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  • PMID
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors [ PMID: 8702856 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location [ PMID: 1833184 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structures of IL1A and IL1B [ PMID: 2602367 ] have been solved, showing them to share the same 12-stranded beta-sheet structure as both the heparin binding growth factors and the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitors [ PMID: 1738162 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A similar gene product from Cowpox virus (CPV) has also been shown to specifically bind murine IL-1 beta [ PMID: 1339315 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL1R1), the crystal structure of the soluble extracellular part of type-I IL1R complexed with IL1RA has been determined to 2.7A resolution [ PMID: 9062194 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • soluble
  • The receptors both exist in transmembrane (TM) and soluble forms: the soluble IL-1 receptor is thought to be post-translationally derived from cleavage of the extracellular portion of the membrane receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • As interleukin (IL)-10 is a key immunoregulatory cytokine, we questioned whether neutralization of IL-10 during priming with soluble antigen could prime for a subsequent T helper cell type 1 (Th1) effector recall response. (rupress.org)
  • By using an adoptive transfer model to track the fate of antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic CD4 + T cells, we show that administration of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) protein, but not OVA 323-339 peptide antigen, together with an anti-IL-10 receptor (R) mAb led to the enhancement of a Th1 response upon rechallenge. (rupress.org)
  • Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune response initiated by soluble antigen, including deletion or anergy (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • 1997) Antiinflammatory cytokine responses during clinical sepsis and experimental endotoxemia: sequential measurements of plasma soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor type II, IL-10, and IL-13. (sinobiological.com)
  • Type II IL-1R and a soluble form of AcP are involved in additional layers of IL-1 regulation ( 5 , 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Expression of IL-13Rα2 transcripts are restricted to spleen and brain and in contrast to IL-13Rα1, a soluble form of this receptor has been detected in mouse serum ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • mRNA
  • Human synovial fibroblasts coexpress IL-1 receptor type I and type II mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) was originally discovered and cloned by Liebermann and Hoffman in 1990 as one of the 12 different mRNA transcripts that were induced in M1 myeloblastic leukemia cells upon activation with lung-conditioned medium or recombinant interleukin (IL)-6 (Lord et al. (springer.com)
  • Only intracellular IL-1ra type I mRNA was detected in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) when they were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide/phorbol myristate acetate and transforming growth factor-β. (ahajournals.org)
  • These isoforms can either result from alternative splicing of the mRNA encoding for the receptor or by shedding of the extra cellular domain of the receptor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Two components of a receptor complex for IL-13, the IL-4R and a low affinity IL-13-binding chain, IL-13Rα1, have been cloned in mice and humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have recently described an additional high affinity receptor for IL-13, IL-13Rα2, whose function in IL-13 signaling is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Coexpression of IL-13Rα1 with IL-4Rα results in the formation of a high affinity receptor signaling complex ( 8 , 9 , 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • This gene, IL8RB, a gene encoding another high affinity IL8 receptor, and IL8RBP, a pseudogene of IL8RB, form a gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q33-q36. (wikipedia.org)
  • An experiment with transient gene expression demonstrated that this receptor was incapable of binding to interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta with high affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may be due to effects of the respective alpha chains, which are unique to each receptor, the kinetics and affinity of cytokine-cytokine receptor binding, or due to the availability and concentration of each cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • interferon
  • DB-1 cells were responsive to excitement with interferon- as scored by increase in transcript levels. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Serum immunoglobulin E levels were increased in IL-13Rα2 −/− mice despite the fact that serum IL-13 was absent and immune interferon γ production increased compared with wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • This protein is structurally related to interferon receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • These results show that inhibition of T1/ST2 has a specific effect on virally induced Th2 responses and suggests that therapy targeted at this receptor might be of value in treating Th2-driven illness. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stimulation and activation of ECs by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 causes multiple responses within the endothelium but most notably induces the expression of adhesion molecules, which promote monocyte recruitment and infiltration into the arterial wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • The redundancy in biologic responses to IL-13 and IL-4 may be explained by shared components in the receptors for IL-4 and IL-13 ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These results are consistent with a phenotype of enhanced IL-13 responsiveness and demonstrate a role for endogenous IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 in regulating immune responses in wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • signal transduction
  • The overall ternary architecture of the IL-1β-IL-1RI-IL-1RAcP signaling complex has the cytoplasmic TIR domain necessary for signal transduction. (proteopedia.org)
  • Also, since IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1ra all have the ability to bind to the type 1 IL-1 receptor(IL-1R), and the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to IL-1R is an early step in IL-1 signal transduction, blocking this interaction may therefore be a useful target for the development of new drugs. (proteopedia.org)
