• Genes
  • Now we know that, in large measure, our fate is in our Genes (Jaroff 1998). (promptpapers.com)
  • Also making the list are planets that have been directly detected for the first time outside of earth's solar system, cancer-causing genes pinpointed through genome research, and the development of iron-based materials that work their superconductive magic at up to 56 degrees Kelvin. (icr.org)
  • They took a cell from Dr Jose Cibelli, a research scientist and combined it with a cows egg from which the genes had already been removed. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Each of the cells in an embryo contains the same genome, characteristic of the species, but the level of activity of each of the many thousands of genes that make up the complete genome varies with, and determines, a particular cell's type (e.g. neuron, bone cell, skin cell, muscle cell, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Its creation may be years or decades away, because it faces several obstacles, among them the mapping of the dog genome. (ekac.org)
  • However, collaborative research is under way to map the canine genome, the results of which will eventually enable precision work at the level of canine morphology and behavior. (ekac.org)
  • citation needed] The word is a portmanteau of embryo and genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • In summary, McCain would make the Bush tax cuts permanent instead of letting them expire, he would eliminate the Alternative Minimum Tax in order to assist the middle-class, he would double the personal exemption for dependents, reduce the corporate tax rate, and offer a new research and development tax credit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the first isolation of usable stem cells, tremendous scientific interest has flourished over the potential of stem cell research to improve our understanding of human development and disease and potentially for cell-based therapies to cure a wide range of diseases. (spusa.org)
  • Pre-implantation embryos at this stage of development are called blastocysts, hollow microscopic balls of cells. (spusa.org)
  • Drawing upon court rulings and legislative acts, they surmised that an embryo could be technically classified as dead once the cells lost the ability of "continued and integrated cellular division, growth, and differentiation.1" The idea is that even though the embryo has lost the opportunity for further development, some healthy individual cells remain and can potentially be harvested for cultivation. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • They have lost the ability to differentiate to all cell types needed for a complete embryo development, but they still have the potential to differentiate to any other cell type (up to day 14th post-fertilization). (orthodoxwiki.org)
  • He has taken up the cause before the U.S. Congress, President Bush's Council on Bioethics and the late Pope John Paul II, warning at every turn that limiting or blocking stem cell research would hamper development of potential treatments and cures-a moral dilemma of its own. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • He was award the Royal Photographic Society's Progress medal in 1993 'in recognition of any invention, research, publication or other contribution which has resulted in an important advance in the scientific or technological development of photography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. (unt.edu)
  • Consolidation of many Federal research and development (R&D) activities into a Department of Science and Technology (S&T) has been proposed repeatedly since World War D, including in the last Congress. (unt.edu)
  • Fossil Energy Research and Development: Whither Coal? (unt.edu)
  • The noteworthy aspect of these was how the embryos of these different life forms initially resembled one another very closely and gradually diverged over the course of their development. (darwinism-watch.com)
  • Cells in marginal zones of the embryo, like the PMZ, are key to development and cell fate determination in chick embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a single gene has not been isolated for the creation of Koller's sickle, there is evidence that the Homeobox gene Hex influences Koller's sickle development. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an embryo develops from a fertilized egg, the single egg cell splits into many cells, which grow in number and migrate to the appropriate locations inside the embryo at appropriate times during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryo development (embryogenesis), many cell types are present which are not present in the adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryogenic tree is a diagram which shows the temporal development of each of the cell lines in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryogenesis
  • Since his PhD, he has been involved in research focusing on gametes and embryogenesis, including working at the Roslin Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of embryogenesis can be described with the aid of two maps: an embryo map, a temporal sequence of 3-dimensional images of the developing embryo, showing the location of cells of the many cell types present in the embryo at a given time, and an embryogenic tree, a diagram showing how the cell types are derived from each other during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • closely related
  • The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office rejected the claim, saying the hybrid -- designed for use in medical research but not yet created -- would be too closely related to a human to be patentable. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • In reality, Richardson and his colleagues note, even closely related embryos such as those of fish vary quite a bit in their appearance and developmental pathway. (darwinism-watch.com)
