• 1998
  • This application claims priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/055,520, filed Aug. 13, 1997 and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/075,113, filed Feb. 11, 1998. (google.com)
  • Gastroenteritis
  • The present study was aimed to evaluate three methodologies used for human RV detection in stool samples obtained from patients hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in a teaching hospital and report the impact of RV immunization in hospitalization by diarrhea. (scielo.br)
  • 1,2 Rotavirus (RV) is the most important etiological agent of diarrhea in children under five years old, and accounts for 111 million episodes of gastroenteritis in the world, and for approximately 611,000 deaths annually, mainly in developing countries. (scielo.br)
  • Since then, the impact of this immunization has been analyzed by monitoring the decrease of children hospitalization due to gastroenteritis and by laboratorial surveillance based on viral antigen tests results. (scielo.br)
  • 22 The virology laboratory of Hospital de Clínicas - Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC-UFPR), a teaching hospital, has detected this virus in children hospitalized due to gastroenteritis. (scielo.br)
  • Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal-oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • 1. A method of non-invasively inducing a systemic immune response, comprising topically administering, a plasmid DNA and liposome complex vector that encodes a gene of interest and expresses a protein encoded by the gene of interest, to the skin of a mammal, in an effective amount to induce said systemic immune response to said protein, wherein a systemic immune resonse to said protein is induced in said mammal. (google.com)
  • The structure of Batai virus (BATV) consists of an enveloped nucleocapsid that is composed of three RNA segments: small (S), medium (M), and large (L). The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) and the non-structural (NSs) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • ORF1 encodes the replicase (Rep and Rep') proteins located on the viral plus strands, which initiates viral replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Of particular interest here is mimivirus, a giant virus that infects amoebae and encodes much of the molecular machinery traditionally associated with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Experiences of virus, retrovirus and retrovirus-like particles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and hybridoma cells used for production of protein therapeutics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In cp viruses the NS2/3 protein is either cleaved to NS2 and NS3 or there is a duplication of viral RNA containing an additional NS3 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 An early study indicated that BSE was consistent with exposure of cattle to a scrapie-like agent via cattle feedstuffs containing ruminant-derived protein. (bmj.com)
  • The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro , it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli ,( E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Virology is the study of viruses - submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat - and virus-like agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses arose from mobile genetic elements of cells (such as transposons, retrotransposons or plasmids) that became encapsulated in protein capsids, acquired the ability to "break free" from the host cell and infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 20. A method as in claim 1, wherein said immunocompromised mammal is human and wherein said active agent is administered in an amount of from 500-2000 mg daily. (google.com)
  • genomes
  • So, in addition to producing prodigious amounts of the raw material of evolution (mutations), these viruses also possess mechanisms that, in principle, allow them both to purge their genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. (biology-online.org)
  • infections
  • This chapter reviews the current knowledge of food-borne viruses and describes the hurdles to better understanding and ultimate prevention of bacterial illnesses and enteric viral infections. (asmscience.org)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • An understanding of the structure is integral for revealing both the molecular basis of virus-host interactions and guiding antiviral and vaccine design development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • Three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B, and Type C. Usually, the virus is spread through the air from coughs or sneezes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Molecular techniques such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are used to determine the RNA migration patterns and virus genotyping, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • fever
  • Border disease virus (sheep) and classical swine fever virus (pigs) are other members of this genus that also cause significant financial loss to the livestock industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans it has been noted in causing severe fever, and in bovines has been associated with premature birth, birth defects, and increased abortion rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was performed on the Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), which is an arthropod borne disease that is endemic to regions of Africa and Asia, namely the Rift Valley in Kenya from which its name is derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The nonstructural proteins NSm participate in virus assembly and NSs plays a key role in counteracting the host immune response by blocking alpha/beta interferon induction The full-length genome of NM/12 consists of a 947 base pair nucleotide S segment, a 4405 base pair nucleotide M segment, and a 6870 base pair nucelotide L segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver cancer
  • HCC accounts for up to 75% to 85% of primary liver cancer in the United States (U.S.) [ 1 ] and for over 90% in high-risk areas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • membrane
  • Viral enveloped nucleocapsids utilize membrane glycoproteins on their surface to mediate entry into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Averaging of glycoprotein spikes of membrane viruses, such as HIV-1, has been a particularly successful approach for studying their structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A software named Jsubtomo enables visualization of the structure of viral glycoprotein spikes to a resolution in the range of 20-40 Å and allows for study of the study of higher order spike-to-spike interactions on the virion membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each spike protrudes 18 nanometers from the viral membrane and becomes disordered upon introduction to an acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • It has been shown that batai viruses from Japan, Malaysia and India share homologies in the genomic sequence more so than when virus strains from Europe and Asia are compared to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best studied example is the association between Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by certain strains of this sexually transmitted virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis C vir
