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  • genome sequences
  • Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. (ufl.edu)
  • licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative C ommons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestri cted use, distributi on, and reproductio n in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Research articleNovel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. (ufl.edu)
  • Over 100 fungal genome sequences have been obtained or are in the pipeline [ 1 ] and next-generation sequencing technologies will further accelerate the accumulation of data over the next decade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This list of sequenced eubacterial genomes contains all the eubacteria known to have publicly available complete genome sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, comparative genomic approaches start with making some form of alignment of genome sequences and looking for orthologous sequences (sequences that share a common ancestry) in the aligned genomes and checking to what extent those sequences are conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next-generation sequencing methods, which were first introduced in 2007, have produced an enormous amount of genomic data and have allowed researchers to generate multiple (prokaryotic) draft genome sequences at once. (wikipedia.org)
  • allele
  • Intermingled patterns of variant repeats along the array can be charted by minisatellite variant repeat mapping by PCR (MVR-PCR) to provide exquisitely detailed information on internal allele structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the unstable nature of minisatellites together with the frequently complex inter-allelic conversion-like germline mutation process, pedigree analysis can be performed for only a limited number of generations before it becomes impossible to trace back the original allele structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data are therefore a virtually irrefutable demonstration of the reality of race - a purely statistical analysis of allele frequencies [genetic differences from one group to another] gives results that are essentially identical to the racial groupings established by traditional anthropology. (amren.com)
  • Genomics
  • Here, genomics analyses of isolates from this rapidly expanding clonal population offered an opportunity to observe the molecular evolutionary changes often obscured in more diverse populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein
  • As an example, specific information of a protein sequence can be organized into a linear function which can be used to understand the structure and function of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • These repeats shows no resemblance to anything within the genbank, making hyalin a unique protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each subunit of the complex is a type I transmembrane (TM) protein which consists of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain (extracellular domain), a single transmembrane helix, and a relatively short cytoplasmic tail that lacks enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leucine Rich R
  • TLRs are membrane glycoproteins and contain leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif in the ectodomain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of the four subunits (GPIbα, GPIbβ, GPIX and GPV) is part of the leucine rich repeat motif superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissection of the crystal structure of the GPIbα N-terminal leucine rich repeat domain discloses the presence of a single disulfide bond between cysteine (Cys) residues Cys4 and Cys17 in the N-capping region, and two disulfide bonds (Cys209-Cys248 and Cys211-Cys264) in the C-capping region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the leucine rich repeat domain is the acidic residue-rich sequence containing sulfated tyrosines, the highly O-glycosylated macroglycopeptide, a stalk region of about 40 to 50 residues, a single transmembrane sequence and finally a cytoplasmic tail containing 96 amino acid residues which includes serine residues such as Ser587, Ser590 and Ser609 that can be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the extracellular domain (ectodomain), both the N-capping and C-capping regions, which flank the leucine rich repeat sequence, contain two interlocking disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • expansions
  • Many human diseases have been reported to be associated with trinucleotide repeat expansions including Huntington's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • minisatellites
  • While semi-automated PCR analysis of microsatellites has now largely replaced minisatellite-based systems, DNA typing of minisatellites still provides a powerful and highly discriminating tool. (biomedcentral.com)
  • isolates
  • Whole-genome sequencing identified additional isolates that could be attributed to the outbreak, but which differed from the outbreak-associated PFGE type. (cdc.gov)
  • Whole genome sequence comparison of eight independent isolates of this population from mussels or clinical cases (from different years) was performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • widely
  • The tandem repeats of proteins and peptides are studied widely and formidable progress has been made in this field. (hindawi.com)
  • They are widely used for DNA profiling in cancer diagnosis, in kinship analysis (especially paternity testing) and in forensic identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ITS region is the most widely sequenced DNA region in molecular ecology of fungi and has been recommended as the universal fungal barcode sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Two groups published identical findings back-to-back in the journal Neuron in mid-2011, showing that a hexanucleotide repeat expansion of the GGGGCC genetic sequence within an intron of this gene was responsible. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also used in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • In addition to the universal ITS1+ITS4 primers used by many labs, several taxon-specific primers have been described that allow selective amplification of fungal sequences (e.g., see Gardes & Bruns 1993 paper describing amplification of basidiomycete ITS sequences from mycorrhiza samples). (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Each of the six major TLR families is characterized by their constituent LRR motifs, their repeat numbers, and their patterns of cysteine clusters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Internal structures of alleles were determined by minisatellite variant repeat mapping PCR to produce maps of intermingled patterns of variant repeats along the repeat array. (biomedcentral.com)
