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  • regulate cell
  • The functions of Myc-nick are currently under investigation, but this new Myc family member was found to regulate cell morphology, at least in part, by interacting with acetyl transferases to promote the acetylation of α-tubulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • A particularly instructive example for the implication of programmed cell death in animal development is the formation of free and independent digits by massive cell death in the interdigital mesenchymal tissue [Zuzarte-Luis, 2002]. (celldeath.de)
  • Fascinating insights into the origin and evolution of programmed cell death might possibly be given by the fact, that programmed cell death is also an integral part of the life cycle of other unicellular eukaryotes (such as the kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum) and that even prokaryotes (such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces and Myxobacteria) sometimes undergo regulated cell death [Ameisen, 2002]. (celldeath.de)
  • Oncogene
  • Bcl-2 is specifically considered an important anti-apoptotic protein but it is NOT considered a proto-oncogene because it is not a growth signal transducer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several stress conditions (DNA damage, hypoxia, oncogene activation, among others) lead to the transcriptional activation and an increase of the p53 protein levels. (els.net)
  • anti-apoptotic protein
  • Bcl-XL is a major anti-apoptotic protein in the Bcl2 family whose overexpression is more widely observed in human lung cancer cells than that of Bcl2, suggesting that Bcl-XL is more biologically relevant and therefore a better therapeutic target for lung cancer. (ufl.edu)
  • The BH3 domain is also present in some anti-apoptotic protein, such as Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L). The three functionally important Bcl-2 homology regions (BH1, BH2 and BH3) are in close spatial proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Myc protein belongs to Myc family of transcription factors, which also includes N-Myc and L-Myc genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-expression of anti-apoptotic genes, and under-expression of pro-apoptotic genes, can result in the lack of cell death that is characteristic of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of p53 promotes the transcriptional activation of many target genes involved in several cellular responses: apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and senescence. (els.net)
  • Many viruses have found a way of countering defensive apoptosis by encoding their own anti-apoptosis genes preventing their target-cells from dying too soon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • Necroptosis is a form of regulated necrotic cell death, which is mediated by receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase (RIPK1) and RIPK3, and the downstream effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). (springer.com)
  • Necroptotic signals induced by death receptors, such as TNF receptor 1, Toll-like receptors or interferon receptors lead to the formation of the necrosome, and result in cell death with morphological features of necrosis. (springer.com)
  • Ding W, Shang L, Huang JF, Li N, Chen D, Xue LX, Xiong K (2015) Receptor interacting protein 3-induced RGC-5 cell necroptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation. (springer.com)
  • Duprez L, Bertrand MJ, Vanden Berghe T, Dondelinger Y, Festjens N, Vandenabeele P (2012) Intermediate domain of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) determines switch between necroptosis and RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • The Fas receptor is a death receptor on the surface of cells that leads to programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis-inducing Fas receptor is dubbed isoform 1 and is a type 1 transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon ensuing death domain (DD) aggregation, the receptor complex is internalized via the cellular endosomal machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cultured cells, FasL induces various types of cancer cell apoptosis through the Fas receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is composed of two extracellular Ig-like domains, and is a member of both the immunoglobulin superfamily and the multi-chain immune recognition receptor (MIRR) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) and is a type I transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • With one Ig-like domain in its extracellular portion, this Fc receptor is also a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of FcεR are known: the high-affinity receptor FcεRI is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (it has two Ig-like domains). (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • For example, it is clear that autophagy plays an essential role in ridding the cell of damaged or superfluous organelles and proteins, in generating nutrients essential for cell survival under starvation and other stressful conditions, and in some cases acting as a cell death effector. (biologists.org)
  • Differentiation
  • Identification of a New Caspase Homologue: Caspase-14," Cell Death and Differentiation 5: 838-846, 1998. (patentgenius.com)
  • The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also plays a very important role in regulating cell growth (upregulates ribosomal RNA and proteins), apoptosis (downregulates Bcl-2 ), differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both during embryonic development and in the adult life of organisms, there is a need for a perfect balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and death. (els.net)
