• protein
  • It has been hypothesised that, in an alternate type of mutation, positive selection for increased expression of the FGF5 protein was one of the contributing factors in the evolutionary loss of hair in cetaceans as they transitioned from the terrestrial to the aquatic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • UV crosslinking approaches to identify E-box-binding factors coupled with deoxyoligonucleotide affinity chromatography and gel retardation assays confirmed at least one major E-box-binding protein in both serum- and wound-activated cells to be USF-1, a member of the helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, the protein stability of TGF-β receptor type I was significantly increased in scleroderma fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts. (jci.org)
  • There was no significant difference in Smurf1 and Smurf2 levels between normal and scleroderma fibroblasts, and the transiently overexpressed Smurf1 and/or Smurf2 did not affect TGF-β receptor type I protein levels in scleroderma fibroblasts. (jci.org)
  • The core protein mRNA levels of proteoglycans were not affected, thus the decrease in GAG chains was as a result of some other factor, which in this case turned out to be a decrease in expression of sulfate transferase enzymes, which play a key role in GAG biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was isolated as a secreted factor that exhibits a growth-stimulating effect on cultured glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • EP4 also interacts with Prostaglandin E receptor 4-associated protein (EPRAP) to inhibit phosphorylation of the proteasome protein, p105, thereby suppressing a cells ability to activate nuclear factor kappa B, a transcription factor that controls genes coding for cytokines and other elements that regulate inflammation, cell growth, and cell survival (see NF-κB#Structure). (wikipedia.org)
  • keratinocytes
  • An E-box motif (CACGTG) in the PAI-1 proximal promoter (located at nucleotides -160 to -165), previously shown to be necessary for serum-induced PAI-1 expression, was bound by nuclear factors from wound-stimulated but not quiescent, contact-inhibited, keratinocytes. (biologists.org)
  • mitogenic
  • We find that, of many potential mitogenic signals, only leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is induced before the onset of neuronal progenitor proliferation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The majority of FGF family members are glycosaminoglycan binding proteins which possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGFs
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are master regulators of organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Members FGF11, FGF12, FGF13, and FGF14, also known as FGF homologous factors 1-4 (FHF1-FHF4), have been shown to have distinct functions compared to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular processes unrelated to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly conserved
  • Sequence variations within splice sites may pose problems in the interpretation of their pathogenic effect, especially when these variations occur outside the highly conserved /gt (donor or 5′ site) and ag/ (acceptor or 3′ site) consensus dinucleotides that immediately flank most exons. (bmj.com)
  • metastasis
  • Indeed, growth factor-induced cell migration during wound reepithelization, tumor metastasis and in normal as well as pathologic angiogenesis involves participation of several, frequently interacting, protease systems. (biologists.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and its ligands (IGF-I and IGF-II) have been implicated in the growth, survival, and metastasis of a broad range of malignancies including pediatric tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that is selectively activated by its ligands IGF-I and IGF-II, has been strongly implicated in the growth, survival, and metastasis of a wide variety of human tumors, including tumors in children and adolescents ( 4 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • grafts
  • 3-5 In vein grafts, intimal and medial thickening occur in the regions of increased circumferential deformation. (ahajournals.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, blastocyst formation begins about 5 days after fertilization, when a fluid-filled cavity opens up in the morula, a ball consisting of sixteen cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • splice
  • An additional probe 9C/TM (5′-TGCTTGGCGGCGCCTGGAA-3′) was used to detect splicing of the cryptic donor splice site in exon IIIc to the downstream transmembrane exon 11. (bmj.com)
  • C) This product (589 bp) specifically hybridises to the 9C/TM oligonucleotide, showing that it is generated by use of the cryptic 5′ splice site within exon IIIc. (bmj.com)
  • cells
  • According to this view, cells are programmed to commit suicide by default and require specific extracellular factors to survive. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tubulo-interstitial scarring is characterized by tubular atrophy and an accumulation of interstitial matrix, which may emanate from fibroblasts or tubular cells themselves and occurs with any number of different primary diseases, whether immune, metabolic or degenerative 7, 9, 10. (uninet.edu)
  • 6. The use according to claim 5, characterized in that the said cells are human, non-embryonic, autologous or allogenic cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • One of these mediators is PDGF, which, together with the fibroblast growth factors, is a major mitogen for mesenchymal cells, including SMCs from all species. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 For experiments, HASMCs (P5 to P10) were seeded (3×10 4 cells/cm 2 ) on silicone membranes (0.005-in thickness, Specialty Manufacturing) coated with 5 μg/cm 2 human plasma fibronectin (Collaborative). (ahajournals.org)
  • Prevention by nerve growth factor (NGF) of apoptotic death in neural cells has been variously ascribed to binding of NGF to its low-affinity (p75) or high-affinity (trkA) receptor or to a cooperative interaction between the two. (jneurosci.org)
  • In order to support continuous growth and proliferation in challenging hypoxic environments, cancer cells are found to alter their metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors then travel to nearby cells in which the gradient of factor received determines the outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In breast cancer cells the growth hormone prolactin induces HSP90AA1 expression through STAT5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia, endothelia of capillaries and lymphatics, fibroblasts, stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once bound to the extracellular matrix of the endometrium, trophoblast cells secrete enzymes and other factors to embed the blastocyst into the uterine wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that SFRP1 expression in UMRC3 cells (clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line) resulted in a growth-inhibited phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth in culture and anchorage-independent growth were inhibited in SFRP1-expressing UMRC3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Many pediatric tumors including neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma are embryonal tumors of the childhood and exhibit increased expression of IGF-II and IGF-IR establishing autocrine loops to perpetuate growth and survival ( 10 - 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo, trans -resveratrol inhibits vascularization of the chick embryo area vasculosa and murine melanoma B16 tumor growth and neovascularization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vivo , SCH 717454 exhibits activity as a single agent and significantly inhibited growth of neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma tumor xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • transcription factor
  • Increased expression of IGF-IR in rhabdomyosarcomas has also been linked to chimeric transcription factor PAX3-FKHR ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Traditionally, hypoxia leads to increased production of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1), containing HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, that acts as a key regulatory transcription factor responsible for adaptive cellular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediators
  • Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Studies of the predictive value of renal biopsy in lupus nephritis have evaluated the prognostic significance of the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and of the presence of active or chronic lesions, or both 5. (uninet.edu)