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  • carcinoma
  • In the well-characterized transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, MMTV-PyMT mice, where tumors arise rapidly due to the expression of the polyoma virus middle-T antigen in mammary epithelium driven by the mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV LTR), one sees a prototypical progression from the benign stages of hyperplasia and adenoma/mammary intraepithelial neoplasia to the malignant stages of early and late carcinoma ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The precise role of ADAM15 in cancer is still unclear but the metalloprotein has been linked to a number of different cancerous diseases such as Breast cancer where the expression of the protein is increased in carcinoma in-situ, invasive carcinoma and metastatic breast cancer tissues Additionally, the alternative splice variant forms of ADAM15 have also been correlated with different prognosis in 48 breast cancer patients based upon their expression levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIMP
  • This study was conducted to assess the expression profile of MMP-13 protein in invasive breast carcinomas to determine its diagnostic and prognostic significance, as well as its correlation with other biomarkers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Her-2/neu, MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 and -2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Our data suggest that lymph node status, tumor size, Her-2/neu expression, TIMP-1 and MMP-13 expression in cancer cells are independent prognostic factors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Specific, high affinity binding of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-4 (TIMP-4) to the COOH-terminal hemopexin-like domain of human gelatinase A. TIMP-4 binds progelatinase A and the COOH-terminal domain in a similar manner to TIMP-2. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The binding properties of the newly described tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-4 (TIMP-4) to progelatinase A and to the COOH-terminal hemopexin-like domain (C domain) of the enzyme were examined. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • expression
  • Moreover, high levels of MMP-13 expression were associated with decreased overall survival. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Breast cancer cell invasion mediated by Gα12 signaling involves expression of interleukins-6 and -8, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. (springer.com)
  • We have previously shown that the Y-box protein YB-1 is involved in regulating transcription of the P-glycoprotein gene mdr1 and that nuclear localization of YB-1 in human breast cancer is associated with increased P-glycoprotein expression. (wiley.com)
  • 2 However, the functional relevance of P-glycoprotein expression for clinical drug resistance in breast cancer is controversial, since evidence for an association between P-glycoprotein expression and survival is not supported by all investigations. (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the impact of YB-1 expression on the clinical outcome in breast cancer patients ( n = 83) and compared it with expression of the tumor-biologic factors HER2, 7 urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), 8 which are already in use for clinical decision making. (wiley.com)
  • It also represses CD44 expression, which is a cell marker for some breast and prostate cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, ectopic CD97 expression facilitated RhoA activation through binding of Gα12/13 as well as induced Ki67 expression and phosphorylated ERK and Akt through enhancing lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, increased AXL expression has been associated with numerous cancers including lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer and melanoma among others, and shown to have a strong correlation with poor survival outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Antibody fragments from a "single pot" phage display library as imrnunochemical reagents, EMBO J. , 1994, 13: 692. (springer.com)
  • clinical
  • A total of 13 Chinese randomized clinical trials involving 940 patients were included, which compared herbal medicines plus FOLFOX4 combination to the FOLFOX4 regimen alone in patients with advanced (stage IV) colorectal cancer. (drugs.com)
  • The clinical relevance of YB-1 was assessed in 83 breast cancer patients treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Technical University of Munich, Germany. (wiley.com)
  • At least one of these inhibitors is now undergoing clinical trials in patients with breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 13-week toxicity study, TS extract exhibited no dose-related changes (mortality, body weight, food/water consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, organ weight, or histopathology) at dose up to 500 mg/kg, the highest dosage level suggested based on 14-day repeat-dose oral toxicity study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein
  • MMP-13 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of malignant cells and peritumoral stromal cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 is an protein that in humans is encoded by the TIMP3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • a plasma membrane component) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) use heterodimeric LPAR1-CD97 to drive Gi/o protein-phospholipase C-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling and induce [Ca2+] in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • AXL has been implicated as a cancer driver and correlated with poor survival in numeorus aggressive tumors including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancer, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of the c-Src pathway has been observed in about 50% of tumors from colon, liver, lung, breast and the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemidesmosomes
  • Baker SE, Hopkinson SB, Fitchmun M, Andreason GL, Frasier F, Plopper G, Quaranta V, Jones JC (1996) Laminin-5 and hemidesmosomes: role of the alpha 3 chain subunit in hemidesmosome stability and assembly. (springer.com)
  • collagenase
  • The collagenases comprise interstitial collagenase (MMP-1), neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) and collagenase 3 (MMP-13). (beds.ac.uk)
  • evidence
  • There is increasing evidence that the myoepithelial cells also play a key role in the organizational development of the mammary gland, and that the loss and/or change of myoepithelial cell function is a key step in the development of breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissues
  • Importantly, many enzymes, such as caspases, secretases, furin, phosphatases, and other proteases have been major targeted for optical probe [ 10 - 13 ], because they are expressed in tissues with pathological changes. (thno.org)
  • cells
  • In this review we briefly address the characteristics of breast myoepithelial cells from human breast and mouse mammary gland, how they function in normal mammary gland development, and their recently appreciated role in tumor suppression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • They also activate the skin's system (called metalloproteinases) that removes damaged proteins such as scars and sun damage marks. (anagen.net)
  • Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Short hairpin RNA-mediated stable knockdown of MMP-1 inhibited the invasive ability of MDA-MB 231 variant cells in vitro, and inhibited breast cancer growth when the cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of nude mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • focal
  • Plasma immunadsorption treatment in patients with primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis," Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation , vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 2013-2016, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • example
  • The mammary glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates (for example, humans and chimpanzees), the udder in ruminants (for example, cows, goats, and deer), and the dugs of other animals (for example, dogs and cats). (wikipedia.org)