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  • 1985
  • During 17 years (till 1985) he pursued an academic career at the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), attaining positions as full professor of virology and chairman of its Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Around the end of 1970s Esparza became involved in studies of various aspects of this zoonotic disease using both mosquito-cell cultures of the virus as well as an in-vivo experimental rat-model of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Contrary to Ebola virus disease (EVD), which has been associated with heavy rains after long periods of dry weather, triggering factors for spillover of marburgviruses into the human population have not yet been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Creating live attenuated vaccines normally involves deleting genes that protect the virus against the immune system, but which are not essential for its reproduction. (aidsmap.com)
  • protein
  • The srf-3 mutant emphasizes the relationship between the role of cholesterol in membrane fusion and virus exit, and most significantly, identifies a novel spike protein region involved in the virus cholesterol requirement. (rupress.org)
  • particles
  • Using different techniques, including plaque assay, flow cytometry analysis, nested RT-PCR, and confocal microscope and electron microscope examinations, we show that DV can enter cultured human DC and produce virus particles. (jimmunol.org)
  • interactions
  • Elucidating novel hepatitis C virus-host interactions using combined mass spectrometry and functional genomics approaches. (abcam.com)
  • epidemic
  • It could also be used to determine the epidemic potential of a VEE virus following an intentional introduction for bioterrorism. (ajtmh.org)
  • symptoms
  • Healthy adults who become infected by the virus may experience flu-like symptoms, such as high fevers and headaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • These defective viruses are harmless to people, but stimulate the body to produce an immune response. (aidsmap.com)
  • human
  • The virus that causes VEE is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes that bite an infected animal and then bite and feed on another animal or human. (wikipedia.org)
  • These forms of the virus can cause human illness but generally do not affect equine health. (wikipedia.org)
  • These forms of the virus are highly pathogenic to equines and can also affect human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • This outbreak resulted in 14,156 human cases that were attributable to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus with 26 human deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marburg virus disease (MVD) is the official name listed in the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10) for the human disease caused by any of the two marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • disease
  • The speed with which the disease spreads depends on the subtype of the VEE virus and the density of mosquito populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equines, rather than rodents, are the primary animal species that carry and spread the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • There are a number of chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria and viruses), and physical agents (such as radiation) used in a variety of workplaces that are known to cause developmental disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Importantly, not only the activation of CD8 + T lymphocytes but also the level of cytokines and the production of viruses, compared with those in DF patients, are significantly higher in DHF patients ( 7 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • different
  • Serology testing performed on this virus has shown the presence of six different subtypes (classified I to VI). (wikipedia.org)
  • formerly
  • Analyzed DENV-1 Colombian isolates belonged to the formerly defined genotype V. Only one virus isolate was clasified in the genotype I, likely representing a sole introduction that did not spread. (biomedcentral.com)
  • person
  • The worldwide prevalence is extremely high and the virus is easily passed from person to person through the fecal-oral route. (followtheshadow.com)
  • primarily
  • The virus that causes VEE is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes that bite an infected animal and then bite and feed on another animal or human. (rapeutation.com)
  • various
  • In this review article, we discuss how the complement system recognizes and neutralizes various viruses and consequently how viruses subvert the complement assaults. (frontiersin.org)