• inhibitory
  • From the original setting of mouse ESC culture, scientists identified the active components leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP), which maintain the pluripotency in ESCs through activating the Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway and inducing the inhibitors of differentiation (Id) genes, respectively [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It is controlled by regulators, which have either an inhibitory effect on programmed cell death (anti-apoptotic) or block the protective effect of inhibitors (pro-apoptotic). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Dcr3 was identified in 1998 by the search of genes with homology to the TNFR gene superfamily in expressed sequence tag (EST) database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-expression of anti-apoptotic genes, and under-expression of pro-apoptotic genes, can result in the lack of cell death that is characteristic of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc protein belongs to Myc family of transcription factors, which also includes N-Myc and L-Myc genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another regulatory element, the cell cycle element/cell cycle genes homology region (CDE/CHR), located downstream of the start site is important for POLD1 transcription in G2/M phase by E2F1 and p21 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many viruses have found a way of countering defensive apoptosis by encoding their own anti-apoptosis genes preventing their target-cells from dying too soon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysregulation of KDM5 family genes is linked to human disorders, underscoring the importance of understanding the in vivo functions of KDM5 proteins. (genetics.org)
  • receptors
  • Besancon E, Guo S, Lok J, Tymianski M, Lo EH (2008) Beyond Nmda and Ampa glutamate receptors: emerging mechanisms for ionic imbalance and cell death in stroke. (springer.com)
  • Gab proteins function downstream of multiple receptors, such as the receptors for EGF, hepatocyte growth factor, and FGF ( Gu and Neel, 2003 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • inhibition
  • In a later study, inhibition of protein kinases ERK1/2 and GSK3β using small-molecule inhibitors (termed "2i") was found to safeguard mouse ESC in a ground state of pluripotency, while abolishing the requirement of LIF and BMP [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Rho inhibition reduces the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins and increases protein levels of pro-apoptotic Bid but had no effect on Bax or FLIP levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate cell
  • The functions of Myc-nick are currently under investigation, but this new Myc family member was found to regulate cell morphology, at least in part, by interacting with acetyl transferases to promote the acetylation of α-tubulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • family of proteins
  • The existence of a retinoblastoma family of proteins pRb, p107, and p130 and their potential unique and overlapping functions as master regulators of cell cycle progression and transcriptional modulation by similar processes, may provide potential clues to explain such conundrum. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mutations
  • Three missense mutations , each affecting BARD1's BRCT domain, are known to be implicated in cancers: C645R is associated with breast and ovarian cancers, V695L is associated with breast cancer, and S761N is associated with breast and uterine cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with apoptosis defects seen in type II autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • A particularly instructive example for the implication of programmed cell death in animal development is the formation of free and independent digits by massive cell death in the interdigital mesenchymal tissue [Zuzarte-Luis, (celldeath.de)
  • Fascinating insights into the origin and evolution of programmed cell death might possibly be given by the fact, that programmed cell death is also an integral part of the life cycle of other unicellular eukaryotes (such as the kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum) and that even prokaryotes (such as Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces and Myxobacteria) sometimes undergo regulated cell death [Ameisen, (celldeath.de)
  • mitochondria
  • In intrinsic activation, cytochrome c from the mitochondria works in combination with caspase-9, apoptosis-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), and ATP to process procaspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-2 is localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria, where it plays an important role in promoting cellular survival and inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • XIAP is inhibited by DIABLO (Smac) and HTRA2 (Omi), two death-signaling proteins released into the cytoplasm by the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The nine domains are as follows: N-terminus domain (66 aa) transmembrane domain 1 (23 aa) extracellular loop 1 (46 aa) transmembrane domain 2 (25 aa) intracellular loop (10 aa) transmembrane domain 3 (25 aa) extracellular domain 2 (48 aa) transmembrane domain 4 (22 aa) C-terminus domain (257 aa) The C-terminus domain has been shown experimentally to be required for correct assembly of tight junction barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, ARC seems to be a calcium-binding protein and can suppress the intracellular Ca 2+ increase thereby blocking Ca 2+ -mediated apoptosis ( 21 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecule
  • Between the BIR-1 and BIR-2 domains, there is a linker-BIR-2 region that is thought to contain the only element that comes into contact with the caspase molecule to form the XIAP/Caspase-7 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also plays a very important role in regulating cell growth (upregulates ribosomal RNA and proteins), apoptosis (downregulates Bcl-2 ), differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of a New Caspase Homologue: Caspase-14," Cell Death and Differentiation 5: 838-846, 1998. (patentgenius.com)
  • heterodimer
  • BARD1 and BRCA1 form a heterodimer via their N-terminal RING finger domains . (wikipedia.org)
  • Double stranded breaks (DSB) in DNA trigger poly(ADPribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) to catalyze the formation of poly(ADPribose) (PAR) so that PAR can then bind to an array of DNA response proteins, including the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer, and target them to DNA damage sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • In the case of defective apoptosis, it may contribute to etiological aspects of autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes can be caused by defective apoptosis, which leads to aberrant T cell AICD and defective peripheral tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in apoptosis can result in cancer, autoimmune diseases and spreading of viral infections, while neurodegenerative disorders, AIDS and ischaemic diseases are caused or enhanced by excessive apoptosis [Fadeel, 1999a]. (celldeath.de)
  • mechanisms
  • Due to the fact that dendritic cells are the immune system's most important antigen-presenting cells, their activity must be tightly regulated by mechanisms such as apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these changes occur with a simultaneous upregulation of immune suppressive mechanisms including apoptosis (CD95), coinhibition (TIM-3), and immune regulation (IL-10) through the course of pregnancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms by which dysregulation of KDM5 proteins cause disease remain unknown, it is likely to involve their activities as transcriptional regulators. (genetics.org)
  • baculoviral
  • Firstly, there is the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain consisting of approximately 70 amino acids, which characterizes all IAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein3 (also known as cIAP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BIRC3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • The protein encoded by this gene is known to interact with cellular and viral survival-promoting proteins, such as BCL2 and the Epstein-Barr virus in order to enhance programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because its activity is suppressed in the presence of survival-promoting proteins, this protein is suggested as a likely target for antiapoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Declercq W, Vanden Berghe T, Vandenabeele P (2009) RIP kinases at the crossroads of cell death and survival. (springer.com)
  • For example, it is clear that autophagy plays an essential role in ridding the cell of damaged or superfluous organelles and proteins, in generating nutrients essential for cell survival under starvation and other stressful conditions, and in some cases acting as a cell death effector. (biologists.org)
  • The BH domains are known to be crucial for function, as deletion of these domains via molecular cloning affects survival/apoptosis rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the essential roles of proteolytic enzymes in the control of cell behavior, survival and cell death, degradome analysis provides a useful framework for the global exploration of these protease-mediated functions in normal and pathological conditions. (google.es)