• adaptive
  • His research has contributed to scientific understanding in six general areas: altruism and nepotism, kin recognition, eusociality, the evolution of sex, conservation biology (especially the concept of evolutionary traps), and Darwinian medicine (especially the adaptive significance of morning sickness, allergies, spice use, lactose intolerance, and senescence). (ecampus.com)
  • The question of how dispersal behavior is adaptive and how it responds to changes in selection pressure is more relevant than ever, as anthropogenic habitat alteration and climate change accelerate around the world. (springer.com)
  • The theme of G.C. William's idea about antagonistic pleiotropy was that if a gene caused both increased reproduction in early life and aging in later life, then senescence would be adaptive in evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of FAPs is rather unusual in that a fixed response can lead to maladaptive results, whereas flexible behaviors are generally more likely to be adaptive by increasing fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conservation projects may have a better chance of being successful if biologists search for a deeper understanding of how animals make adaptive decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • Examples of collective animal behavior include: Flocking birds Herding ungulates Shoaling and schooling fish Swarming Antarctic krill Pods of dolphins Marching locusts Nest building ants Many functions of animal aggregations have been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social learning has been observed in a variety of animal taxa, including fish, birds, reptiles, and mammals-especially primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The logic of the method is to use phylogenetic information (and an assumed Brownian motion like model of trait evolution) to transform the original tip data (mean values for a set of species) into values that are statistically independent and identically distributed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. (wikipedia.org)
  • This terminology is distinct from animal husbandry or breeding of species in captivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social parasites specialize in parasitizing the behaviors of their host and often use chemical manipulation as well as aggression to invade societies of other species. (amnh.org)
  • Begging effort of the unmanipulated target chicks was not affected by the changes in begging behavior of their siblings, supporting the view that in this species, begging is a reliable signal of individual chick state and does not involve responses to the effort of nest mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social animals are creatures that are greatly interactive with other members of its species, with an individual animal's success highly dependent on the overall cohesion and propagation of the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prosociality is when animals exhibit more than just sexual interactions with members of the same species but fall short of qualifying as eusocial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamilton noted that inclusive fitness theory does not by itself predict that a species will necessarily evolve such altruistic behaviors, since an opportunity or context for interaction between individuals is a more primary and necessary requirement in order for any social interaction to occur in the first place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dobzhansky and his co-authors freely admitted: "Without doubt, the human mind sets our species apart from nonhuman animals" (1977, p. 453). (apologeticspress.org)
  • The term "releaser" is used for a stimulus that has evolved to facilitate communication between conspecifics (animals of the same species). (wikipedia.org)
  • He began as an ant taxonomist and worked on understanding their evolution, how they developed into new species by escaping environmental disadvantages and moving into new habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • This understanding of animal behavior can help managers design better wildlife and nature reserves, reduce human-wildlife conflict, understand and manage species' responses to human-induced environmental stress, and manage introduced species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because an animal's survival and reproductive success relies on its behavior, knowledge of behavior is essential in actively reversing the decline of imperiled wild species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of behavior can be used to reduce bycatch of fish species, reestablish breeding populations, or boost reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The state of a declining species can sometimes be reversed by augmenting reproduction through behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • observational
  • A subset of social learning is observational learning in which a demonstrator influences the behavior of an observer such that the observer's behavior is altered in subsequent analogous situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In stimulus enhancement, emulation, observational conditioning, the observer learns the relationship between a stimulus and a result but does not directly copy the behavior of the experienced individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • These results should prove relevant for understanding the co-evolution of pursuit and evasion, as well as the development of computer models of predation and the integration of sensory and locomotion systems in biomimetic robots. (biologists.org)
  • How predators track and capture their prey poses a fundamental problem in animal behavior that combines sensory perception, neural computation and locomotion. (biologists.org)
  • rats
