspot.com)
  • Chordin is a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist composed of four small cysteine-rich domains, whose function is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • long bones
  • EO is important for development, growth, and repair of long bones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Perlecan in the growth plate of mouse long bones shows glycosylation changes in the chondrocyte progression from the resting zone to the proliferating zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • parathyroid
  • Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, McCauley LK , Capen CC. Effects of transforming growth factor  on parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated bone resorption and adenylate cyclase stimulation in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, McCauley LK , Werkmeister J, Steinmeyer C, Swayne D, Capen CC. Studies on chicken polyclonal antipeptide antibodies specific for parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36). (dentisty.org)
  • Merryman JI, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Werkmeister JR, Suter MM , Capen CC. Regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein production by a squamous carcinoma cell line in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Werkmeister JR, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Merryman JI, Horton JE, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein production by normal human keratinocytes in vitro is associated with a less differentiated phenotype. (dentisty.org)
  • Rosol TJ, Steinmeyer C, McCauley LK , Grone A, Capen CC, DeWille J. Nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for canine parathyroid hormone-related protein and parathyroid hormone. (dentisty.org)
  • At 14 weeks of gestation, the parathyroid glands begin to enlarge from 0.1 mm in diameter to approximately 1 - 2 mm at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Capen CC, Horton JE, Shanfeld J. Investigations on in vitro bone resorbing activity from athymic (nude) and euthymic mouse splenic lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • type
  • These include type II collagen in the cartilaginous zones, type III collagen in the reticulin fibres of the vascular walls, type IX collagen, type IV collagen in the basement membranes of the capillaries, type V collagen in the vascular walls, and type X collagen in the mineralized fibrocartilage near the interface with the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • A collagen molecule is about 300 nm long and 1-2 nm wide, and the diameter of the fibrils that are formed can range from 50-500 nm. (wikipedia.org)