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  • protein
  • It has been hypothesised that, in an alternate type of mutation, positive selection for increased expression of the FGF5 protein was one of the contributing factors in the evolutionary loss of hair in cetaceans as they transitioned from the terrestrial to the aquatic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • UV crosslinking approaches to identify E-box-binding factors coupled with deoxyoligonucleotide affinity chromatography and gel retardation assays confirmed at least one major E-box-binding protein in both serum- and wound-activated cells to be USF-1, a member of the helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. (biologists.org)
  • The core protein mRNA levels of proteoglycans were not affected, thus the decrease in GAG chains was as a result of some other factor, which in this case turned out to be a decrease in expression of sulfate transferase enzymes, which play a key role in GAG biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was isolated as a secreted factor that exhibits a growth-stimulating effect on cultured glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • keratinocytes
  • An E-box motif (CACGTG) in the PAI-1 proximal promoter (located at nucleotides -160 to -165), previously shown to be necessary for serum-induced PAI-1 expression, was bound by nuclear factors from wound-stimulated but not quiescent, contact-inhibited, keratinocytes. (biologists.org)
  • mitogenic
  • The majority of FGF family members are glycosaminoglycan binding proteins which possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGFs
  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are master regulators of organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Members FGF11, FGF12, FGF13, and FGF14, also known as FGF homologous factors 1-4 (FHF1-FHF4), have been shown to have distinct functions compared to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular processes unrelated to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • Indeed, growth factor-induced cell migration during wound reepithelization, tumor metastasis and in normal as well as pathologic angiogenesis involves participation of several, frequently interacting, protease systems. (biologists.org)
  • grafts
  • 3-5 In vein grafts, intimal and medial thickening occur in the regions of increased circumferential deformation. (ahajournals.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, blastocyst formation begins about 5 days after fertilization, when a fluid-filled cavity opens up in the morula, a ball consisting of sixteen cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • wound
  • Several of these chemokine signaling pathways influence the inflammatory cascade early on in healing and the later growth and regression of neovasculature, re-epithelializaiton of the wound area, and ultimately are essential for providing cues when the repair process should halt the process is complete. (springer.com)
  • Guo S, DiPietro LA. Factors affecting wound healing. (springer.com)
  • cells
  • According to this view, cells are programmed to commit suicide by default and require specific extracellular factors to survive. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tubulo-interstitial scarring is characterized by tubular atrophy and an accumulation of interstitial matrix, which may emanate from fibroblasts or tubular cells themselves and occurs with any number of different primary diseases, whether immune, metabolic or degenerative 7, 9, 10. (uninet.edu)
  • 6. The use according to claim 5, characterized in that the said cells are human, non-embryonic, autologous or allogenic cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • One of these mediators is PDGF, which, together with the fibroblast growth factors, is a major mitogen for mesenchymal cells, including SMCs from all species. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 For experiments, HASMCs (P5 to P10) were seeded (3×10 4 cells/cm 2 ) on silicone membranes (0.005-in thickness, Specialty Manufacturing) coated with 5 μg/cm 2 human plasma fibronectin (Collaborative). (ahajournals.org)
  • Factors then travel to nearby cells in which the gradient of factor received determines the outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In breast cancer cells the growth hormone prolactin induces HSP90AA1 expression through STAT5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once bound to the extracellular matrix of the endometrium, trophoblast cells secrete enzymes and other factors to embed the blastocyst into the uterine wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that SFRP1 expression in UMRC3 cells (clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line) resulted in a growth-inhibited phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth in culture and anchorage-independent growth were inhibited in SFRP1-expressing UMRC3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Many pediatric tumors including neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma are embryonal tumors of the childhood and exhibit increased expression of IGF-II and IGF-IR establishing autocrine loops to perpetuate growth and survival ( 10 - 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • myofibroblasts
  • Like myofibroblasts in other tissues, the mesangial cell acquires smooth muscle cell-like properties, characterized by de novo expression of a-smooth muscle actin, and the development of fibroblast-like properties characterized by the production of interstitial collagens in addition to normal mesangial matrix constituents 12, 13. (uninet.edu)
  • vivo
  • In vivo, trans -resveratrol inhibits vascularization of the chick embryo area vasculosa and murine melanoma B16 tumor growth and neovascularization. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vivo , SCH 717454 exhibits activity as a single agent and significantly inhibited growth of neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma tumor xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • transcription factor
  • Increased expression of IGF-IR in rhabdomyosarcomas has also been linked to chimeric transcription factor PAX3-FKHR ( 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Traditionally, hypoxia leads to increased production of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1), containing HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, that acts as a key regulatory transcription factor responsible for adaptive cellular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediators
  • Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Studies of the predictive value of renal biopsy in lupus nephritis have evaluated the prognostic significance of the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and of the presence of active or chronic lesions, or both 5. (uninet.edu)
  • secretion