  • More than 40 million people worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this represents one of the most serious threats to the public health of developed nations (Hoofnagle et al. (google.com)
  • evolutionary
  • Over the last two decades it has become increasingly clear that many RNA viruses add the capacity to exchange genetic material with one another, and to acquire genes from their hosts, to this evolutionary repertoire. (biology-online.org)
  • Antigenic shift in in¯uenza A virus is an example of this sort of genetic exchange and serves as a good illustration of the potential evolutionary significance of such events. (biology-online.org)
  • We then discuss some of the evolutionary implications of virus recombination and some of the constraints that may shape the variety of RNA virus recombination. (biology-online.org)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • closely related
  • Extensive research has yet to be performed on the detailed crystalline structure of Batai virus, but research on the closely related Bunyamwera virus has shown a distinct functionality of each of the two nucleocapsid side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • segments
  • It has been observed that reassortment between the M segment and the S and L segments with another strain of Batai virus (BUNV) can cause an increase in the virulence of Batai virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproduce
  • Viruses are also included, although they cannot live or reproduce on their own. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While viruses reproduce and evolve, they do not engage in metabolism, do not move, and depend on a host cell for reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein said mammal is shaved at the site of the topical administration. (google.com)
  • 2. A method as in claim 1, wherein said active agent is in the form of particles with a mean particle size of between 10 and 200 μm. (google.com)
  • 4. A method as in claim 2, wherein less than 10% of the said solid particles have a particle size larger than 100 μm. (google.com)
  • 5. A method as in claim 1, wherein said pharmaceutical composition contains at least one pharmaceutically acceptable acid. (google.com)
  • 7. A method as in claim 5, wherein the ratio of the weight of pharmaceutically acceptable acid/the weight of said active solid particles is between 0.01 and 0.5. (google.com)
  • 9. A method as in claim 1, wherein said particles of active agent include a granulating agent selected from the group consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone, water, alcohol, sucrose hydroxyl cellulose and mixture thereof. (google.com)
  • 10. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Cryptosporidium parvum. (google.com)
  • 11. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Isospora belli. (google.com)
  • 12. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Enterocytzoon bieneusi. (google.com)
  • 13. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Encephalitozoon intestinalis. (google.com)
  • 14. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (google.com)
  • 15. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. (google.com)
  • 16. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Pneumocystis carinii. (google.com)
  • 17. A method as in claim 1, wherein said microorganism is Toxoplasma gondii. (google.com)
  • 18. A method as in claim 1, wherein said active agent is a compound of formula I. (google.com)
  • 19. A method as in claim 1, wherein said active agent is a compound of formula II. (google.com)
  • 22. A method as in claim 1, wherein said immunocompromised mammal is a human. (google.com)
  • cells
  • He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing and he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1926, he was invited to speak at a meeting organised by the Society of American Bacteriology where he said for the first time, "Viruses appear to be obligate parasites in the sense that their reproduction is dependent on living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years that followed, as optical microscopes were improved "inclusion bodies" were seen in many virus-infected cells, but these aggregates of virus particles were still too small to reveal any detailed structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses invade living cells - bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, and animals (including humans) - and use their hosts' metabolic and genetic machinery to produce thousands of new virus particles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some viruses can transform normal cells to cancer cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Three hypotheses regarding their origin exist: Viruses arose from non-living matter, separately from yet in parallel to cells, perhaps in the form of self-replicating RNA ribozymes similar to viroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term virion (plural virions), which dates from 1959, is also used to refer to a single, stable infective viral particle that is released from the cell and is fully capable of infecting other cells of the same type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • 1997) presented evidence for a splicing-like, transesterication mechanism to explain the in vitro generation of recombinants between RNAs associated with Qb bacteriophage ± a possible exception to the copy±choice model of recombination in RNA viruses. (biology-online.org)
  • The first evidence of the existence of viruses came from experiments with filters that had pores small enough to retain bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The virus was finally isolated by Max Theiler (1899-1972) in 1932 who went on to develop a successful vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed that Dr. J. Buist of Edinburgh was the first person to see virus particles in 1886, when he reported seeing "micrococci" in vaccine lymph, though he had probably observed clumps of vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • tobacco mosai
  • Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • 1 For some people, it's a temporary case of dyspepsia, or indigestion, that may cause a sleepless night or a missed day of work. (smart-publications.com)
  • In the same year Friedrich Loeffler (1852-1915) and Paul Frosch (1860-1928) passed the first animal virus through a similar filter and discovered the cause of foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhea is a leading cause of deaths in children despite the decline in mortality observed over the past few years. (scielo.br)