• receptors
  • Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example, as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), through lateral interaction in the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • These properties enable superantigens to interact with conserved variable region framework subdomains of the antigen receptors of lymphocytes rather than the complementarity determining region involved in the binding of conventional antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Such receptors are bound directly to cells of the immune system and cause immediate activation of their respective nonspecific immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superantigens bind first to the MHC Class II and then coordinate to the variable alpha or beta chain of T-cell Receptors (TCR) SAgs show preference for the HLA-DQ form of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • When phagocytes come into contact with bacteria, the receptors on the phagocyte's surface will bind to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytosis occurs after the foreign body, a bacterial cell, for example, has bound to molecules called "receptors" that are on the surface of the phagocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • By use of NMR spectroscopy, it has also been demonstrated that the binding of sFcgammaRII onto one of the two symmetrically related sites on Fc induces conformational change in the other site, which preclude the binding of second sFcgammaRII molecule to Fc. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 12 . A binding agent according to claim 9 , in which the first part comprises an Fc region which lacks one or more glycans normally associated with a natural Fc molecule. (google.com)
  • To investigate the relationship between the affinity of SAGs for TCR and MHC and their ability to activate T cells, we have measured the binding of a set of SEC3 and SEB mutants to soluble recombinant 14.3.d β chain and to a human MHC class II molecule, HLA-DR1, loaded with influenza virus hemagglutinin peptide 306-318 (HA 306- 318). (rupress.org)
  • 1960 - Myoglobin was the very first high-resolution crystal structure of a protein molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structures of the enterotoxins reveals that they are compact, ellipsoidal proteins sharing a characteristic two-domain folding pattern comprising an NH2-terminal β barrel globular domain known as the oligosaccharide / oligonucleotide fold, a long α-helix that diagonally spans the center of the molecule, and a COOH terminal globular domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In this review, we describe how proteins recognize gangliosides, focusing on the molecular recognition of gangliosides associated with cancer immunotherapy, and discuss the importance of these molecules in cancer research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Crystal structures of protein and nucleic acid molecules and their complexes are central to the practice of most parts of biophysics, and have shaped much of what we understand scientifically at the atomic-detail level of biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon binding, the monomers oligomerize to form a water-filled transmembrane channel that facilitates uncontrolled permeation of water, ions, and small organic molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several staphylococcal SAgs are capable of cross-linking MHC molecules by binding to both the α and β chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism stimulates cytokine expression and release in antigen presenting cells as well as inducing the production of costimulatory molecules that allow the cell to bind to and activate T cells more effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • enterotoxins
  • Finally, we observe that those SEC3 residues that make the greatest energetic contribution to stabilizing the β-SEC3 complex ("hot spot" residues) are strictly conserved among enterotoxins reactive with mouse Vβ8.2, thereby providing a basis for understanding why SAGs having other residues at these positions show different Vβ-binding specificities. (rupress.org)
  • infection
  • This immune complex-mediated vasculitis is characterized by a primary B-cell clonal proliferation accompanied by the deposition of immune complexes composed of complement factors, mono/oligoclonal IgMs with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity bound to oligo/polyclonal IgGs that, in the case of HCV infection, are mostly directed against HCV proteins [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The introduction of penicillin in the early 1940s dramatically improved the prognosis of patients with staphylococcal infection. (jci.org)
  • The function of this protein is to facilitate the infection of the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monolaurin is believed to inactivate lipid-coated viruses by binding to the lipid-protein envelope of the virus, thereby preventing it from attaching and entering host cells, making infection and replication impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Nakielny and Dreyfuss 1999 ), mediate transport by binding selectively to different classes of signal sequences. (rupress.org)
  • residues
  • The omega loop is a non-regular protein structural motif, consisting of a loop of six or more amino acid residues and any amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega loops have long been recognized also for their importance in the function and folding of the protein cytochrome c, contributing both key functional residues and well as important dynamic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologues
  • In the mouse, Fab-mediated SpA-binding interactions are commonly displayed by 5-10% of mature B cells, which express genes from the clan III set of related V H families, the murine homologues of human V H 3 genes ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Not only have analogues for all major cytoskeletal proteins in eukaryotes been found in prokaryotes, cytoskeletal proteins with no known eukaryotic homologues have also been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • c) a third part that is capable of monovalent binding to an effector cell so that the effector cell can act upon the biological target when the second part is bound to the biological target. (google.com)
  • 2 . A binding agent according to claim 1 , in which the effector cell is capable of destroying, damaging, altering or removing the biological target. (google.com)
  • 3 . A binding agent according to claim 1 , in which the biological target is deleterious to a human or non-human animal. (google.com)
  • 5 . A binding agent according to claim 1 , in which at least one of the biological activities of the first part is modulated when the binding agent is bound to the biological target in comparison with when the binding agent is bound to the effector cell only. (google.com)
