• taxa
  • Certain common characteristics apply to various taxa within the animal kingdom, which traits are often sorted among amphibians, reptiles, mammals, avafauna, arthropods and lower life forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social learning has been observed in a variety of animal taxa, including fish, birds, reptiles, and mammals-especially primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • The theme of G.C. William's idea about antagonistic pleiotropy was that if a gene caused both increased reproduction in early life and aging in later life, then senescence would be adaptive in evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of FAPs is rather unusual in that a fixed response can lead to maladaptive results, whereas flexible behaviors are generally more likely to be adaptive by increasing fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research has contributed to scientific understanding in six general areas: altruism and nepotism, kin recognition, eusociality, the evolution of sex, conservation biology (especially the concept of evolutionary traps), and Darwinian medicine (especially the adaptive significance of morning sickness, allergies, spice use, lactose intolerance, and senescence). (ecampus.com)
  • Conservation projects may have a better chance of being successful if biologists search for a deeper understanding of how animals make adaptive decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The question of how dispersal behavior is adaptive and how it responds to changes in selection pressure is more relevant than ever, as anthropogenic habitat alteration and climate change accelerate around the world. (springer.com)
  • species
  • The logic of the method is to use phylogenetic information (and an assumed Brownian motion like model of trait evolution) to transform the original tip data (mean values for a set of species) into values that are statistically independent and identically distributed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. (wikipedia.org)
  • This terminology is distinct from animal husbandry or breeding of species in captivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Begging effort of the unmanipulated target chicks was not affected by the changes in begging behavior of their siblings, supporting the view that in this species, begging is a reliable signal of individual chick state and does not involve responses to the effort of nest mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social parasites specialize in parasitizing the behaviors of their host and often use chemical manipulation as well as aggression to invade societies of other species. (amnh.org)
  • Social animals are creatures that are greatly interactive with other members of its species, with an individual animal's success highly dependent on the overall cohesion and propagation of the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prosociality is when animals exhibit more than just sexual interactions with members of the same species but fall short of qualifying as eusocial. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is supported by some animal rights academics because it would break through the species barrier, but opposed by others because it predicates moral value on mental complexity, rather than on sentience alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • he perceived some similarities between humans and other species, but argued for the most part that animals lacked reason (logos), reasoning (logismos), thought (dianoia, nous), and belief (doxa). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although described in seemingly anthropomorphic terms, these ideas apply to all living things, and can describe the evolution of innate and learned behaviors over a wide range of species including insects, small mammals or humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamilton noted that inclusive fitness theory does not by itself predict that a species will necessarily evolve such altruistic behaviors, since an opportunity or context for interaction between individuals is a more primary and necessary requirement in order for any social interaction to occur in the first place. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, whilst inclusive fitness theory specifies a set of necessary criteria for the evolution of altruistic traits, it does not specify a sufficient condition for their evolution in any given species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "releaser" is used for a stimulus that has evolved to facilitate communication between conspecifics (animals of the same species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • He began as an ant taxonomist and worked on understanding their evolution, how they developed into new species by escaping environmental disadvantages and moving into new habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • This understanding of animal behavior can help managers design better wildlife and nature reserves, reduce human-wildlife conflict, understand and manage species' responses to human-induced environmental stress, and manage introduced species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because an animal's survival and reproductive success relies on its behavior, knowledge of behavior is essential in actively reversing the decline of imperiled wild species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of behavior can be used to reduce bycatch of fish species, reestablish breeding populations, or boost reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The state of a declining species can sometimes be reversed by augmenting reproduction through behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dobzhansky and his co-authors freely admitted: "Without doubt, the human mind sets our species apart from nonhuman animals" (1977, p. 453). (apologeticspress.org)
  • We show, for the first time, that sexual selection for acrobatic motor behaviour can drive brain size evolution in avian species and, in particular, a family of suboscine birds. (karger.com)
  • birds
  • Examples of collective animal behavior include: Flocking birds Herding ungulates Shoaling and schooling fish Swarming Antarctic krill Pods of dolphins Marching locusts Nest building ants Many functions of animal aggregations have been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • The book was published in 1996 by Harvard University Press under the full title Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary theory suggests that natural selection favors the evolution of cognitive abilities which allow humans to use facial cues to assess traits of others. (plos.org)
  • Evolutionary theory suggests that natural selection favors the evolution of cognitive abilities which allow humans to use facial and other somatic cues to assess traits of other people, such as sex, age, health, or aggressiveness - . (plos.org)
  • Critics of animal rights argue that nonhuman animals are unable to enter into a social contract, and thus cannot be possessors of rights, a view summed up by the philosopher Roger Scruton, who writes that only humans have duties, and therefore only humans have rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aristotle argued that animals lacked reason (logos), and placed humans at the top of the natural world, yet the respect for animals in ancient Greece was very high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rollin further states that the Biblical Sabbath requirement promulgated in the Ten Commandments "required that animals be granted a day of rest along with humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Against this, Aristotle (384-322 BCE), student to the philosopher Plato, argued that nonhuman animals had no interests of their own, ranking them far below humans in the Great Chain of Being. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding animal behavior can help limit the impact of humans on the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only are humans frequently coming into conflict with animals, but humans can also induce environmental stress on animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans can begin to mitigate these stresses by understanding behaviors, such as the effect tourists have on wildlife in reserves. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the studies have documented animals 'cheating' on their primary mates, and therefore excused humans for occasional flings outside marriage. (icr.org)