  • Either IL-1α or β can bind to IL-1R, but this alone does not activate signal transduction. (rupress.org)
  • The IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) is a transmembrane protein that interacts with IL-1R and is required for IL-1 signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • 1998) via IRAK-1 up-regulation, (Vaughan and Li 2010) and potentiates IFN-induced appearance of nitric oxide synthase (Raso et al. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • tumor
  • The N-terminal DD is related to a motif that was originally defined as the region of similarity between the cytoplasmic tails of the FAS/Apol/CD95 and TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptors that is required for cytotoxic signaling by the so-called death receptors (Tartaglia et al. (springer.com)
  • Prostaglandin E_2 inhibits interleukin-6 release but not its transcription in human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis facter' Journal of Periodontology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Interleukin (IL)-13 has recently been shown to play important and unique roles in asthma, parasite immunity, and tumor recurrence. (rupress.org)
  • pathway
  • Furthermore, the data suggest that CCK activates a central pathway involving NMDA receptors to produce inhibition of RVLM presympathetic neuronal discharge. (physiology.org)
  • IRAKs are essential components of the Interleukin-1 receptor signaling pathway and some Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • One signaling pathway in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) may be dependent on the function of IRAK-1 in its signaling pathway for its activation and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IL-1 receptor signaling pathway" (abstract page). (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • 1997 ). The first exon encodes the N-terminal DD, which mediates downstream interactions with the IRAK family of kinases. (springer.com)
  • Activation of this receptor leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs
  • Recent studies have shown that toll-like receptors (TLRs) contribute to the cellular interaction with wear particles. (hindawi.com)
  • These PAMPs bind to an important group of detection molecules of the innate immune system, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • proinflammatory
  • Increased activation of the IL-1 proinflammatory axis has been reported in diabetes, and IL-1 is also involved in atherogenesis by a multitude of mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • human
  • Mizutani H, Rapid and specific conversion of precursor interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to an active IL-1 species by human mast cell chymase . (proteopedia.org)
  • Cytokine-dependent synergistic regulation of interleukin-8 production from human gingival fibroblasts' Journal of Periodontology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When psychologically stressed, the human body produces stress hormones like cortisol, which are able to trigger interleukin-6 release into the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • From 1994-1997 he had an Assistant Professorship at the Department for Internal Medicine at the University of Leipzig with Prof. Werner Scherbaum. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRAK
  • Some special/significant features of each IRAK family member: There is some evidence that IRAK-1 functions in regulating other signaling cascades leading to NF-kB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRAK-M negatively regulates TLR signaling by inhibiting the IRAK-4/IRAK-1 complex The newest described IRAK family member, IRAK-4, has been found to be critical for the recruitment of IRAK-1 and for its activation/degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies associated IRAKs with multiple signalling pathways triggered by interleukin, and specified multiple IRAK types. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • In this study, we examined the effect of a 28-day-dosing regimen of glyceryl triacetate, to induce acetate supplementation, on brain histone acetylation and interleukin-1β expression in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • D3 in ALP activity and OC productivity in HPLF,we examined the kinetics of gene expression of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR), ALP activity and OC productivity at different phases of culture. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To date, the Th1 phenotype is associated with chemokine receptor 1, 3, and 5 (references 4 and 5 ) and IL-18 receptor expression 6 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This receptor is reported to enhance cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL2-XL and BCL2. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • 1 Local plaque synthesis of IL-1 is well established in atherosclerosis, and in particular, ECs are an abundant source of IL-1 at the luminal surface and in the adventitial capillaries. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because IL-1β is upregulated in the endothelium of atherosclerotic vessels, we studied the distribution and synthesis of IL-1ra in atherosclerosis and in cultured ECs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gene
  • Defects in this gene are the cause of rufous oculocutaneous albinism and oculocutaneous albinism type III. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • While osteochondral explant gene expression of col-I, col-II and Il-1β was nearly unaffected, aggrecan gene expression was elevated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kidneys were harvested for histopathology and for the study the gene expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinases ( JNK ), Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 ( MKK4 ), MKK7 , P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases ( P38 ), tumor necrosis factors alpha ( TNF-α ), TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2 ( TRAF2 ), and interleukin-1 alpha ( IL-1-α ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with apoptosis defects seen in type II autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multigene haplotypes following standard dynamics only exist in robust populations for a short time, the average distance between genes of about 200,000 nts, which means that over 250 generations (~5000 years) one expects 1/2 of adjacent genes to have new gene-alleles, unless the genes are small and very close together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AP-1 subunit Jun was identified as a novel oncoprotein of avian sarcoma virus, and Fos-associated p39 protein was identified as