• vaccination
  • The military does give this vaccination regularly as well as Japanese encephalitis (JEV) when the service member is to be deployed to Southeast Asia, and other vaccines such as pneumococcal, tetanus, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • For military members who had started the vaccination (which usually takes build-up and booster shots), they tended to continue the vaccination program under informed consent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The government stated that they will resume the vaccination program under informed consent in April 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the weakened form of the latter two disease organisms had been "generated artificially", so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • His 2004 book, "Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment That's Killing Our Soldiers and Why GIs are Only the First Victims" took sharp issue with IOM results and the Pentagon's denial of Gulf War syndrome.Investigating the shadowy vaccination development world, he discovered US military-employed doctors and scientists conducted secret medical experiments on US citizens in violation of the Nuremberg Code and fundamental medical ethics. (blogspot.com)
  • Over the past two decades, the recommended vaccination schedule has grown rapidly and become more complicated as many new vaccines have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, yellow fever vaccination is on the routine vaccine schedule of French Guiana, is recommended in certain regions of Brazil but in the United States is only given to travelers heading to countries with a history of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sample vaccination schedules discussed by the World Health Organization show a developed country using a schedule which extends over the first five years of a child's life and uses vaccines which cost over $700 including administration costs while a developing country uses a schedule providing vaccines in the first 9 months of life and costing only $25. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of combination vaccine products means that, as of 2013[update], the United Kingdom's immunization program consists of 9 injections by the age of two, rather than 22 if vaccination for each disease was given as a separate injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization monitors vaccination schedules across the world, noting what vaccines are included in each country's program, the coverage rates achieved and various auditing measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The California Assembly is fast tracking SB 277, a bill to eliminate all non-medical vaccine exemptions for religious and conscientious beliefs from the mandatory vaccination law governing school attendance. (nvic.org)
  • long-term (months or years) safety studies on any vaccination or immunization. (atlaschiro.com)
  • This is not so, for the simple reason that mass vaccination programs did not take place in many areas. (atlaschiro.com)
  • 2000
  • In August, 1999 and April, 2000 Congressional hearings were held in Washington D.C. dealing with questions of vaccine safety. (atlaschiro.com)
  • smallpox
  • In 1900, the smallpox vaccine was the only one administered to children. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early 1950s, children routinely received three vaccines, for protection against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and smallpox, and as many as five shots by two years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • But health officials say the immunization plan has been used in the past and was successful in eradicating smallpox from the planet. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the current "Smallpox Response Plan and Guidelines" in the aftermath of Sept. 11 and the anthrax attacks. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Also, it would appear that it was in those early days that vaccines had their greatest successes, with eradication of smallpox from the world (although there are disturbing reports of current appearances in parts of the Far East), and eradication of polio from the Western Hemisphere, the last case of wild polio having taken place in 1979. (atlaschiro.com)
  • Parenthetically, the average person today believes that mass smallpox vaccines were responsible for eradicating smallpox from the world. (atlaschiro.com)
  • If limited vaccines together with quarantine were effective in the case of smallpox, this raises question about the necessity of ongoing mass vaccines in other diseases as well, a question which we believe will assume growing importance as more is learned about the adverse effects of vaccines. (atlaschiro.com)
  • influenza
  • MF59 is approved in Europe and is found in several vaccines, such as an influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis. (wordpress.com)
  • An MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluad, developed by Chiron, which contains about 10 mg of squalene per dose) has been approved by health agencies and used in several European countries for seasonal flu shots since 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group undertake diagnostic work as the representative Victorian State Laboratory, as well as a wide range of multi-disciplinary, collaborative projects including avian influenza virus , anthrax, abalone herpesvirus , plant viruses, plant bacteria and arboviruses, and encompass new technologies such as Next Generation Sequencing and MALDI-TOF into current research projects and emerging diagnostic issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • From 1997 to 2001, he was Adjunct Professor at the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, where he received the Distinguished Teacher and Mentor of the Year Award. (wikipedia.org)
  • diphtheria
