• inhibitory
  • From the original setting of mouse ESC culture, scientists identified the active components leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP), which maintain the pluripotency in ESCs through activating the Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway and inducing the inhibitors of differentiation (Id) genes, respectively [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It is controlled by regulators, which have either an inhibitory effect on programmed cell death (anti-apoptotic) or block the protective effect of inhibitors (pro-apoptotic). (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • In intrinsic activation, cytochrome c from the mitochondria works in combination with caspase-9, apoptosis-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), and ATP to process procaspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-2 is localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria, where it plays an important role in promoting cellular survival and inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • XIAP is inhibited by DIABLO (Smac) and HTRA2 (Omi), two death-signaling proteins released into the cytoplasm by the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fibroblasts, for example, mitochondria visualized with fluorescent proteins or specific dyes typically form tubules with diameters of ~0.5 mm, but their lengths can range from 1-10 mm or more. (scribd.com)
  • cell
  • This protein is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various apoptotic stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is known to interact with cellular and viral survival-promoting proteins, such as BCL2 and the Epstein-Barr virus in order to enhance programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Death Differ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is postulated to play a regulatory role in suppressing FasL- and LIGHT-mediated cell death and T cell activation as well as to induce angiogenesis via neutralization of TL1A. (wikipedia.org)
  • DED is a protein-protein interaction domain shared by adaptors, regulators and executors of the programmed cell death pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of a New Caspase Homologue: Caspase-14," Cell Death and Differentiation 5: 838-846, 1998. (patentgenius.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain (CARD/DD)-containing protein and has been shown to induce cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, both the N and C termini in GLUT proteins are exposed to the cytoplasm of the cell, and they all have 12 transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fas receptor is a death receptor on the surface of cells that leads to programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • In cultured cells, FasL induces various types of cancer cell apoptosis through the Fas receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also plays a very important role in regulating cell growth (upregulates ribosomal RNA and proteins), apoptosis (downregulates Bcl-2 ), differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functions of Myc-nick are currently under investigation, but this new Myc family member was found to regulate cell morphology, at least in part, by interacting with acetyl transferases to promote the acetylation of α-tubulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cell lines, geminin knockdown leads to markedly slowed growth and apoptosis within several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since geminin knockdown leads to cell death in many cancer cell lines but not primary cell lines, it has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it is clear that autophagy plays an essential role in ridding the cell of damaged or superfluous organelles and proteins, in generating nutrients essential for cell survival under starvation and other stressful conditions, and in some cases acting as a cell death effector. (biologists.org)
  • Bcl-2 derives its name from B-cell lymphoma 2, as it is the second member of a range of proteins initially described in chromosomal translocations involving chromosomes 14 and 18 in follicular lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Cancer can be seen as a disturbance in the homeostatic balance between cell growth and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-expression of anti-apoptotic genes, and under-expression of pro-apoptotic genes, can result in the lack of cell death that is characteristic of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes can be caused by defective apoptosis, which leads to aberrant T cell AICD and defective peripheral tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated caspase 9 stimulates the subsequent caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro , suppression of EYA4 expression using shRNA reduced cell adhesion and migration and caused cellular necrosis without affecting cell proliferation or apoptotic cell death. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Caspase-3 subsequently cleaves its substrates, such as caspase-7 ( 21 ) and DNA fragmentation factor 45 ( 22 ), in the execution of the programmed cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is a reversible post-translational modification that is involved in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, DNA repair, gene regulation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bcl-2 family is most notable for their regulation of apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, at the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria toxin forms a transmembrane pore and translocates the toxic catalytic domain into the animal cell cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active cell suicide (apoptosis) is induced by events such as growth factor withdrawal and toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long form (Bcl-x(L), displays cell death repressor activity, but the short isoform (Bcl-x(S)) and the β-isoform (Bcl-xβ) promote cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gujral JS , Knight TR , Farhood A , Bajt ML , Jaeschke H . Mode of cell death after acetaminophen overdose in mice: apoptosis or oncotic necrosis? (wiley.com)
  • A Death Effector Domain Chain DISC Model Reveals a Crucial Role for Caspase-8 Chain Assembly in Mediating Apoptotic Cell Death. (le.ac.uk)
  • Cell Death Diff , (2012) 19 , 1424-1434. (le.ac.uk)
  • In vitro assays show that both intact 1G8 and F(ab′) 2 fragments of 1G8 induce prostate cancer cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The anti-PSCA antibody-induced cell death is caspase independent and requires antigen cross-linking. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The existence of a retinoblastoma family of proteins pRb, p107, and p130 and their potential unique and overlapping functions as master regulators of cell cycle progression and transcriptional modulation by similar processes, may provide potential clues to explain such conundrum. (frontiersin.org)
  • Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention relates to modulating BimEL levels (Bcl-2-Interacting Mediator of cell death, Extra Long isoform) to sensitize cancer cells to cell death or apoptosis. (google.es)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , further comprising contacting the cell with a second agent for sensitizing the cell to DNA damage, or for inducing apoptosis or cell death of the cell. (google.es)
  • Because of the essential roles of proteolytic enzymes in the control of cell behavior, survival and cell death, degradome analysis provides a useful framework for the global exploration of these protease-mediated functions in normal and pathological conditions. (google.es)
  • inhibition
  • In a later study, inhibition of protein kinases ERK1/2 and GSK3β using small-molecule inhibitors (termed "2i") was found to safeguard mouse ESC in a ground state of pluripotency, while abolishing the requirement of LIF and BMP [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Rho inhibition reduces the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins and increases protein levels of pro-apoptotic Bid but had no effect on Bax or FLIP levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Gab proteins function downstream of multiple receptors, such as the receptors for EGF, hepatocyte growth factor, and FGF ( Gu and Neel, 2003 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cannabinoids produce many of their cellular and organ system effects by interacting with the well-characterized CB1 and CB2 receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • synthetic and other types of cannabinoids (many developed seeking modulators of other signaling systems, but found to interact with the classic CB1 and/or CB2 receptors). (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • Dcr3 was identified in 1998 by the search of genes with homology to the TNFR gene superfamily in expressed sequence tag (EST) database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc protein belongs to Myc family of transcription factors, which also includes N-Myc and L-Myc genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many viruses have found a way of countering defensive apoptosis by encoding their own anti-apoptosis genes preventing their target-cells from dying too soon. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • The best characterized of these stimuli is nutrient starvation, which induces autophagy in part through the inactivation of the protein kinase target of rapamycin (Tor) ( Fig. 2 ). (biologists.org)
  • mitochondrion
  • Some members of the family have transmembrane domains at their c-terminus which primarily function to localize them to the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Between the BIR-1 and BIR-2 domains, there is a linker-BIR-2 region that is thought to contain the only element that comes into contact with the caspase molecule to form the XIAP/Caspase-7 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • baculoviral
  • Firstly, there is the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain consisting of approximately 70 amino acids, which characterizes all IAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein3 (also known as cIAP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BIRC3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane domain
  • Unlike most of the other members of TNFR superfamily, TNFRSF6 is a soluble protein which contains no transmembrane domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nine domains are as follows: N-terminus domain (66 aa) transmembrane domain 1 (23 aa) extracellular loop 1 (46 aa) transmembrane domain 2 (25 aa) intracellular loop (10 aa) transmembrane domain 3 (25 aa) extracellular domain 2 (48 aa) transmembrane domain 4 (22 aa) C-terminus domain (257 aa) The C-terminus domain has been shown experimentally to be required for correct assembly of tight junction barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cysteine
  • The CASP3 protein is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, its active site contains a cysteine residue (Cys-163) and histidine residue (His-121) that stabilize the peptide bond cleavage of a protein sequence to the carboxy-terminal side of an aspartic acid when it is part of a particular 4-amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular domain has 157 amino acids and is rich in cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • For the death pathway, the caspase-8 zymogen is cleaved into subunits that assemble to form the mature, highly active caspase heterotetramer whereas for the activation pathway, the zymogen appears to remain intact perhaps to limit its proteolytic function but enhance its capability as an adapter protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings identify a role for EYA4 and possibly interacting SIX and DACH proteins in MPNSTs and suggest the EYA4 pathway as a rational therapeutic target. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • IAPs
  • The protein is also called human IAP-like Protein (hILP), because it is not as well conserved as the human IAPS: hIAP-1 and hIAP-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RING domain utilizes E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and enables IAPs to catalyze ubiquination of self, caspase-3, or caspase-7 by degradation via proteasome activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Due to the fact that dendritic cells are the immune system's most important antigen-presenting cells, their activity must be tightly regulated by mechanisms such as apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • MPNST cells expressing sh-EYA4 either failed to form tumors in nude mice or formed very small tumors, with extensive necrosis but similar levels of proliferation and apoptosis as control cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • leucine zipper
  • Through its bHLH DNA-binding motif, Myc interacts with DNA , while the leucine zipper TF-binding motif allows the dimerization with its partner Max, another bHLH transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains an atypical leucine-zipper coiled-coil domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Myc mRNA contains an IRES (internal ribosome entry site) that allows the RNA to be translated into protein when 5' cap -dependent translation is inhibited, such as during viral infection. (wikipedia.org)