• 2001 anthrax
  • Since the 2001 anthrax attacks, and the consequent expansion of federal bio-defense expenditures, USAMRIID has been joined at Fort Detrick by sister bio-defense agencies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (NIAID's Integrated Research Facility) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center and the National Bioforensic Analysis Center). (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • MF59 is approved in Europe and is found in several vaccines, such as an influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis. (wordpress.com)
  • An MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluad, developed by Chiron, which contains about 10 mg of squalene per dose) has been approved by health agencies and used in several European countries for seasonal flu shots since 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group undertake diagnostic work as the representative Victorian State Laboratory, as well as a wide range of multi-disciplinary, collaborative projects including avian influenza virus , anthrax, abalone herpesvirus , plant viruses, plant bacteria and arboviruses, and encompass new technologies such as Next Generation Sequencing and MALDI-TOF into current research projects and emerging diagnostic issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • diphtheria
  • He went on to develop an antitoxin against diphtheria in animals and then in humans, which resulted in the modern methods of immunization and largely ended diphtheria as a threatening disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early exploitation of his discovery might have saved millions of lives, especially in World War I. A new age of preventive medicine in France was made possible by such developments from the Institut Pasteur as vaccines for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • This testimony is based on GAO s recent report, HHS Bioterrorism Preparedness Programs: States Reported Progress but Fell Short of Program Goals for 2002, GAO-04-360R (Feb. 10, 2004). (gao.gov)
  • The anthrax incidents in the fall of 2001, the SARS[Footnote outbreak in 2002-2003, and the recent incidents involving ricin have raised concerns about the nation's ability to respond to a major public health threat, whether naturally occurring or the result of bioterrorism. (gao.gov)
  • For example, of the 1,325 new medicines launched between 1975 and 1997, only 11 were specifically for tropical diseases ( Trouiller and others 2002 ). (nih.gov)
  • 1998
  • Thereafter it ran into Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and judicial obstacles (mainly concerning the methods and viability of the vaccine manufactured by BioPort, a subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions Inc.). Over 8 million doses of BioThrax were administered to over 2 million U.S. military personnel as part of the program between March 1998 and June 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, the Clinton administration required the inoculation of all military members with the anthrax vaccine known as Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) and by the trade name BioThrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • veterinary
  • His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint (1847-1890), a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Austrian-South African immunologist Max Sterne (1905-1997) developed an attenuated live animal vaccine in 1935 that is still employed and derivatives of his strain account for almost all veterinary anthrax vaccines used in the world today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning in 1934 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, he prepared an attenuated anthrax vaccine, using the method developed by Pasteur. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with the Sterne (veterinary) anthrax vaccine strain and the similar British anthrax vaccine (known as AVP), AVA lacks the capsule plasmid pXO2 (required for full virulence) and is composed chiefly of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) with small amounts of edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) that may vary from lot to lot. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjuvants
  • Today's Study: Gulf War Syndrome Doesn't Exist is another in a long line of irresponsible denials by agencies of our government in order to avoid responsibility, accountability and liability for our government's use of experimental vaccines and various additives and adjuvants on more than 20 years of active, reserve, and guard military personnel. (whale.to)
  • Their outstanding research work with the potential involvement of experimental vaccines and adjuvants and the ramifications to unknowing human guinea pigs has become a passion of mine beginning shortly after the end of the Gulf War. (whale.to)
  • To prompt the body to create antibodies to these recombinants, scientists have created deadly oil-based vaccine additives called adjuvants. (wordpress.com)
  • Immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with a vaccine, that stimulate the immune system and increase the response to the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • botulinum
  • included in its arsenal were large quantities of nutrient media, botulinum toxin, anthrax cultures, and drone aircraft equipped with spray tanks. (cdc.gov)
  • Louis Pasteur
  • In the 1870s, the French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) applied his previous method of immunizing chickens against chicken cholera to anthrax, which affected cattle, and thereby aroused widespread interest in combating other diseases with the same approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is named after Louis Pasteur, who made some of the greatest breakthroughs in modern medicine at the time, including pasteurization and vaccines for anthrax and rabies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • In 1999 at Offutt Air Force Base, the first ever Anthrax refusal court-martial in the United States Air Force was prosecuted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in 1999 initiated its advocacy program, Drugs for Neglected Diseases, which has highlighted this gap ( http://www.accessmed-msf.org/ ). (nih.gov)
  • populations
  • Some vaccines are recommended only in certain areas (countries, sub national areas, or at-risk populations) where a disease is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name "vaccines", in honor of Jenner's groundbreaking discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference is due to the lower cost of health care, the lower cost of many vaccines provided to developing nations, and that more expensive vaccines, often for less common diseases, are not utilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional vaccines are given to individuals that are much more likely to come into contact with certain diseases due to their occupation or travel to regions where the disease is present (including members of the military), or only after potentially infectious exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many diseases can be effectively treated, managed, or prevented with pharmaceuticals and vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Organizationally, the medical defense research effort was pursued first (1956-1969) by the U.S. Army Medical Unit (USAMU) and later, after the discontinuation of the offensive program, by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Vaccines against the livestock and human disease anthrax-caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis-have had a prominent place in the history of medicine, from Pasteur's pioneering 19th-century work with cattle (the first effective bacterial vaccine and the second effective vaccine ever) to the controversial late 20th century use of a modern product to protect American troops against the use of anthrax in biological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • No evidence exists of risk to the fetus from vaccinating pregnant women with inactivated virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids. (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, live, attenuated virus and live bacterial vaccines generally are contraindicated during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • livestock