  • hence, it is widely used for the study of MMP secretion [ 5 , 6 ]. (kjim.org)
  • At the functional level, we show that CD11b + CCR8 + cell subset may contribute to immune evasion in human cancers through elevated secretion of proinflammatory [interleukin (IL)-6, CCL3, CCLand proangiogenic (VEGF, IL-8) factors as well as through induction of FoxP3 expression in autologous T lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Conversely, we now know that vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) produce proteins like tissue factor that modulate the coagulation cascade in the absence of endothelial disruption. (ahajournals.org)
  • [5] Its tissue distribution and biologic actions were further investigated over the following decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • Signaling molecules that regulate chondrocyte activities in both growth cartilage and permanent articular cartilage during osteoarthritis are thus interesting targets for disease-modifying osteoarthritis therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Signaling molecules regulating chondrocyte activities in growth cartilage may thus also be involved in OA pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • A level of complexity was added by the discovery that platelet proteins (such as platelet-derived growth factor) and hemostatic factors (such as thrombin) have potent activities on vascular biology independently of any coagulation effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 Osteo/chondrogenic transcription factors such as Sox9 , Runx2 , and Msx2 are upregulated in the mineralizing vasculature, activating expression of osteogenic enzymes and matrix proteins necessary for calcium deposition. (ahajournals.org)
  • whereas
  • The Brugge laboratory also showed that whereas Akt1 attenuates cell migration in two- and three-dimensional cell cultures, the Akt2 isoform promotes migration in a growth factor-dependent manner ( 6 ), consistent with earlier studies in vivo ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary GBM arises de novo in the absence of a preexisting low-grade lesion, whereas secondary GBM develops progressively (over 5-10 years) from lower grade gliomas such as anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, grade III). (aacrjournals.org)
  • LMW FGF2 is primarily cytoplasmic and functions in an autocrine manner, whereas HMW FGF2s are nuclear and exert activities through an intracrine mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • To further assess the role of FGFR in UVB-induced hyperproliferation, SKH-1 mice were pretreated with AZD4547 (5 mg/kg/b.w. (aacrjournals.org)
  • the recent demonstration that factor V-deficient mice, which cannot generate thrombin, die in utero of vascular defects in the absence of hemorrhage shows how closely these two systems are interrelated. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the forelimb initiation and limb growth in mice, axial (lengthwise) cues from the intermediate mesoderm produces Tbx5, which subsequently signals to the same mesoderm to produce Fgf10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary
  • Primary human tenon fibroblasts were seeded on collagen-coated glass coverslips (rigid environment) or collagen or polyacrylamide gels (elastic environment) of different compliance and stimulated with TGF-β. (arvojournals.org)
  • Tumor formation is accelerated into high-grade astrocytomas similar to primary GBM by additional loss of Pten ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • tumor growth
  • 7 . A method for blocking or reducing tumor growth of an EGFR-mediated cancer in a mammal comprising administering to said mammal a src inhibitor and anti-EGFR antibody, wherein said src inhibitor and anti-EGFR antibody are administered simultaneously, in combination, or one after another in series. (google.es)
  • subunits
  • Traditionally, hypoxia leads to increased production of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1), containing HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, that acts as a key regulatory transcription factor responsible for adaptive cellular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • DCA induced persistent activation of the AP-1 transcription factor with Fra-1 and JunB identified as the predominant components of the DCA-induced AP-1 complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • During puberty in females, estrogen, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1, through activation of ERα specifically (and notably not ERβ or GPER), causes growth of and transformation of the tubules into the matured ductal system of the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • EP4 activation may therefore have diverse effects on cell function depending on these factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • After about 1 day (5-6 days post-fertilization), which is the time usually required to reach the uterus, the blastocyst begins to embed itself into the endometrium of the uterine wall where it will undergo later developmental processes, including gastrulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • chondrocyte
  • Perlecan in the growth plate of mouse long bones shows glycosylation changes in the chondrocyte progression from the resting zone to the proliferating zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • EO is important for development, growth, and repair of long bones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, in keloid NO is as important as the profibrotic growth factor TGFβ1 and both could be working in coordination. (omicsonline.org)
  • 4 5 6 7 Recent studies have suggested that HGF has various other activities and plays an important role as an organotrophic factor responsible for regeneration of the liver, kidney, and lung. (arvojournals.org)
  • FGF5 has also been identified as a potentially important factor in androgenetic alopecia. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • They are found in close association with serotonin (5-HT) and neurons containing norepinephrine that are targeted by the currently used antidepressant drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Through cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts, integrins behave as mechanosensors, bi-directionally transducing information both into and out of the cell, directing the strength, stability and growth of focal adhesions to promote cell adhesion, spreading and motility (Fig. 3 ). (thno.org)
  • Outside the cell, it functions as a neurotrophic factor for spinal and sensory neurons, called neuroleukin. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have been alternately referred to as "pluripotent" growth factors and as "promiscuous" growth factors due to their multiple actions on multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • SP is particularly excitatory to cell growth and multiplication. (wikipedia.org)