  • He went on to develop an antitoxin against diphtheria in animals and then in humans, which resulted in the modern methods of immunization and largely ended diphtheria as a threatening disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early exploitation of his discovery might have saved millions of lives, especially in World War I. A new age of preventive medicine in France was made possible by such developments from the Institut Pasteur as vaccines for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • Thereafter it ran into Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and judicial obstacles (mainly concerning the methods and viability of the vaccine manufactured by BioPort, a subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions Inc.). Over 8 million doses of BioThrax were administered to over 2 million U.S. military personnel as part of the program between March 1998 and June 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, the Clinton administration required the inoculation of all military members with the anthrax vaccine known as Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) and by the trade name BioThrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • For example, of the 1,325 new medicines launched between 1975 and 1997, only 11 were specifically for tropical diseases ( Trouiller and others 2002 ). (nih.gov)
  • diseases
  • In the 1870s, the French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) applied his previous method of immunizing chickens against chicken cholera to anthrax, which affected cattle, and thereby aroused widespread interest in combating other diseases with the same approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name "vaccines", in honor of Jenner's groundbreaking discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference is due to the lower cost of health care, the lower cost of many vaccines provided to developing nations, and that more expensive vaccines, often for less common diseases, are not utilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional vaccines are given to individuals that are much more likely to come into contact with certain diseases due to their occupation or travel to regions where the disease is present (including members of the military), or only after potentially infectious exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many diseases can be effectively treated, managed, or prevented with pharmaceuticals and vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in 1999 initiated its advocacy program, Drugs for Neglected Diseases, which has highlighted this gap ( http://www.accessmed-msf.org/ ). (nih.gov)
  • However, vaccine proponents would have us believe that vaccines have been largely responsible for controlling virtually all of the former epidemics of killer diseases in the U.S.A. With the exceptions cited above, the facts do not bear this out. (atlaschiro.com)
  • The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjuvants
  • Today's Study: Gulf War Syndrome Doesn't Exist is another in a long line of irresponsible denials by agencies of our government in order to avoid responsibility, accountability and liability for our government's use of experimental vaccines and various additives and adjuvants on more than 20 years of active, reserve, and guard military personnel. (whale.to)
  • Their outstanding research work with the potential involvement of experimental vaccines and adjuvants and the ramifications to unknowing human guinea pigs has become a passion of mine beginning shortly after the end of the Gulf War. (whale.to)
  • To prompt the body to create antibodies to these recombinants, scientists have created deadly oil-based vaccine additives called adjuvants. (wordpress.com)
  • Immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with a vaccine, that stimulate the immune system and increase the response to the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Vaccines against the livestock and human disease anthrax-caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis-have had a prominent place in the history of medicine, from Pasteur's pioneering 19th-century work with cattle (the first effective bacterial vaccine and the second effective vaccine ever) to the controversial late 20th century use of a modern product to protect American troops against the use of anthrax in biological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • No evidence exists of risk to the fetus from vaccinating pregnant women with inactivated virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids. (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, live, attenuated virus and live bacterial vaccines generally are contraindicated during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • strain
  • With little help from colleagues, Sterne performed small-scale experiments which isolated the "Sterne strain" (34F2) of anthrax which became, and remains today, the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vollum strain was the same one weaponized by the old U.S. biological warfare program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine strain known as B. abortus phosphoglucomutase deletion mutant (Δ pgm ) is a genetically modified strain with a 40% deletion of the pgm gene. (selectagents.gov)
  • The vaccine strain does not synthesize the sugar-nucleotide UDP-sugars that proceed through a glucose-nucleotide intermediate. (selectagents.gov)
  • The Brucella abortus Strain 19 live vaccine, used in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Brucellosis Eradication Program from 1941 to 1996, is effective in the control of clinical brucellosis in cattle. (selectagents.gov)
  • attacks
  • The following blog-entry is focused on the anthrax-attacks and tries to connect the dots. (wordpress.com)
  • The patent was defended by the Bush-Administration shortly after the anthrax-attacks. (wordpress.com)
  • The last time I contacted the FBI I warned them about the impending anthrax attacks one week before the first mailings were announced in the press,' Dr. Horowitz recalled. (fourwinds10.com)
  • immune system
  • Many parents testified in California Senate public hearings that they have vaccine-injured children or have children with brain and immune system problems that could make them especially susceptible to vaccine harm but are unable to find a doctor willing to write a medical vaccine exemption. (nvic.org)
  • exposure
  • After reviewing extensive scientific evidence and carefully considering comments from the public, the FDA again determined that the vaccine is licensed for the prevention of anthrax, regardless of the route of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benefits of vaccinating pregnant women usually outweigh potential risks when the likelihood of disease exposure is high, when infection would pose a risk to the mother or fetus, and when the vaccine is unlikely to cause harm. (cdc.gov)
  • child's
  • At one point in the meeting, when the chairman asked those in the audience who believed that their child's autism was caused by vaccines to stand, a largely majority of the audience rose to their feet. (atlaschiro.com)
