• genes
  • 1999). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, small RNA viruses infecting animals (picornaviruses) and those infecting plants (cowpea mosaic virus) were compared and turned out to share significant sequence similarity and, in part, the order of their genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four genes that code for the components of the receptor in humans have a simple organization in which the coding sequence is contained within a single exon. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, genes encoding ribosomal RNA and spacers occur in tandem repeats that are thousands of copies long, each separated by regions of non-transcribed DNA termed intergenic spacer (IGS) or non-transcribed spacer (NTS). (wikipedia.org)
  • rDNA repeats
  • The different coding regions of the rDNA repeats usually show distinct evolutionary rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its higher degree of variation than other genic regions of rDNA (for example, small- and large-subunit rRNA), variation among individual rDNA repeats can sometimes be observed within both the ITS and IGS regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • It was reported that tandem amino acid repeats have many functions of stabilizing proteins [ 1 ], maintaining conformation [ 2 ], elevating activity, and increasing half-life of proteins in blood or tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Following the leucine rich repeat domain is the acidic residue-rich sequence containing sulfated tyrosines, the highly O-glycosylated macroglycopeptide, a stalk region of about 40 to 50 residues, a single transmembrane sequence and finally a cytoplasmic tail containing 96 amino acid residues which includes serine residues such as Ser587, Ser590 and Ser609 that can be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole genome
  • Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients, food and catering staff were characterised and compared using traditional typing methods and whole genome sequencing. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Whole genome sequencing resulted in phylogenetic clustering which concurred with traditional typing while simultaneously characterising virulence and resistance traits. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The first high-resolution whole genome comparison system was developed in 1998 by Art Delcher, Simon Kasif and Steven Salzberg and applied to the comparison of entire highly related microbial organisms with their collaborators at the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR). (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • Intermingled patterns of variant repeats along the array can be charted by minisatellite variant repeat mapping by PCR (MVR-PCR) to provide exquisitely detailed information on internal allele structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the unstable nature of minisatellites together with the frequently complex inter-allelic conversion-like germline mutation process, pedigree analysis can be performed for only a limited number of generations before it becomes impossible to trace back the original allele structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data are therefore a virtually irrefutable demonstration of the reality of race - a purely statistical analysis of allele frequencies [genetic differences from one group to another] gives results that are essentially identical to the racial groupings established by traditional anthropology. (amren.com)
  • copies
  • In this study, T α 1 which was composed of three repeated copies of T α 1 was fuse-expressed with thioredoxin (trx) in E. coli TOP10 strain and purified by heat treatment and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography. (hindawi.com)
  • Each set is measured and the number of repeat copies is recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • microsatellite
  • In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, the sequence TATATATATA is a dinucleotide microsatellite, and GTCGTCGTCGTCGTC is a trinucleotide microsatellite (with A being Adenine, G Guanine, C Cytosine, and T Thymine). (wikipedia.org)
  • leucine
  • Each subunit of the complex is a type I transmembrane (TM) protein which consists of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain (extracellular domain), a single transmembrane helix, and a relatively short cytoplasmic tail that lacks enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the four subunits (GPIbα, GPIbβ, GPIX and GPV) is part of the leucine rich repeat motif superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissection of the crystal structure of the GPIbα N-terminal leucine rich repeat domain discloses the presence of a single disulfide bond between cysteine (Cys) residues Cys4 and Cys17 in the N-capping region, and two disulfide bonds (Cys209-Cys248 and Cys211-Cys264) in the C-capping region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, there are seven tandem leucine rich repeats and their flanking sequences in the central parallel β-coil region. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the extracellular domain (ectodomain), both the N-capping and C-capping regions, which flank the leucine rich repeat sequence, contain two interlocking disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • The United Kingdom's National DNA Database (NDNAD) was set up in 1995 using the Second Generation Multiplex (SGM) DNA profiling system (SGM+ DNA profiling system since 1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first complete genome sequence of a cellular organism, that of Haemophilus influenzae Rd, was published in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • expansions
