• 1998
  • This application claims priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/055,520, filed Aug. 13, 1997 and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/075,113, filed Feb. 11, 1998. (google.com)
  • Gastroenteritis
  • The present study was aimed to evaluate three methodologies used for human RV detection in stool samples obtained from patients hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in a teaching hospital and report the impact of RV immunization in hospitalization by diarrhea. (scielo.br)
  • 1,2 Rotavirus (RV) is the most important etiological agent of diarrhea in children under five years old, and accounts for 111 million episodes of gastroenteritis in the world, and for approximately 611,000 deaths annually, mainly in developing countries. (scielo.br)
  • Since then, the impact of this immunization has been analyzed by monitoring the decrease of children hospitalization due to gastroenteritis and by laboratorial surveillance based on viral antigen tests results. (scielo.br)
  • 22 The virology laboratory of Hospital de Clínicas - Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC-UFPR), a teaching hospital, has detected this virus in children hospitalized due to gastroenteritis. (scielo.br)
  • Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal-oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • 1. A method of non-invasively inducing a systemic immune response, comprising topically administering, a plasmid DNA and liposome complex vector that encodes a gene of interest and expresses a protein encoded by the gene of interest, to the skin of a mammal, in an effective amount to induce said systemic immune response to said protein, wherein a systemic immune resonse to said protein is induced in said mammal. (google.com)
  • The structure of Batai virus (BATV) consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that is composed of three RNA segments: small (S), medium (M), and large (L). The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) and the non-structural (NSs) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • ORF1 encodes the replicase (Rep and Rep') proteins located on the viral plus strands, which initiates viral replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Of particular interest here is mimivirus, a giant virus that infects amoebae and encodes much of the molecular machinery traditionally associated with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The nonstructural proteins NSm participate in virus assembly and NSs plays a key role in counteracting the host immune response by blocking alpha/beta interferon induction The full-length genome of NM/12 consists of a 947 base pair nucleotide S segment, a 4405 base pair nucleotide M segment, and a 6870 base pair nucelotide L segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • Cai T, Lou GQ, Yang J, Xu D, Meng ZH (2008) Development and evaluation of real time loop-mediated isothermal amplification for hepatitis B virus DNA quantification: a new tool for HBV management. (springer.com)
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Experiences of virus, retrovirus and retrovirus-like particles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and hybridoma cells used for production of protein therapeutics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In cp viruses the NS2/3 protein is either cleaved to NS2 and NS3 or there is a duplication of viral RNA containing an additional NS3 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 An early study indicated that BSE was consistent with exposure of cattle to a scrapie-like agent via cattle feedstuffs containing ruminant-derived protein. (bmj.com)
  • The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro , it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli ,( E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Virology is the study of viruses - submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat - and virus-like agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses arose from mobile genetic elements of cells (such as transposons, retrotransposons or plasmids) that became encapsulated in protein capsids, acquired the ability to "break free" from the host cell and infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 20. A method as in claim 1, wherein said immunocompromised mammal is human and wherein said active agent is administered in an amount of from 500-2000 mg daily. (google.com)
  • Argaw T, Cohen JI, Klutch M, Lekstrom K, Yoshikawa T, Asano Y, Krause PR (2000) Nucleotide sequences that distinguish Oka vaccine from parental Oka and other varicella zoster virus isolates. (springer.com)
  • Barenfanger J, Drake C, Leon N, Mueller T, Troutt T (2000) Clinical and financial benefits of rapid detection of respiratory viruses: an outcomes study. (springer.com)
  • strains
  • BVDV-1 strains are predominant in most parts of the world, whereas BVDV-2 represents 50% of cases in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that batai viruses from Japan, Malaysia and India share homologies in the genomic sequence more so than when virus strains from Europe and Asia are compared to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bird BH, Khristova ML, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST (2007) Complete genome analysis of 33 ecologically and biologically diverse Rift Valley fever virus strains reveals widespread virus movement and low genetic diversity due to recent common ancestry. (springer.com)
  • The best studied example is the association between Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by certain strains of this sexually transmitted virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • swine
  • Border disease virus (sheep) and classical swine fever virus (pigs) are other members of this genus that also cause significant financial loss to the livestock industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blomstrom AL, Hakhverdyan M, Reid SM, Dukes JP, King DP, Belak S, Berg MA (2008) One-step reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for simple and rapid detection of swine vesicular disease virus. (springer.com)
  • electron