  • The differentiating factor of being able to rationalize thought and learn, distinguishes humans from animals, but does not exclude them from the laws of nature. (nyu.edu)
  • observational
  • A subset of social learning is observational learning in which a demonstrator influences the behavior of an observer such that the observer's behavior is altered in subsequent analogous situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In stimulus enhancement, emulation, observational conditioning, the observer learns the relationship between a stimulus and a result but does not directly copy the behavior of the experienced individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • These results should prove relevant for understanding the co-evolution of pursuit and evasion, as well as the development of computer models of predation and the integration of sensory and locomotion systems in biomimetic robots. (biologists.org)
  • How predators track and capture their prey poses a fundamental problem in animal behavior that combines sensory perception, neural computation and locomotion. (biologists.org)
  • rats
  • A well known example of unintentional opportunity providing is the transmission of feeding behavior in black rats (Rattus rattus). (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine how these food preferences developed, researchers provided naive adult black rats with fresh pine cones in captivity and observed their behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is consistent with opportunity providing because experienced individuals inadvertently provide naive rats with partially stripped cones that facilitate their learning without altering the experienced rats' behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • Behavioral manipulation can help mitigate some conflicts such as livestock depredation or agricultural destruction by repelling animals with strobe lights, sounds, aversive conditioning, or taste aversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • In parallel to the debate about moral rights, animal law is now widely taught in law schools in North America, and several prominent legal scholars[who? (wikipedia.org)
  • statistical
  • 1996. Resampling statistical methods in biology: a case study of beaver dispersal pattern. (cwu.edu)
  • Specifically, no player can make mere statistical assumptions about the behavior of the other players in order to decide on his own optimal strategy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • adult
  • However, the resource is sometimes non-food related or may be solicited by adult animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the evolution of density-dependent dispersal, emigration and immigration, in two scenarios: adult and natal dispersal. (springer.com)
  • laboratories
  • Certain forms of animal rights activism, such as the destruction of fur farms and animal laboratories by the Animal Liberation Front, have also attracted criticism, including from within the animal rights movement itself, as well as prompted reaction from the U.S. Congress with the enactment of laws allowing these activities to be prosecuted as terrorism, including the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISBN
  • Michael F. Braby (2004) The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia, Published by CSIRO Publishing, 339 pages ISBN 0-643-09027-4 Miron L. Heinselman (1996) The Boundary Waters Wilderness ecosystem, University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-2805-X C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • Draft of a Book Chapter published in The Social Brain - Evolution and Pathology , edited by Martin Brune, Hedda Ribbert & Wulf Schiefenhovel. (hedweb.com)
  • The following chapter will demonstrate how a human social evolution has been used to clarify and refine the diagnostic category of delusions. (hedweb.com)
  • Support for the social and genetic function of aggregations, especially those formed by fish, can be seen in several aspects of their behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approaches
  • While sequenced particularly to complement John Alcock's Animal Behavior , this readily comprehensible and richly illustrated reader can stand alone as a sampler of the excitement and diversity of research approaches and organisms that constitute the modern study of animal behavior. (ecampus.com)
  • Mate
  • Animal groups have been studied, and some have been noted to mate for life. (icr.org)
  • contributions
  • New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969 Lindzey, G. & Thiessen, D.D. (eds) Contributions to behavior-genetic analysis:The mouse as a prototype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theory
  • 1983). This theory states that groups of animals moving in a fluid environment may save energy when swimming or flying together, much in the way that bicyclists may draft one another in a peloton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory of games is a mathematical discipline designed to treat rigorously the question of optimal behavior of participants in games of strategy and to determine the resulting equilibria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In their Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, von Neumann and Morgen stern (1944) extended the theory, especially to games involving more than two players, and gave applications of the theory in economics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The theory of evolution glides of the problem of how the process of life and subsequent evolution began. (nyu.edu)
  • prey
  • Some lizards and snakes exhibit strike-induced chemosensory searching behavior as a means of relocating bitten and envenomated prey by scent-trailing. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • For example, understanding how proximate processes affect survival can help biologist train captive-reared animals to recognize predators post-release. (wikipedia.org)
  • situations
  • rather, it attempts to determine what "rational" can mean when an individual is confronted with the problem of optimal behavior in games and equivalent situations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • often
  • As an ethologist specialized in primatology, I naturally turn most often to the order of animals to which we ourselves belong. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the egg is removed from the goose during the performance of egg-rolling, the bird often continues with the behavior, pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the underside of its beak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because management is often a component of conservation strategies, incorporating knowledge of animal behavior into wildlife management has potential for improving the outcomes of conservation projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • conservation
  • Although the wild population is in decline because of predation by feral animals and habitat loss caused by human agricultural development, the numbers of iguanas have been bolstered as a result of captive-breeding and other conservation programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conservation behavior is aimed at applying an understanding of animal behavior to solve problems in the field of conservation biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of studies have shown that animal behavior can be an important consideration during conservation projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, ignorance of animal behavior in conservation projects may lead to their failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent calls for stronger integration of behavior and physiology to advance conservation science emphasize the growing recognition that when studying animals in nature it is impossible to decouple behavior and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behaviour
  • Animal Behaviour, 64:807-815. (amnh.org)
  • Another example of a behaviour that has been described as a FAP is the egg-retrieval behavior of the graylag goose, reported in classic studies by Niko Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. (wikipedia.org)
  • By examining brain evolution in relation to extreme acrobatic feats such as manakin displays, we can vastly expand our knowledge of how sexual selection acts on motor behaviour. (karger.com)
  • Study
  • This ability was demonstrated by Pitcher and others in their study of foraging behavior in shoaling cyprinids. (wikipedia.org)
  • One seminal study with guppies (Poecilia reticulata) demonstrated how local enhancement influenced foraging behavior. (wikipedia.org)