  • strand
  • The newly synthesized strand then detaches from the template strand and pairs with another direct repeat upstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerase reassembles its position on the template strand and resumes normal replication, but during the course of reassembling, the polymerase complex backtracks and repeats the insertion of deoxyribonucleotides that were previously added. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in some repeats found in the template strand being replicated twice into the daughter strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common repeats include the dinucleotide repeats, which have the bases AC on one DNA strand, and GT on the complementary strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Bioinformatics analysis showed that pXOCgx01 has a mosaic structure containing different genome contexts with distinct genomic heterogeneities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The different coding regions of the rDNA repeats usually show distinct evolutionary rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limited recombination of the sequences between two distinct sequence elements known as conservative site-specific recombination (CSSR) results in inversions of the DNA segment, based on the arrangement of the recombination recognition sequences on the donor DNA and recipient DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Furthermore, the super-repeat in the TLR7 family suggests strongly that "bacterial" and "typical" LRRs evolved from a common precursor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • copies
  • In this study, T α 1 which was composed of three repeated copies of T α 1 was fuse-expressed with thioredoxin (trx) in E. coli TOP10 strain and purified by heat treatment and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography. (hindawi.com)
  • Each set is measured and the number of repeat copies is recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diverse genome-wide repeats are derived from transposable elements, which are now understood to "jump" about different genomic locations, without transferring their original copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • The United Kingdom's National DNA Database (NDNAD) was set up in 1995 using the Second Generation Multiplex (SGM) DNA profiling system (SGM+ DNA profiling system since 1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphic
  • Although the first microsatellite was characterised in 1984 at the University of Leicester by Weller, Jeffreys and colleagues as a polymorphic GGAT repeat in the human myoglobin gene, the term "microsatellite" was introduced later, in 1989, by Litt and Luty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locus
  • An individual who is not affected by Huntington's disease will have 6-35 tandem repeats at the HD locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • If both strands, inherited from the parents, contain the same number of repeats at that locus the person is said to be homozygous at that locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminal
  • Retrotransposons are commonly grouped into three main orders: TEs with long terminal repeats (LTRs), which encode reverse transcriptase, similar to retroviruses Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs, LINE-1s, or L1s), which encode reverse transcriptase but lack LTRs, and are transcribed by RNA polymerase II Short interspersed nuclear elements do not encode reverse transcriptase and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III [Note : Retroviruses can also be considered TEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Terminal inverted repeats have been observed in the DNA of various eukaryotic transposons, even though their source remains unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carboxy-terminal two-thirds of subunit 1 have 22 non-identical, tandem HEAT repeats that form rod-like, helical structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurrence
  • This length is not absolute, however, due to heteroplasmy caused by the occurrence of different numbers of a 75-nt-long tandem repeat in the control region. (springer.com)
  • present
  • Frasch and colleagues suggested that tandem repeats present in Trypanosoma cruzi transsialidase stabilized the catalytic activity. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, repeats present on T . cruzi shed proteins increased trans-sialidase half-life in blood from 7 to almost 35 h [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The present invention is directed to materials and methods for the identification and analysis of intermediate tandem repeat sequences in DNA, wherein an intermediate tandem repeat (ITR) sequence is a region of a DNA sequence containing at least one five to seven base repeat unit appearing in tandem. (google.com.au)
  • The present invention relates to parallel genotyping (or other sample analysis) of multiple patients by direct sample immobilization onto microspheres of an array. (google.ca)
  • However, an affected individual will have 36- 121 repeats present. (wikipedia.org)
  • As many as 21 of these long repeats can be present, accounting for 230 kDa of the total mass and two-thirds of the filamentous region. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelet
  • The concomitant expression of all three subunits is required to allow the effective expression of GPIb-IX on the platelet cell surface and analysis of receptor expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has further supported that the interaction between these subunits also acts to stabilize them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, recombination occurring at a pair of inverted sites will invert the DNA sequence between the two sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • It was reported that tandem amino acid repeats have many functions of stabilizing proteins [ 1 ], maintaining conformation [ 2 ], elevating activity, and increasing half-life of proteins in blood or tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • replication
  • Inverted repeats are principally found at the origins of replication of cell organism and organelles that range from phage plasmids, mitochondria, and eukaryotic viruses to mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Very stable chromosomes have been observed with comparatively fewer numbers of inverted repeats than direct repeats, suggesting a relationship between chromosome stability and the number of repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each eukaryotic ribosomal cluster contains the 5' external transcribed sequence (5' ETS), the 18S rRNA gene, the ITS1, the 5.8S rRNA gene, the ITS2, the 26S or 28S rRNA gene, and finally the 3' ETS. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole-genome