  • Many human diseases have been reported to be associated with trinucleotide repeat expansions including Huntington's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • The old algorithm is limited in its application because there are many overlaps between different repeat units which result in false evolutionary relationships. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This can be explained by the relatively low evolutionary pressure acting on such non-coding spacer sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • The tandem repeats of proteins and peptides are studied widely and formidable progress has been made in this field. (hindawi.com)
  • They are widely used for DNA profiling in cancer diagnosis, in kinship analysis (especially paternity testing) and in forensic identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ITS region is the most widely sequenced DNA region in molecular ecology of fungi and has been recommended as the universal fungal barcode sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locus
  • An individual who is not affected by Huntington's disease will have 6-35 tandem repeats at the HD locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • If both strands, inherited from the parents, contain the same number of repeats at that locus the person is said to be homozygous at that locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • When DNA polymerase encounters a direct repeat, it can undergo a replication slippage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slippage occurs through five main stages: In the first step, DNA polymerase encounters the direct repeat during the replication process. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerase reassembles its position on the template strand and resumes normal replication, but during the course of reassembling, the polymerase complex backtracks and repeats the insertion of deoxyribonucleotides that were previously added. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tandem repeats (the main influence for slippage replication) can be found in coding and non-coding regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inverted repeats are principally found at the origins of replication of cell organism and organelles that range from phage plasmids, mitochondria, and eukaryotic viruses to mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The replication origins of the phage G4 and other related phages comprise a segment of nearly 139 nucleotide bases that include three inverted repeats that are essential for replication priming. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • In addition to the universal ITS1+ITS4 primers used by many labs, several taxon-specific primers have been described that allow selective amplification of fungal sequences (e.g., see Gardes & Bruns 1993 paper describing amplification of basidiomycete ITS sequences from mycorrhiza samples). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. (ufl.edu)
  • licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative C ommons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestri cted use, distributi on, and reproductio n in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Research articleNovel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. (ufl.edu)
  • Genotypically identical strains (sequence type ST8, spa -type t024, MLVA-type 4698, enterotoxin A FRI100) were isolated in 10 patients, shiitake mushrooms, cured ham, and in three members of staff. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Non-enterotoxigenic strains with livestock-associated sequence type ST398 were isolated from three food items and two members of staff. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • 1989
  • The creation of a national DNA database within the U.S. was first mentioned by the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (TWGDAM) in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • The newly synthesized strand then detaches from the template strand and pairs with another direct repeat upstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in some repeats found in the template strand being replicated twice into the daughter strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Retrotransposons are commonly grouped into three main orders: TEs with long terminal repeats (LTRs), which encode reverse transcriptase, similar to retroviruses Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs, LINE-1s, or L1s), which encode reverse transcriptase but lack LTRs, and are transcribed by RNA polymerase II Short interspersed nuclear elements do not encode reverse transcriptase and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III [Note : Retroviruses can also be considered TEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Terminal inverted repeats have been observed in the DNA of various eukaryotic transposons, even though their source remains unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • transposons
  • They define the boundaries in transposons and indicate regions capable of self-complementary base pairing (regions within a single sequence which can base pair with each other). (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm and therefore would be very useful for germplasm analysis, linkage mapping, diversity studies and phylogenetic relationships in cultivated groundnut as well as related Arachis species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • occurrence
  • This length is not absolute, however, due to heteroplasmy caused by the occurrence of different numbers of a 75-nt-long tandem repeat in the control region. (springer.com)
  • This promotes intra-genomic homogeneity of the repeat units, although high-throughput sequencing showed the occurrence of frequent variations within plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelet
  • The concomitant expression of all three subunits is required to allow the effective expression of GPIb-IX on the platelet cell surface and analysis of receptor expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has further supported that the interaction between these subunits also acts to stabilize them. (wikipedia.org)