  • monkey
  • Newman's application, filed in 1997, described a technique for combining human embryo cells with cells from the embryo of a monkey, ape or other animal to create a blend of the two -- what scientists call a chimera. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • In his 1868 book Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte (The History of Natural Creation) Ernst Haeckel suggested that he had made various comparisons using human, monkey and dog embryos. (darwinism-watch.com)
  • Haeckel had produced a drawing of just a single embryo, and then produced human, monkey and dog embryos from this by making very small changes. (darwinism-watch.com)
  • 1997
  • The Snowflakes program began in 1997, and the first baby was born at the end of 1998, Corcoran said. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Following their study, Richardson and his team published genuine photographs of embryos in the August 1997 issue of the journal Anatomy and Embryology . (darwinism-watch.com)
  • An article about Haeckel's drawings, for long maintained on the agenda as false evidence of evolution, appeared in the September 5, 1997, issue of Science magazine titled "Haeckel's Embryos: Fraud Rediscovered," following which the whole scientific world agreed that there had been a fraud. (darwinism-watch.com)
  • cell
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell research is one of the hot fields in biomedical science, both in terms of research potential and public controversy. (spusa.org)
  • The inner cell mass is extracted from the embryo and cultured in a nutrient rich environment in a Petri dish in order to create stem cell lines. (spusa.org)
  • In this technique, nuclei from cells of an early embryo are extracted using a very fine glass pipette and placed in egg cells that have been shed by a female amphibian such as a frog (after removing the unfertilized egg cell nucleus). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In effect, he would allow scientific research to continue to be performed on stem cells lines that had been derived previous to that date, but would not support federally funding new stem cell lines2. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • Stem cell research made several minor advancements in spite of this policy, but the governmental limitations frustrated many scientists who looked to stem cells as a vast new area to be explored. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • Is it just to destroy an embryo cell if it has the potential to cure countless numbers of patients? (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • And New Jersey, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Wisconsin and several other states have proposed similar legislation to fund stem cell research within their own borders. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Stem cell laws are the law rules, and policy governance concerning the sources, research, and uses in treatment of stem cells in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union has yet to issue consistent regulations with respect to stem cell research in member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany has restrictive policies for stem cell research, but a 2008 law authorizes "the use of imported stem cell lines produced before May 1, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Kingdom is one of the leaders in stem cell research, in the opinion of Lord Sainsbury, Science and Innovation Minister for the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new £10 million stem cell research centre has been announced at the University of Cambridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cynthia Cohen is a member of Canada's Stem Cell Oversight Committee, which oversees research protocols to ensure they are in accordance with the new guidelines. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • He is best known as the leader of the research group that in 1996 first cloned a mammal from an adult somatic cell, a Finnish Dorset lamb named Dolly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously used to engineer rat cell models, advances in gene targeting technologies are enabling the creation of a new wave of isogenic human disease models. (wikipedia.org)
  • He became a Knight Bachelor in the 2004 New Year Honours in recognition of his work in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell type may be determined according to several criteria: location in the developing embryo, gene expression as indicated by protein and nucleic acid markers and surface antigens, and also position on the embryogenic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell markers consist of select RNAs and proteins present inside, and surface antigens present on the surface of, the cells making up the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, instead of each branch on this tree representing a species, as in the tree of life, each branch represents a particular cell type present in the embryo at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ernst Haeckel
  • For many decades, stem cells have played an important role in medical research, beginning in 1868 when Ernst Haeckel first used the phrase to describe the fertilized egg which eventually gestates into an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • common model organism) Physcomitrella patens (only plant in which gene targeting is available, as of 1998) Egener, T. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • Chimeras are formed from at least four parent cells (two fertilised eggs or early embryos fused together). (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilmut
  • While this was tried many times, it was never successfully accomplished until 1996, in the creation of the sheep Dolly by Ian Wilmut and colleagues in Scotland . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Wilmut was the leader of the research group that in 1996 first cloned a mammal, a lamb named Dolly. (wikipedia.org)
  • His supervisory role is consistent with the post of principal investigator held by Wilmut at the time of Dolly's creation. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The research on human embryos created by IVF is considered by some critics to be the most disturbing of all, and although science believes it is never undertaken lightly, and even helps researchers to understand why most embryos fail to thrive or are prone to abnormalities, many countries have forbidden such research. (promptpapers.com)
  • frozen
  • They also share a history that would make them the talk of the playground if anybody their age remotely cared: They were adopted nine months before they were born, in the form of embryos created and frozen six years before that. (reviewjournal.com)
  • A couple's additional embryos can be frozen to await the day when they're used to create another pregnancy, are discarded, or used for medical research. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Legally speaking, transferring ownership of a frozen embryo from one couple to another is a mere property transfer. (reviewjournal.com)
  • The new Spanish law allows existing frozen embryos - of which there are estimated to be tens of thousands in Spain - to be kept for patient's future use, donated for another infertile couple, or used in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • represents
  • But, for Jim and Barbara Seebock, Matthew and Jenna are simply the answer to a prayer, even if the method of conception they chose - "embryo adoption" - represents yet another twist on what used to be the straightforward business of conception. (reviewjournal.com)
  • moral
  • President Bush, backed by leading Republicans in Congress who share his beliefs that a human embryo has the same moral rights as a person, has strictly limited the use of federal funds to pursue this avenue of scientific inquiry. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Another
  • Another practical concern resulting from this proposition is the determination of embryo death. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • San Francisco - Add another creation to the strange scientific menagerie where animal species are being mixed together in ever more exotic combinations. (denverpost.com)
  • It appeared that Haeckel had taken various template designs and distorted them in various ways so that the embryos would resemble one another. (darwinism-watch.com)
  • The embryos did not in fact resemble one another at all. (darwinism-watch.com)
  • Avian gastrulation is a process by which developing cells in an avian embryo move relative to one another in order to form the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • One bill in the U.S. Senate even proposes to criminalize what Weissman and others see as the single most promising aspect of the research-the ability to use an ailing patient's own cells to develop treatments. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • life
  • For them, Corcoran says, "life is a precious thing," and disposing of embryos or using them in medical research is "against what we believed was right. (reviewjournal.com)
  • We believe an embryo is a life and needs to be protected and given a chance to be born. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Most obviously: It begins with the premise that an embryo is a life. (reviewjournal.com)
  • We operate from the standpoint an embryo is a life and deserves to be given an opportunity whether or not it's going to turn into a baby," Corcoran says. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Nilsson was also involved in the creation of documentaries, including The Saga of Life (1982) and The Miracle of Life (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Regulatory boards could be created to ensure these guidelines were being met, and thus, no intentionally destroyed embryos would be used for research purposes. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • Thus, Aristotle could fit his observations of embryos perfectly well within his larger theoretical interpretations of the world. (stanford.edu)
  • Science
  • But while the science is straightforward, the philosophical - and, maybe, the religious - underpinnings of embryo adoption are trickier. (reviewjournal.com)
  • The acclaimed research journal Science has published its picks for the top ten scientific breakthroughs of 2008. (icr.org)
  • Evans
  • This paved the way for Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies to create the first knockout mouse, ushering in a whole new era of research on human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects
  • He was noted for his photographs of human embryos and other medical subjects once considered unphotographable, and more generally for his extreme macro photography. (wikipedia.org)
  • legislation
  • There are calls for the strictest legislation to be applied where no consensus exist, and that there should be a focus on research that is agreed by all to be necessary. (readabstracts.com)
  • The primary legislation in South Africa that deals with embryo research is the Human Tissue Act, which is set to be replaced by Chapter 8 of the National Health Act. (wikipedia.org)