  • cellular
  • BCL-2 is localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria, where it plays an important role in promoting cellular survival and inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro , suppression of EYA4 expression using shRNA reduced cell adhesion and migration and caused cellular necrosis without affecting cell proliferation or apoptotic cell death. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Eventually, the term apoptosis had been coined in order to describe the morphological processes leading to controlled cellular self-destruction and was first introduced in a publication by Kerr, Wyllie and Currie [Kerr, (celldeath.de)
  • ANKHD1 is differentially expressed in human cancers, and potentially regulates multiple cellular functions and participates as a scaffold for protein-protein interactions through its ankyrin-repeat domains. (inist.fr)
  • IAPs
  • IAPs were initially identified in baculoviruses, but XIAP is one of the homologous proteins found in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is also called human IAP-like Protein (hILP), because it is not as well conserved as the human IAPS: hIAP-1 and hIAP-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RING domain utilizes E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and enables IAPs to catalyze ubiquination of self, caspase-3, or caspase-7 by degradation via proteasome activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Unlike most of the other members of TNFR superfamily, TNFRSF6 is a soluble protein which contains no transmembrane domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, both the N and C termini in GLUT proteins are exposed to the cytoplasm of the cell, and they all have 12 transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • These 5 domains are separated by the 4 transmembrane domains of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nine domains are as follows: N-terminus domain (66 aa) transmembrane domain 1 (23 aa) extracellular loop 1 (46 aa) transmembrane domain 2 (25 aa) intracellular loop (10 aa) transmembrane domain 3 (25 aa) extracellular domain 2 (48 aa) transmembrane domain 4 (22 aa) C-terminus domain (257 aa) The C-terminus domain has been shown experimentally to be required for correct assembly of tight junction barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some members of the family have transmembrane domains at their c-terminus which primarily function to localize them to the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria toxin forms a transmembrane pore and translocates the toxic catalytic domain into the animal cell cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Besancon E, Guo S, Lok J, Tymianski M, Lo EH (2008) Beyond Nmda and Ampa glutamate receptors: emerging mechanisms for ionic imbalance and cell death in stroke. (springer.com)
  • Due to the fact that dendritic cells are the immune system's most important antigen-presenting cells, their activity must be tightly regulated by mechanisms such as apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deciphering the detailed mechanisms by which DOCK proteins participate in tumorigenesis will shed light on the design of new treatment strategies. (inist.fr)
  • 2000
  • During development many cells are produced in excess which eventually undergo programmed cell death and thereby contribute to sculpturing many organs and tissues [see Figure 1 and Meier, (celldeath.de)
  • Other examples are the development of the brain, during which half of the neurons that are initially created will die in later stages when the adult brain is formed [Hutchins, 1998] and the development of the reproductive organs [Meier, (celldeath.de)
  • Proteins containing RING finger domains frequently act as ubiquitin E3 ligases ( Joazeiro and Weissman, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Upon stimulation, this protein was found to translocate from cytoplasm to nucleus and colocalize with UBTF, a basal factor required for RNA polymerase I transcription, in the nucleolus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon cleavage, the C-terminus of Myc (containing the DNA binding domain ) is degraded, while Myc-nick, the N-terminal segment 298-residue segment remains in the cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • XIAP is inhibited by DIABLO (Smac) and HTRA2 (Omi), two death-signaling proteins released into the cytoplasm by the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The intracellular domain contains a highly- phosphorylated region vital to beta-catenin binding and, therefore, to E-cadherin function. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterodimer
  • BARD1 and BRCA1 form a heterodimer via their N-terminal RING finger domains . (wikipedia.org)
  • Double stranded breaks (DSB) in DNA trigger poly(ADPribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) to catalyze the formation of poly(ADPribose) (PAR) so that PAR can then bind to an array of DNA response proteins, including the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer, and target them to DNA damage sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • intrinsic
  • Apoptosis is an intrinsic cell‐suicide programme, which ensures tissue homeostasis and safeguards the organism by eliminating unnecessary and unwanted cells, or cells that may constitute some form of danger to the organism, for example, tumour cells. (els.net)
  • FasL