  • A well known example of unintentional opportunity providing is the transmission of feeding behavior in black rats (Rattus rattus). (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine how these food preferences developed, researchers provided naive adult black rats with fresh pine cones in captivity and observed their behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is consistent with opportunity providing because experienced individuals inadvertently provide naive rats with partially stripped cones that facilitate their learning without altering the experienced rats' behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • Behavioral manipulation can help mitigate some conflicts such as livestock depredation or agricultural destruction by repelling animals with strobe lights, sounds, aversive conditioning, or taste aversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Holmes
  • He was one of the original incorporators of the Human Betterment Foundation, In his book Life and Morals, Holmes claimed that morals had a natural origin but, Darwinian evolution "does not logically compel me to adopt any one standard of conduct rather than another. (wikipedia.org)
  • September 20, 1914 - September 20, 1999) John Warfield Holmes - (March 19, 1920 - November 23, 1996) Joseph Edward Holmes - (June 25, 1926 - July 28, 1995) Samuel Holmes died at Kaiser Hospital in Oakland at the age of 95. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • However, the resource is sometimes non-food related or may be solicited by adult animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the evolution of density-dependent dispersal, emigration and immigration, in two scenarios: adult and natal dispersal. (springer.com)
  • ISBN
  • Michael F. Braby (2004) The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia, Published by CSIRO Publishing, 339 pages ISBN 0-643-09027-4 Miron L. Heinselman (1996) The Boundary Waters Wilderness ecosystem, University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-2805-X C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approaches
  • While sequenced particularly to complement John Alcock's Animal Behavior , this readily comprehensible and richly illustrated reader can stand alone as a sampler of the excitement and diversity of research approaches and organisms that constitute the modern study of animal behavior. (ecampus.com)
  • social
  • Draft of a Book Chapter published in The Social Brain - Evolution and Pathology , edited by Martin Brune, Hedda Ribbert & Wulf Schiefenhovel. (hedweb.com)
  • The following chapter will demonstrate how a human social evolution has been used to clarify and refine the diagnostic category of delusions. (hedweb.com)
  • Support for the social and genetic function of aggregations, especially those formed by fish, can be seen in several aspects of their behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • 1996. Resampling statistical methods in biology: a case study of beaver dispersal pattern. (cwu.edu)
  • contributions
  • New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969 Lindzey, G. & Thiessen, D.D. (eds) Contributions to behavior-genetic analysis:The mouse as a prototype. (wikipedia.org)
  • prey
  • Some lizards and snakes exhibit strike-induced chemosensory searching behavior as a means of relocating bitten and envenomated prey by scent-trailing. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • For example, understanding how proximate processes affect survival can help biologist train captive-reared animals to recognize predators post-release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theory
  • 1983). This theory states that groups of animals moving in a fluid environment may save energy when swimming or flying together, much in the way that bicyclists may draft one another in a peloton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory of evolution glides of the problem of how the process of life and subsequent evolution began. (nyu.edu)
  • conservation
  • Although the wild population is in decline because of predation by feral animals and habitat loss caused by human agricultural development, the numbers of iguanas have been bolstered as a result of captive-breeding and other conservation programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conservation behavior is aimed at applying an understanding of animal behavior to solve problems in the field of conservation biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of studies have shown that animal behavior can be an important consideration during conservation projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, ignorance of animal behavior in conservation projects may lead to their failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent calls for stronger integration of behavior and physiology to advance conservation science emphasize the growing recognition that when studying animals in nature it is impossible to decouple behavior and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because management is often a component of conservation strategies, incorporating knowledge of animal behavior into wildlife management has potential for improving the outcomes of conservation projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • This ability was demonstrated by Pitcher and others in their study of foraging behavior in shoaling cyprinids. (wikipedia.org)
  • One seminal study with guppies (Poecilia reticulata) demonstrated how local enhancement influenced foraging behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • As an ethologist specialized in primatology, I naturally turn most often to the order of animals to which we ourselves belong. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the egg is removed from the goose during the performance of egg-rolling, the bird often continues with the behavior, pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the underside of its beak. (wikipedia.org)