• antigen
  • Both a monoclonal antibody and antisera specific for determinants unique to individual cloned helper T cell lines can substitute for antigen and antigen-presenting cells in the. (naver.com)
  • Previously we developed partially protective, single Th- and B cell-epitope-based peptide-DNA dual vaccines (PDDV) (T3-PDDV and B3-PDDV, respectively) capable of eliciting immune responses against the Schistosoma japonicum 22.6 kDa tegument antigen (Sj22.6) and a 62 kDa fragment of myosin (Sj62), respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared to a normal antigen-induced T-cell response where 0.0001-0.001% of the body's T-cells are activated, these SAgs are capable of activating up to 20% of the body's T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism stimulates cytokine expression and release in antigen presenting cells as well as inducing the production of costimulatory molecules that allow the cell to bind to and activate T cells more effectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs because a cognate antigen activates a T cell not because of its structure per se, but because its affinity allows it to bind the TCR for a lengthy enough time period, and the SAg mimics this temporal bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • They observed that T-cell receptors must recognise a complex of foreign antigen and an MHC antigen in order to destroy infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The O antigen is encoded by the rfb gene cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • DNA sequences comprising nucleic acids encoding fusion proteins comprising an Fc portion of an antibody attached at the N-terminus of an OB protein moiety, vectors comprising such DNA sequences, host cells comprising such vectors or DNA sequences, and processes for preparing such fusion proteins, and. (google.com)
  • All LDL receptor family proteins contain a cytoplasmic tail with at least one NPXY motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • GCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). (wikipedia.org)
  • As discussed in more detail below, glucocorticoids function through interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor: up-regulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • They constitute most of the gamma globulin fraction of the blood proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemolysins or haemolysins are lipids and proteins that cause lysis of red blood cells by destroying their cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA
  • He was involved in early work demonstrating the importance of CaMKII (1992) and the NMDA receptor (1996) in memory formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through binding of ApoER2 in the hippocampus, it plays a role in the NMDA receptor activation that is required for long-term potentiation, a mechanism by which two neurons gain a stronger, longer-lasting transmission due to simultaneous firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • In this study, we developed PDDV cocktails containing multiple epitopes of S. japonicum from Sj22.6, Sj62 and Sj97 antigens by predicting cytotoxic, helper, and B-cell epitopes, and evaluated vaccine potential in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Live, attenuated vaccines, such as smallpox and polio vaccines, are able to induce killer T-cell (TC or CTL) responses, helper T-cell (TH) responses and antibody immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • These pores in the cellular membrane will eventually end up causing cell death, since it allows the exchange of monovalent ions that would cause the DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • Despite the distinct mechanisms, the concept of the HDR based gene editing is in a way similar to that of homologous recombination based gene targeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recombinational process that produces clonal antibody paratope diversity is called V(D)J or VJ recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene segments are then joined together using random genetic recombination to produce the paratope. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • This 11 kilobase pair gene consists of 14 exons and 13 introns coding for a 75 kiloDalton protein composed of 662 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 6, 1939) is a Japanese scientist who was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987, for his discovery of the genetic mechanism that produces antibody diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This displaces the antigenic peptide away from the TCR and circumvents the normal mechanism for T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of a strong hairpin sequence at the end of each gene terminates transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Cell proliferation was tested by the MTT assay. (medsci.org)
  • Pretreatment with C3 complex significantly inhibited UVB-induced FGF-2 induction, FGF-2-induced cell proliferation, progression and colony formation, mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation, and FGFR2 phosphorylation in the promotion-sensitive JB6 cells epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The SAg cross-links the MHC and the TCR inducing a signaling pathway that results in the proliferation of the cell and production of cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Gene Function Kelavkar and Badr (1999) stated that the ALOX15 gene product is implicated in antiinflammation, membrane remodeling, and cancer development/metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid discharge of vital molecules such as ATP, dissipation of the membrane potential and ion gradients, and irreversible osmotic swelling leading to the cell wall rupture (lysis) can cause death of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, this toxin causes cell death by binding with the outer membrane, with subsequent oligomerization of the toxin monomer and water-filled channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Results showed that mice immunized with a single-epitope PDDV elicited either Tc, Th, or B cell responses, respectively, and mice immunized with either the T3- or B3- single-epitope PDDV formulation were partially protected against infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While killed vaccines do not have this risk, they cannot generate specific killer T cell responses and may not work at all for some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can generate TH and antibody responses, but not killer T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate
  • These PAMPs bind to an important group of detection molecules of the innate immune system, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • pulmonary
  • Mice with homozygous disruptions in the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (see below) die at birth due to pulmonary immaturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. A plant part of the plant of claim 1, wherein the plant part comprises at least a first cell of said plant. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 58. The binding compound of claim 47, wherein the binding compound is an antibody fragment selected from the group consisting of Fab, Fab', Fab'-SH, Fv, scFv, F(ab') 2 , and a diabody. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 63. The binding compound of claim 52, wherein the binding compound is an antibody fragment selected from the group consisting of Fab, Fab', Fab'-SH, Fv, scFv, F(ab') 2 , and a diabody. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • HUMAN
  • Engineered antibodies to human IL-23p19 are provided, as well as uses thereof, e.g. in treatment of inflammatory, autoimmune, and proliferative disorders. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Mutation in MYD88 at position 265 leading to a change from leucine to proline have been identified in many human lymphomas including ABC subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell, (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A given SAg can activate a large proportion of the T-cell population because the human T-cell repertoire comprises only about 50 types of Vβ elements and some SAgs are capable of binding to multiple types of Vβ regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kelavkar and Badr (1999) described experiments yielding data that supported the hypothesis that loss of the TP53 gene, or gain-of-function activities resulting from the expression of its mutant forms, regulates ALOX15 promoter activity in human and in mouse, albeit in directionally opposite manners. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • Comparing the DNA of B cells (a type of white blood cell) in embryonic and adult mice, he observed that genes in the mature B cells of the adult mice are moved around, recombined, and deleted to form the diversity of the variable region of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Previously we developed partially protective Th-, and B-cell epitope vaccines derived from the Sj22.6 or Sj62 antigens, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It should be noted though that antibodies towards several O antigens cross-react with other O antigens and partially to K antigens not only from E. coli, but also from other Escherichia species and Enterobacteriaceae species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regions where the genes are randomly recombined together is the hyper variable region used to recognise different antigens on a clonal basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPARγ and C/EBPα. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alcohol preference may be associated with strain differences in mesolimbic enkephalin gene expression (Ng et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • Alcohol preference is due to at least two recessive quantitative trait loci that are sex-restricted in expression (Melo et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • Pathogens often have different AT-contents than the target species, so altering the gene sequence of the immunogen to reflect the codons more commonly used in the target species may improve its expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of other mutagenic techniques (such as P-element transgenesis in Drosophila) also has limitations, the major one being the randomness of incorporation and the possibility of affecting other genes and expression patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Th1 and Th17 cell populations were also expanded in collagen-immunized TNFR p55 −/− but not p75 −/− mice. (rupress.org)
  • The gene was originally discovered and cloned by Dan Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in reeler mutant mice show that knocking out the reeler gene results in aberrant migration as well as outside-in layering, in which younger neurons are unable to travel past the older ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Along with the debate on whether PIO causes bladder cancer in humans, animal and in vitro cell culture studies have suggested a biological effect of PIO on the induction or protection from bladder cancer [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Biological
  • Biological activity of bacterial surface components: bacterial extracts and defined bacterial cell wall components as immunomodulators. (naver.com)
  • A common approach in modern biological research is to modify the DNA sequence (genotype) of an organism (or a single cell) and observe the impact of this change on the organism (phenotype). (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • Syntaxins 3 and 4 localize to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes, respectively, in virtually all epithelial cell types investigated to date. (rupress.org)
  • The domains have binding regions for the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II (MHC Class II) and the T cell receptor (TCR), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Generally, interactions between GSH and other molecules with higher relative electrophilicity deplete GSH levels within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are responsible for osmotic phenomena, cell depolarization, and loss of vital molecules (v.gr. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune
  • In 1996, Peter Doherty and Rolf Zinkernagel shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, for their work with LCMV which led to a fundamental understanding of the adaptive immune response, MHC restriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Superantigens bind first to the MHC Class II and then coordinate to the variable alpha or beta chain of T-cell Receptors (TCR) SAgs show preference for the HLA-DQ form of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are corticosteroids that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), that is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 5. An isolated host cell transformed or transfected with the DNA sequence according to claims 1 or 2 . (google.com)
  • viruses
  • They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza). (wikipedia.org)