  • The encoded protein is postulated to play a regulatory role in suppressing FasL- and LIGHT-mediated cell death and T cell activation as well as to induce angiogenesis via neutralization of TL1A. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • Here, we screened small molecules that selectively target the BH3 domain (aa 90-LREAGDEFE-98) in binding pocket of Bcl-XL using the UCSF DOCK 6.1 suite of programs and the NCI chemical library database. (ufl.edu)
  • bind
  • Secondly, there is a UBA domain, which allows XIAP to bind to ubiquitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence polarization assay reveals that BXI-61 and BXI-72 preferentially bind to Bcl-XL protein but not Bcl2 in vitro with high binding affinities. (ufl.edu)
  • kinase
  • The best characterized of these stimuli is nutrient starvation, which induces autophagy in part through the inactivation of the protein kinase target of rapamycin (Tor) ( Fig. 2 ). (biologists.org)
  • This is done by a serine-threonine kinase, Akt, on serine-196 which inhibits the activation and protease activity of caspase-9, suppressing caspase-9 and further activation of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleavage
  • It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, its active site contains a cysteine residue (Cys-163) and histidine residue (His-121) that stabilize the peptide bond cleavage of a protein sequence to the carboxy-terminal side of an aspartic acid when it is part of a particular 4-amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • B) Polyproteins in which the primary cleavage between the capsid proteins and replication protein precursors is mediated by the 2A translational recoding sequence (CHYSEL). (asmscience.org)
  • molecule
  • Between the BIR-1 and BIR-2 domains, there is a linker-BIR-2 region that is thought to contain the only element that comes into contact with the caspase molecule to form the XIAP/Caspase-7 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • baculoviral
  • Firstly, there is the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain consisting of approximately 70 amino acids, which characterizes all IAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • The activated GR complex up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus or represses the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the cytosol (by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus). (wikipedia.org)
  • For the most part,14-3-3ζ negatively regulates apoptosis by binding and sequestering BAD and BAX in the cytoplasm, effectively preventing activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, as well as by preventing NOXA from inhibiting antiapoptotic MCL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that serine phosphorylation of this protein induces a conformational change to its secretory form. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Firtsly, ING1b has been described to physically interact with the tumor suppressor protein p53 and being necessary for its transcriptional activity (Garkavtsev et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor (AMF) based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and angiogenic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • SMARCB1 is a core protein subunit of the 15 subunit SWI/SNF (or BAF) complex involved in regulating the nucleosome architecture of our genome and has been shown to be a potent tumor suppressor gene, meaning that its primary role is to control cell division and to even halt division under appropriate circumstances (i.e. signals to over-replicate). (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are disulfide linked to form the mature receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • cysteine
  • The first ubiquitin molecule is covalently bound through its C-terminal carboxylate group to a particular lysine, cysteine, serine, threonine or N-terminus of the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases that are known to play an essential role in programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Region of homology to semaphorins (Sema domain), which includes the full α-chain and the N-terminal part of the β-chain Cysteine-rich MET-related sequence (MRS domain) Glycine-proline-rich repeats (G-P repeats) Four immunoglobulin-like structures (Ig domains), a typical protein-protein interaction region. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • The core β-Catenin destruction complex consists of β-Catenin, Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein (APC), Axin, the kinases CK1 and GSK3β and the Ubiquitin ligase βTrCP. (biologists.org)
  • occurs
  • Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms i.e. it occurs ubiquitously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation of the p27 protein occurs as cells exit quiescence and enter G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis occurs in many physiological and pathological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following MET activation, transphosphorylation occurs on Tyr 1234 and Tyr 1235 C-terminal region contains two crucial tyrosines (Tyr 1349 and Tyr 1356), which are inserted into the multisubstrate docking site, capable of recruiting downstream adapter proteins with Src homology-2 (SH2) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • deprivation
  • As a result, 14-3-3ζ functions to protect the cell from environmental stresses, such as chemotherapy-induced death, anoikis, growth factor deprivation, and hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Telomerase lengthens telomeres in DNA strands, thereby allowing senescent cells that would otherwise become postmitotic and undergo apoptosis to exceed the Hayflick limit and become potentially immortal, as is often the case with cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • excessive