  • 7 . A binding agent according to claim 1 , in which, in the absence of binding of the second part to the biological target, the binding agent is configured so that at least one biological activity of the first part is prevented or reduced due to steric hindrance, and in which the steric hindrance is removed or reduced when the second part binds to the biological target. (google.com)
  • 8 . A binding agent according to claim 1 , in which the first part comprises an FcRn docking site that is not sterically hindered in the absence of binding of the second part to the biological target. (google.com)
  • 10 . A binding agent according to claim 9 , which is modified to reduce activation of an effector cell in the absence of binding of the binding agent to a biological target. (google.com)
  • 11 . A binding agent according to claim 9 , which is modified to reduce binding to an FcRI, FcRII and/or an FcRIII receptor in the absence of binding of the binding agent to a biological target. (google.com)
  • We show that there is a clear and simple relationship between the affinity of SAGs for the TCR and their biological activity: the tighter the binding of a particular mutant of SEC3 or SEB to the TCR β chain, the greater its ability to stimulate T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Ribonuclease S, the cleaved, two-component form studied by Fred Richards, was also enzymatically active, had a nearly identical crystal structure (PDB file 1RNS), and was shown to be catalytically active even in the crystal, helping dispel doubts about the relevance of protein crystal structures to biological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • they demonstrated that double stranded RNA (dsRNA) was a substantially more potent agent for inhibiting gene activity than either single-stranded sense or antisense RNA ( Fire et al, 1998 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Desmoglein-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DSG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene has been identified as the autoantigen of the autoimmune skin blistering disease pemphigus foliaceus. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also were the first protein structures that showed two near-identical domains, presumably related by gene duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptor 2 also known as TLR2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • T15 lymphocytes, which reside within the B-1 pool, display high affinity SpA-binding activity and are depleted after in vivo exposure ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Proline is the only amino acid known to exist in both the cis and trans isomerization rate in vivo, and is often the rate-limiting step in protein refolding. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Protein binding and functional characterization of plakophilin 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heritable coagulation disorder is caused by a single-site mutation in an omega loop of protein C. Likewise, omega loops play an interesting role in the function of the beta-lactamases: mutations in the "omega loop region" of a beta-lactamase can change its specific function and substrate profile, perhaps due to an important functional role of the correlated dynamics of the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • This is useful if the binding agent is intended to bind both an effector cell and a target to be destroyed, because the effector cell can be protected from significant cell damage that might otherwise occur (e.g. due to premature activation of complement and/or ADCC). (google.com)
  • sbi protein interferes with the host's innate immune response by binding Factor H, Complement component 3 and IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Translation can be regulated at the initiation step by: preventing the binding of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) to the 5' cap. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Protein engineering of an IgG-binding domain allows milder elution conditions during affinity chromatography," (2000) J. Biotechnol. (patentgenius.com)
  • Comparison of protein A affinity sorbents," (2003) J. Chromatogr. (patentgenius.com)
  • The use of a zinc ion in binding leads to a higher affinity interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs because a cognate antigen activates a T cell not because of its structure per se, but because its affinity allows it to bind the TCR for a lengthy enough time period, and the SAg mimics this temporal bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal
  • Further hemoglobin crystal structures at higher resolution [PDB 1MHB, 1DHB) soon showed the coupled change of both local and quaternary conformation between the oxy and deoxy states of hemoglobin, which explains the cooperativity of oxygen binding in the blood and the allosteric effect of factors such as pH and DPG. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • There are two main requirements for mRNA degradation to take place: a near-perfect complementary match between the guide strand and target mRNA sequence, and, a catalytically active Argonaute protein, called a 'slicer', to cleave the target mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within hours, a sequence of events was initiated in SpA-binding splenic B cells, with rapid down-regulation of BCRs and coreceptors, CD19 and CD21, the induction of an activation phenotype, and limited rounds of proliferation. (rupress.org)
  • It was used in Anfinsen's seminal research on protein folding which led to the concept that a protein's 3-dimensional structure was determined by its amino-acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • One reason for their wide use as textbook and classroom examples was the insertion-code numbering system (hated by all computer programmers), which made Ser195 and His57 consistent and memorable despite the protein-specific sequence differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the other analogous relationships discussed here, crescentin has a rather large primary homology with IF proteins in addition to three-dimensional similarity - the sequence of creS has a 25% identity match and 40% similarity to cytokeratin 19 and a 24% identity match and 40% similarity to nuclear lamin A. Furthermore, crescentin filaments are roughly 10 nm in diameter and thus fall within diameter range for eukaryal IFs (8-15 nm). (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Hemoglobin crystals are pleochroic - dark red in two directions and pale red in the third - because of the orientation of the hemes, and the bright Soret band of the heme porphyrin groups is used in spectroscopic analysis of hemoglobin ligand binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, omega loops can help stabilize interactions between protein and ligand, such as in the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase, and can directly affect protein function in other enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Once found, one of the proteins in RISC, called Argonaute, activates and cleaves the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC uses the bound guide strand to target complementary 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTR) of mRNA transcripts via Watson-Crick base pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC can modulate the loading of ribosome and accessory factors in translation to repress expression of the bound mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • preventing the binding of the 60S ribosomal subunit binding to the mRNA can repress translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, efflux or active transport of drug out of the cell, and most commonly, conformational alterations in ribosomal target binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • fold
  • The N-terminal domain is also referred to as OB-fold, or in other words the oligonuclucleotide binding fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Isolation of circulating immune complexes by conglutinin and separation of antigen from dissociated complexes by immobilized protein A," (1981) Clin. (patentgenius.com)
  • interactions
  • A study of the interactions between an IgG-binding domain based on the B domain of staphylococcal protein A and rabbit IgG," (1998) Mol. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. The stable-isotope-assisted NMR analyses revealed that sFcgammaRII binds to the lower hinge and its spatial proximity of the Fc region, which are negatively charged and interact with some positively charged area on the sFcgammaRII surface via electrostatic interactions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These binding interactions and the B cell targeting properties of SpA do not involve the site by which SpA binds Fcγ ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • synthesis
  • This complex inhibits protein synthesis through prevention of peptide-chain formation and blocking the extrusion of newly formed peptide chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarities
  • The beta-grasp domain has some structural similarities to the beta-grasp motif present in immunoglobulin-binding domains, ubiquitin, 2Fe-2 S ferredoxin and translation initiation factor 3 as identified by the SCOP database. (wikipedia.org)
  • monomers
  • Furthermore, like tubulin, monomeric FtsZ is bound to GTP and polymerizes with other FtsZ monomers with the hydrolysis of GTP in a mechanism similar to tubulin dimerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Omega loop shapes are analyzed to identify recurring patterns in dihedral angles and overall loop shape to help identify potential roles in protein folding and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega loops can contribute to protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many researchers have studied omega loop function and dynamics in specific protein systems using a so-called "loop swap" approach, in which loops are swapped between (usually) homologous proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to PPIase and protein chaperone activities, cyclophilins function in mitochondrial metabolism, apoptosis, immunological response, inflammation, and cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAGs
  • A given SAg can activate a large proportion of the T-cell population because the human T-cell repertoire comprises only about 50 types of Vβ elements and some SAgs are capable of binding to multiple types of Vβ regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • It is the first component of the septum during cytokinesis, and it recruits all other known cell division proteins to the division site. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • It produces a ring-shaped complex called staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a cyclophilin, PPIB binds the immunosuppressive drug CsA to form a CsA-cyclophilin complex, which then targets calcineurin to inhibit the signaling pathway for T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac myogenic cells, cyclophilins have been observed to be activated by heat shock and hypoxia-reoxygenation as well as complex with heat shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • This protein is the major PPIase for type I collagen, since the collagen contains an abundance of prolines that require cis-trans isomerization for proper folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • region
  • 13 . A binding agent according to claim 12 , in which the first part comprises an Fc region which is enzymatically deglycosylated, preferably with glycoamidase PNGaseF. (google.com)
  • cell
  • This is useful if the binding agent is intended to bind both an effector cell and a target to be destroyed, because the. (google.com)
  • However, when it is systemically released in the blood and in high levels (due to mass T-cell activation resulting from the SAg binding), it can cause severe and life-threatening symptoms, including shock and multiple organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ acts as an organizer protein and is required for cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since FtsZ is essential for cell division in bacteria, this protein is a target for the design of new antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a cyclophilin, PPIB binds cyclosporin A (CsA) and can be found within in the cell or secreted by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • In particular, PPIB is a 21 kDa protein which contains a C-terminal ER retention motif that directs the protein to the ER organelle, while its N-terminal extension attaches it to its substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Amongst the many ploys used by microbial pathogens to interfere with host immune responses is the production of proteins with the properties of superantigens. (rupress.org)
  • Enzymatic drug inactivation may occur in staphylococcal and enterococcal species through production of dalfopristin-inactivating acetyltransferase or quinupristin-inactivating hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • MreB is also important for polarity determination in polar bacteria, as it is responsible for the correct positioning of at least four different polar proteins in C. crescentus. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • We have analyzed the permeability properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear envelope (NE) using import (NLS) and export (NES) signal-containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters. (rupress.org)