  • Because no commercial treatment or vaccine is available for this disease, livestock management is the only method of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquisition Program
  • During the next 28 years, the U.S. initiative evolved into an effective, military-driven research and acquisition program, shrouded in secrecy and, later, controversy. (wikipedia.org)
  • stockpile
  • With the presidential decision in 1969 to halt offensive biological weapons production-and the agreement in 1972 at the international BWC never to develop, produce, stockpile, or retain biological agents or toxins-the program became entirely defensive, with medical and non-medical components. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Many vaccines require multiple doses for maximum effectiveness, either to produce sufficient initial immune response or to boost response that fades over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • routinely
  • The potency of AVA vaccine lots is routinely determined both by the survival rates of parenterally challenged guinea pigs and their anti-PA antibody titres as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • civilian
  • In evaluating the role of vaccines for protecting the civilian population, quite different answers are reached. (cdc.gov)
  • One vaccine in development that is of great importance to civilian biodefense is the vaccinia virus vaccine made in cell culture. (cdc.gov)
  • Today, these U.S. biodefense programs - military and civilian - have raised concerns that the U.S. may be pursuing research that is outlawed by the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) of 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • exposure
  • After reviewing extensive scientific evidence and carefully considering comments from the public, the FDA again determined that the vaccine is licensed for the prevention of anthrax, regardless of the route of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benefits of vaccinating pregnant women usually outweigh potential risks when the likelihood of disease exposure is high, when infection would pose a risk to the mother or fetus, and when the vaccine is unlikely to cause harm. (cdc.gov)
  • adverse
  • The product has attracted some controversy owing to alleged adverse events and questions as to whether it is effective against the inhalational form of anthrax. (wikipedia.org)
  • pandemic
  • Absent a federal plan, key questions about the federal role in the purchase, distribution, and administration of vaccines and antiviral drugs during a pandemic remain unanswered. (gao.gov)
  • made
  • Later that month, the DOD made it policy to include any personnel spending 15 days or more in high anthrax-risk areas, such as the Persian Gulf or the Korean peninsula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pasteur publicly claimed he had made the anthrax vaccine by exposing the bacilli to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two vaccines were made using different processes and have different data to support their safety. (whale.to)
  • It was made in 1997. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • protective
  • In the United States, over the past half century, we have lived under the protective umbrella of vaccination programs that shield our population from a dozen serious and sometimes fatal naturally transmitted illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • An existing licensed plague vaccine is protective against flea-transmitted disease but not against aerosol challenge in animal experiments or against pneumonic plague. (cdc.gov)
  • soldiers
  • His 2004 book, "Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment That's Killing Our Soldiers and Why GIs are Only the First Victims" took sharp issue with IOM results and the Pentagon's denial of Gulf War syndrome.Investigating the shadowy vaccination development world, he discovered US military-employed doctors and scientists conducted secret medical experiments on US citizens in violation of the Nuremberg Code and fundamental medical ethics. (blogspot.com)
  • virulence
  • A persistent problem with Pasteur's vaccine was achieving the correct balance between virulence and immunogenicity during preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • military
  • For military members who had started the vaccination (which usually takes build-up and booster shots), they tended to continue the vaccination program under informed consent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. armed forces have recognized the military value of vaccines against biological threats and have a long-standing research and development program for a series of vaccines to protect service members from hostile use of a biological agent. (cdc.gov)
  • For the military, vaccination is an effective means of countering a known threat because the population at risk is easily defined and a high level of vaccine coverage can be achieved. (cdc.gov)
  • The current mission is multi-agency, not exclusively military, and is purely to develop defensive measures against bio-agents, as opposed to the former bio-weapons development program. (wikipedia.org)
  • intent
  • These vaccines will be further developed and tested with the intent of obtaining products licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (cdc.gov)
  • The facility received warning letters from FDA, including one in March 1997 stating its intent to revoke the facility s license. (whale.to)
  • prevention
  • In 1951, due to biological warfare concerns arising from the Korean War, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), a hands-on two-year postgraduate training program in epidemiology, with a focus on field work. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • However, the value of vaccines in protecting the population against the deliberate release of infectious organisms is not so clear-cut. (cdc.gov)
  • found
  • A visit in the autumn of 1997 found a half-empty facility protected by a handful of guards who had not been paid for months (P. Jahrling, pers. (cdc.gov)
  • given
  • After having thoroughly read Pasteur's lab notes, the science historian Gerald L. Geison declared Pasteur had given a misleading account of the preparation of the anthrax vaccine used in the experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of combination vaccine products means that, as of 2013[update], the United Kingdom's immunization program consists of 9 injections by the age of two, rather than 22 if vaccination for each disease was given as a separate injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The table below shows the types of vaccines given in example countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • But Pena said people should be given the option of the vaccine without the imminent threat of the virus hanging over their heads. (orlandosentinel.com)