  • When methods have powerful, think that they have focusing to study a web, not apoptosis in the excessive cDNA. (ecombinatii.ro)
  • During development ATM is required to induce apoptosis of cells containing excessive DNA damage ( Herzog et al , 1998 ). (embopress.org)
  • Immediately after MI, the cardiac environment is characterized by excessive cardiomyocyte death and inflammatory signals leading to the recruitment of macrophages to clear the debris. (frontiersin.org)
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a mutated form of the huntingtin gene, where excessive (more than 36) CAG repeats result in formation of an unstable protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • The proteins work together to: trigger the recruitment of inflammatory cells "tag" pathogens for destruction by other cells by opsonizing, or coating, the surface of the pathogen form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the pathogen cell, causing the death of the pathogen rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformational changes
  • This electron flow changes the redox state of the protein, inducing conformational changes of the protein which alters the pK values of ionizable side chain, and causes four hydrogen ions to be pumped out of the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • Increased levels of the p27Kip1 protein typically cause cells to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • identified a protein p21 (WAF1) which was present in cells expressing wild type p53 but not those with mutant p53, moreover constitutive expression of p21 led to cell cycle arrest in a number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Defects in this gene are the cause of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, and a severe enzyme deficiency can be associated with hydrops fetalis, immediate neonatal death and neurological impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a dimeric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of G6P and F6P. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme consists of a protein component with reverse transcriptase activity, encoded by this gene, and an RNA component that serves as a template for the telomere repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complex I (EC 1.6.5.3) (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or, especially in the context of the human protein, NADH dehydrogenase) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans that falls under the H+ or Na+-translocating NADH Dehydrogenase (NDH) Family (TC# 3.D.1), a member of the Na+ transporting Mrp superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • In addition to having its complete genome buy Panipenem sequenced, the identity and locations of several of its structural proteins have been established through comparisons of three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic structures of wild-type N4 and its mutants . (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • Structural studies reveal that MACPF domains are related to cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), a family of pore forming toxins previously thought to only exist in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • FIND (Fragment Induced Diversity) technology is a powerful in vitro based antibody and protein optimization technology that creates functional libraries from which optimal variants of potential drug development candidates can be selected. (genetherapy.me)
  • Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of the protein phosphatase Pgam5 in vitro and in vivo in Xenopus . (biologists.org)
  • superfamily
  • The Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) superfamily, sometimes referred to as the MACPF/CDC superfamily, is named after a domain that is common to the membrane attack complex (MAC) proteins of the complement system (C6, C7, C8α, C8β and C9) and perforin (PF). (wikipedia.org)
  • As of early 2016, there are three families belonging to the MACPF superfamily: 1.C.12 - The Thiol-activated Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin (CDC) Family 1.C.39 - The Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) Family 1.C.97 - The Pleurotolysin Pore-forming (Pleurotolysin) Family Proteins containing MACPF domains play key roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins belonging to the MACPF superfamily play key roles in plant and animal immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • We show that Pgam5 interacts with Dishevelled2 and that Dishevelled2 is a substrate of Pgam5. (biologists.org)
  • The addition of ubiquitin to a substrate protein is called ubiquitination or less frequently ubiquitylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heat-stable polypeptide present in these extracts, ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was found to become covalently attached to the model protein substrate lysozyme in an ATP- and Mg2+-dependent process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy among women in developed countries. (frontiersin.org)
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy among women in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 205,000 cases worldwide per year resulting in ~125,000 deaths ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Through the action of AIRE, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) express major proteins from elsewhere in the body (so called "tissue-restricted antigens" - TRA) and T cells that respond to those proteins are eliminated through cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)