  • efficacy
  • The vaccine efficacy of AVA in humans was initially established by Philip S. Brachman of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) in a controlled study undertaken between 1954 and 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine was judged to have a 92.5% vaccine efficacy against all types of anthrax experienced. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are pleased to be here today to discuss the results of our ongoing examination of the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine, which is being done at your request. (whale.to)
  • Also, some active duty military personnel expressed concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine after the FDA found problems during the inspection of the facility that was manufacturing the anthrax vaccine. (whale.to)
  • Prior to the time of licensing, no human efficacy testing of the MDPH vaccine was performed. (whale.to)
  • However, a study was done on the efficacy of the original vaccine. (whale.to)
  • livestock
  • Because no commercial treatment or vaccine is available for this disease, livestock management is the only method of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • health officials
  • The bill's primary sponsors, pediatrician Richard Pan (D-Sacramento) and Ben Allen (D-Santa Monica) have not publicly explained what will happen if parents refuse to give their school aged child every federally recommended vaccine required by state health officials now or in the future under SB 277. (nvic.org)
  • doses
  • Many vaccines require multiple doses for maximum effectiveness, either to produce sufficient initial immune response or to boost response that fades over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • routinely
  • The potency of AVA vaccine lots is routinely determined both by the survival rates of parenterally challenged guinea pigs and their anti-PA antibody titres as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Some vaccines are recommended only in certain areas (countries, sub national areas, or at-risk populations) where a disease is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectiveness
  • Vaccine schedules are developed by governmental agencies or physicians groups to achieve maximum effectiveness using required and recommended vaccines for a locality while minimizing the number of health care system interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific evidence does support the effectiveness of immunizations. (atlaschiro.com)
  • virulence
  • A persistent problem with Pasteur's vaccine was achieving the correct balance between virulence and immunogenicity during preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • After having thoroughly read Pasteur's lab notes, the science historian Gerald L. Geison declared Pasteur had given a misleading account of the preparation of the anthrax vaccine used in the experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort. (wikipedia.org)
  • The table below shows the types of vaccines given in example countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • But Pena said people should be given the option of the vaccine without the imminent threat of the virus hanging over their heads. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • From an historical perspective it is important to keep in mind that, in the early days of immunizations, there were relatively few vaccines, and for the most part they were given separately. (atlaschiro.com)
  • known
  • Therefore, we ardently believe the best approach to this very controversial subject is to present both the pros and cons, good and bad, known and unknown about immunizations, and then help guide the patient or parents to choose what is best for them or their children. (atlaschiro.com)
  • germ
  • Discoveries in the 18th and 19th centuries included Antoine Lavoisier's use of a guinea pig in a calorimeter to prove that respiration was a form of combustion, and Louis Pasteur's demonstration of the germ theory of disease in the 1880s using anthrax in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • effective
  • The product has attracted some controversy owing to alleged adverse events and questions as to whether it is effective against the inhalational form of anthrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • So although access has significantly improved in a number of countries, a large fraction of the world's population still has no effective access to modern medicines or vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Access to effective medicines and vaccines requires a complex and coordinated system. (nih.gov)
  • disease
  • A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Managers of disease control programs need to be involved in these discussions at an early stage to prevent policy decisions from adversely affecting their programs. (nih.gov)
  • Hambleton P, Carman JA, Melling J. Anthrax: the disease in relation to vaccines . (selectagents.gov)
  • In Eastern and Southern Africa MCF is classed as one of the five most important problems affecting pastoralists along with East coast fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease and anthrax.Hartebeests and topi also may carry the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • The study field sites were four wool-sorting mills in the northeastern United States where employees were sometimes exposed to anthrax spores in the course of their work. (wikipedia.org)
  • She left work in 1997 to undertake PhD studies with a focus on molecular biology and viruses, which was the catalyst to lead a microbiology group of bacteriologists, virologists and molecular biologists at the completion of her studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the founding Director of Research at the Institute for Work & Health in Toronto from 1991 until 1997, and was a Senior Scientist at that Institute until 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • Later that month, the DOD made it policy to include any personnel spending 15 days or more in high anthrax-risk areas, such as the Persian Gulf or the Korean peninsula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pasteur publicly claimed he had made the anthrax vaccine by exposing the bacilli to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two vaccines were made using different processes and have different data to support their safety. (whale.to)