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  • mutations
  • To investigate this hypothesis, we infected cell lines expressing PD-causing point mutations in α-synuclein with MSA patient samples. (pnas.org)
  • Coexpression of the A53T and E46K mutations was unable to rescue MSA prion infection in vitro, establishing that MSA α-synuclein prions are conformationally distinct from the misfolded α-synuclein in PD patients. (pnas.org)
  • mutation
  • MSA prions robustly infected wild-type, A30P, and A53T α-synuclein-YFP cells, but they were unable to replicate in cells expressing the E46K mutation. (pnas.org)
  • presynaptic terminals
  • Although the function of alpha-synuclein is not well understood, studies suggest that it plays a role in maintaining a supply of synaptic vesicles in presynaptic terminals by clustering synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-synuclein is specifically upregulated in a discrete population of presynaptic terminals of the brain during a period of acquisition-related synaptic rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • prion
  • This observation indicates that the α-synuclein prion conformation found in PD is different from the strain found in MSA, providing biological evidence that these diseases arise from distinct prion strains. (pnas.org)
  • The cause of MSA is uncertain and no specific risk factor has been identified, although research indicates that a prion form of the alpha-synuclein protein may cause the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • 1997 ) and recent research has indicated that various soluble α-syn oligomers are the most toxic species, leading to neuroinflammation (Lee et al. (springer.com)
  • found
  • In an AAV-synuclein mouse model of PD, we have found that over-abundance of α-SYN triggers the expression of NF-κB p65, and leads to microglial activation and DA neurodegeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • normal
  • The ' Golgi-resident different promoter ' alpha is that other normal peptides first in the defect and induce a virus to the translation condition. (erik-mill.de)
  • Apparently, alpha-synuclein is essential for normal development of the cognitive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • galactose neighborhoods in the actin of G-to-A nucleotides in the body known nuclear-localization which initially can widely write connected as a Proteomic progression or connected before secretion. (erik-mill.de)
  • highly
  • All synucleins have in common a highly conserved alpha-helical lipid-binding motif with similarity to the class-A2 lipid-binding domains of the exchangeable apolipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)