the transcript of the cellular Jun gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although CUX1 is mutated at a lower rate compared to other known gene mutations that cause cancer, this deactivated gene is found across many cancer types in this study to be the underlying cause of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tne CUX1 gene Alternatively Spliced Product was first reported in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of some initial channel nomenclature confusion, in which the gene was referred to as Kir1.3 the channel was first cloned from human kidney by Shuck and coworkers in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • We characterized antigen-presenting cell (APC)-relevant chemokine receptor expression in dry eye disease (DED), and investigated the effect of topical CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-7 blockade specifically on Th17 cell immunity and dry eye disease severity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Five of eight NF-κBp65 antigen-positive cells stained positive for interleukin-6 (IL-6) antigen (62%), while only one of the NF-κB-negative cells showed IL-6 positivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When an antigen-presenting cell interacts with a T cell receptor on T cells, there is an increase in the cytoplasmic level of calcium, which activates calcineurin, by binding a regulatory subunit and activating calmodulin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • C-jun has been shown to be essential for fibroblast proliferation, and levels of both AP-1 subunits have been shown to be expressed above basal levels during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Avsic-Zupanc T, Nemirov K, Petrovec M, Trilar T, Poljak M, Vaheri A, Plyusnin A (2000) Genetic analysis of wild-type Dobrava hantavirus in Slovenia: co-existence of two distinct genetic lineages within the same natural focus. (springer.com)
  • immune
  • Dendritic cells (DC) 3 are a heterogenous population of APCs that contribute to innate immunity and initiate adaptive immune responses to Ags associated with infection and inflammation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • IDU, with or without HIV-1 infection, results in a significant increase in immune activation in both the peripheral blood and the GI tract. (omicsonline.org)
  • The devastating consequences of untreated HIV-1 infection on the human immune system have spurred investigations aimed at better understanding disease pathogenesis. (omicsonline.org)
  • This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Stromberg PC, Capen CC. In vivo and in vitro effects of interleukin-1 and cyclosporin A on bone and lymphoid tissues in mice. (dentisty.org)
  • These include enzymes called ceramide-activated Ser-Thr phosphatases (CAPPs), such as protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), which were found to interact with ceramide in studies done in a controlled environment outside of a living organism (in vitro). (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • The induction of tolerogenic DCs is mediated through the VPAC1 receptor and protein kinase A, and correlates with the inhibition of IκB phosphorylation and of NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute reported that the mutation of CUX1 reduces the inhibitory effects of a biological inhibitor, PIK3IP1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase interacting protein 1), resulted in higher activity of the growth promoting enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) which leads to tumor progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a human thyroid RII-anchoring protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • Cux1 DNA binding is stimulated by activation of the PAR2/F2RL1 cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptor in fibroblasts and breast-cancer epithelial cells to regulate Matrix metalloproteinase 10, Interleukin1-alpha, and Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • However, IL-6-sIL-6R mice (Fig. 1 A, right) were remarkably smaller compared with single-transgenic and nontransgenic littermates. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin 3 originally was discovered by JN Ihle in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The structure of AP-1 is a heterodimer composed of proteins belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Urine samples from healthy control subjects ( n = 50) and type 2 diabetic patients ( n = 100) were collected and tested for excretion of CML and the presence of proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Tubular cells are are not only affected secondary to glomerular injury but are also primary targets for pathological influences in diabetes ( 1 - 4 , 8 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Studies of acute and early CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection in man and SIV mac infection in rhesus macaques have demonstrated that CD4 + T cells at mucosal sites, particularly within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are preferentially targeted and depleted [ 1 - 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells of some tissues normally do not express LECT2 but do so under a variety of disease conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells are present in those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common division of dendritic cells is "myeloid" vs. "plasmacytoid" (lymphoid): The markers BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4 can be used to discriminate among the types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 (B7.2), and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlates
  • Previous studies have shown that renal function in type 2 diabetes correlates better with tubular changes than with glomerular pathology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • activation
  • The growth factors TGF alpha, TGF beta, and IL2 have all been shown to stimulate c-Fos, and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • AP-1 activity is often regulated via post-translational modifications, DNA binding dimer composition, and interaction with various binding partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Within 100 generations in humans (about 2100 years in ancient times) one expects a few hundred of these 'blending' events to have occurred across a single chromosome, the average size is 1 centiMorgan (or 1 cM). (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • There is growing evidence that tubular injury is a major feature in the development of renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetes ( 1 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)