  • Although whole-genome sequencing has been found to improve discrimination of outbreak clusters, whether this procedure can be used in real-time in a public health laboratory is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • We refer to this approach as whole-genome cluster analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The first high-resolution whole genome comparison system was developed in 1998 by Art Delcher, Simon Kasif and Steven Salzberg and applied to the comparison of entire highly related microbial organisms with their collaborators at the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Sequence analyses of conserve genomic loci such as 16S rRNA gene and 16S/23S intergenic spacer regions have been used to define ' Ca . Liberibacter' species [ 4 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Three distinct classes of terpene synthase genes were discerned, from which assumed patterns of sequential intron loss and the loss of an unusual internal sequence element suggest that the ancestral terpenoid synthase gene resembled a contemporary conifer diterpene synthase gene in containing at least 12 introns and 13 exons of conserved size. (genetics.org)
  • This study on the sequences and functions of various lupulin gland-specific transcription factors provides insight into the complex character of the regulation of the chs _H1 gene that depends on variable activation by combinations of R2R3Myb, bHLH and WDR TF homologues and inhibition by a Myb repressor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two groups published identical findings back-to-back in the journal Neuron in mid-2011, showing that a hexanucleotide repeat expansion of the GGGGCC genetic sequence within an intron of this gene was responsible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transgenic mouse was created by combining a β-galactosidase (β-gal) reporter gene with a signal sequence and the transmembrane domain of the type I transmembrane protein CD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the transgene was incorporated into a gene with a signal sequence, β-gal activity would remain in the cytosol of the cell and therefore be active. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the reporter gene was incorporated into a gene that lacked a signal sequence, β-gal activity would be in the ER where it would lose β-gal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995). "Sequence and expression of a candidate for the human Secretor blood group alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The alleles of this gene exhibit an unusual amount of sequence variation, such that the alleles were once thought to represent two separate genes, beta II and beta III. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • A genomic region (CLIBASIA_05640 to CLIBASIA_05650) of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' showing hyper-sequence variation or locus mosaicism was identified and investigated using 262 bacterial strains (188 from China and 74 from Florida). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we describe the isolation and analysis of six genomic clones encoding terpene synthases of conifers, [(-)-pinene (C 10 ), (-)-limonene (C 10 ), ( E )-α-bisabolene (C 15 ), δ-selinene (C 15 ), and abietadiene synthase (C 20 ) from Abies grandis and taxadiene synthase (C 20 ) from Taxus brevifolia ], all of which are involved in natural products biosynthesis. (genetics.org)
  • upstream
  • The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Molecular anthropology is a field of anthropology in which molecular analysis is used to determine evolutionary links between ancient and modern human populations, as well as between contemporary species. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996). "Molecular genetic analysis of the human Lewis histo-blood group system. (wikipedia.org)
  • fewer
  • The beta-neurexins lack EGF-like sequences and contain fewer laminin G domains than alpha-neurexins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals appear to require the existence of 11 or fewer repeat units to be at risk for FSHD. (wikipedia.org)
  • myoglobin
  • Intra-and intermolecular beta-pleated sheet formation in glutamine-repeat inserted myoglobin as a model for polyglutamine diseases. (springer.com)
  • SNPs
  • When examining closely related species, or branching within species, recombination creates a large number of 'irrelevant SNPs' for cladistic analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factors
  • Promoters contain specific DNA sequences such as response elements that provide a secure initial binding site for RNA polymerase and for proteins called transcription factors that recruit RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • contain
  • The alpha-neurexins contain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) sequences and laminin G domains, and have been shown to interact with neurexophilins. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Crosslinks informed models of local peptide structure within the repeat domain which suggest relative inaccessibility of residues that drive aggregation (VQIINK/VQIVYK) in M i , and exposure in M s . (elifesciences.org)
  • clinical
  • ROC analyses revealed that among preoperative clinical factors, TNR was the most sensitive indicator of K19 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • region
  • The promoter activation was strongly dependent on the Myb-P binding box TCCTACC having a core sequence CCWACC positioned on its 5' end region and it seems that the complexity of the promoter plays an important role. (biomedcentral.com)
  • units
  • Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • RNA polymerase holoenzymes containing other sigma factors recognize different core promoter sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • By examining DNA sequences in different populations, scientists can determine the closeness of relationships between populations (or within populations). (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. (docplayer.net)
  • results
  • For instance, a 2006 meta analysis on 14 studies concluded that there is "no discernable effect" while a 2007 systemic review of studies on intercessory prayer reported inconclusive results, noting that 7 of 17 studies had "small, but significant, effect sizes" but the review noted that the most methodologically rigorous studies failed to produce significant findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • date
  • Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed. (google.com)