• Brucella
  • The facility was one of the first in Peru to be able to work with BSL-3 agents such as Brucella melitensis, Yersinia pestis and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of its 27-year history, the program weaponized and stockpiled the following seven bio-agents (and pursued basic research on many more): Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Brucella spp (brucellosis) Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever) Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) Botulinum toxin (botulism) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Throughout its history, the U.S. bioweapons program was secret. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1985
  • During 17 years (till 1985) he pursued an academic career at the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), attaining positions as full professor of virology and chairman of its Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Contrary to Ebola virus disease (EVD), which has been associated with heavy rains after long periods of dry weather, triggering factors for spillover of marburgviruses into the human population have not yet been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Using different techniques, including plaque assay, flow cytometry analysis, nested RT-PCR, and confocal microscope and electron microscope examinations, we show that DV can enter cultured human DC and produce virus particles. (jimmunol.org)
  • biological
  • For example, smallpox virus would not be considered a useful biological weapon against a population universally immunized with vaccinia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Biological weapons (often termed "bio-weapons", "biological threat agents", or "bio-agents") are living organisms or replicating entities (viruses, which are not universally considered "alive") that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among
  • It is not clear, however, whether the smallpox was a result of the Fort Pitt incident or the virus was already present among the Delaware people. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The srf-3 mutant emphasizes the relationship between the role of cholesterol in membrane fusion and virus exit, and most significantly, identifies a novel spike protein region involved in the virus cholesterol requirement. (rupress.org)
  • cellular
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • significantly
  • Importantly, not only the activation of CD8 + T lymphocytes but also the level of cytokines and the production of viruses, compared with those in DF patients, are significantly higher in DHF patients ( 7 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • disease
  • The speed with which the disease spreads depends on the subtype of the VEE virus and the density of mosquito populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equines, rather than rodents, are the primary animal species that carry and spread the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vaccine's aim would be to ameliorate disease course and reduce virus transmission. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Around the end of 1970s Esparza became involved in studies of various aspects of this zoonotic disease using both mosquito-cell cultures of the virus as well as an in-vivo experimental rat-model of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Serology testing performed on this virus has shown the presence of six different subtypes (classified I to VI). (wikipedia.org)
  • fusion
  • Membrane fusion and budding are key steps in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (rupress.org)