  • The shape and structure of viruses has been studied by electron microscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • An understanding of the structure is integral for revealing both the molecular basis of virus-host interactions and guiding antiviral and vaccine design development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • Three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B, and Type C. Usually, the virus is spread through the air from coughs or sneezes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • Over the last two decades it has become increasingly clear that many RNA viruses add the capacity to exchange genetic material with one another, and to acquire genes from their hosts, to this evolutionary repertoire. (biology-online.org)
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • In humans it has been noted in causing severe fever, and in bovines has been associated with premature birth, birth defects, and increased abortion rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Molecular techniques such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are used to determine the RNA migration patterns and virus genotyping, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • fever
  • This study was performed on the Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), which is an arthropod borne disease that is endemic to regions of Africa and Asia, namely the Rift Valley in Kenya from which its name is derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Viral enveloped nucleocapsids utilize membrane glycoproteins on their surface to mediate entry into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Averaging of glycoprotein spikes of membrane viruses, such as HIV-1, has been a particularly successful approach for studying their structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A software named Jsubtomo enables visualization of the structure of viral glycoprotein spikes to a resolution in the range of 20-40 Å and allows for study of the study of higher order spike-to-spike interactions on the virion membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each spike protrudes 18 nanometers from the viral membrane and becomes disordered upon introduction to an acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The first evidence of the existence of viruses came from experiments with filters that had pores small enough to retain bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses invade living cells - bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, and animals (including humans) - and use their hosts' metabolic and genetic machinery to produce thousands of new virus particles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid
  • Angamuthu R, Baskaran S, Gopal DR, Devarajan J, Kathaperumal K (2012) Rapid detection of the Marek's disease viral genome in chicken feathers by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. (springer.com)
  • isolates
  • BVDV-1 isolates have been grouped into 16 subtypes (a -p) and BVDV-2 has currently been grouped into 3 subtypes (a - c). (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • First, we brie¯y review current knowledge of RNA virus recombination and describe new methods for detecting its occurrence using gene sequence data. (biology-online.org)
  • segments
  • It has been observed that reassortment between the M segment and the S and L segments with another strain of Batai virus (BUNV) can cause an increase in the virulence of Batai virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Here, in this review information regarding almost all the effective LAMP techniques which is developed so far for diagnosis of numerous viral pathogens is presented. (springer.com)
  • wherein
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein said mammal is shaved at the site of the topical administration. (google.com)
  • 2. A method as in claim 1, wherein said active agent is in the form of particles with a mean particle size of between 10 and 200 μm. (google.com)
  • 4. A method as in claim 2, wherein less than 10% of the said solid particles have a particle size larger than 100 μm. (google.com)
  • 5. A method as in claim 1, wherein said pharmaceutical composition contains at least one pharmaceutically acceptable acid. (google.com)
  • 7. A method as in claim 5, wherein the ratio of the weight of pharmaceutically acceptable acid/the weight of said active solid particles is between 0.01 and 0.5. (google.com)
  • 9. A method as in claim 1, wherein said particles of active agent include a granulating agent selected from the group consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone, water, alcohol, sucrose hydroxyl cellulose and mixture thereof. (google.com)
  • 10. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Cryptosporidium parvum. (google.com)
  • 11. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Isospora belli. (google.com)
  • 12. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Enterocytzoon bieneusi. (google.com)
  • 13. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Encephalitozoon intestinalis. (google.com)
  • 14. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (google.com)
  • 15. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. (google.com)
  • 16. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Pneumocystis carinii. (google.com)
  • 17. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Toxoplasma gondii. (google.com)
  • 18. A method as in claim 1, wherein said active agent is a compound of formula I. (google.com)
  • 19. A method as in claim 1, wherein said active agent is a compound of formula II. (google.com)
  • 22. A method as in claim 1, wherein said immunocompromised mammal is a human. (google.com)
  • cells
  • He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing and he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1926, he was invited to speak at a meeting organised by the Society of American Bacteriology where he said for the first time, "Viruses appear to be obligate parasites in the sense that their reproduction is dependent on living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years that followed, as optical microscopes were improved "inclusion bodies" were seen in many virus-infected cells, but these aggregates of virus particles were still too small to reveal any detailed structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses can transform normal cells to cancer cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Three hypotheses regarding their origin exist: Viruses arose from non-living matter, separately from yet in parallel to cells, perhaps in the form of self-replicating RNA ribozymes similar to viroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959, is also used to refer to a single, stable infective viral particle that is released from the cell and is fully capable of infecting other cells of the same type. (wikipedia.org)