• expression
  • 13 Peptic ulcer disease has been suggested to be associated with H pylori expression of Le x /Le y , and an association between cagA gene and expression of Le x /Le y has also been reported. (bmj.com)
  • Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, cell cycle kinetics and gene expression of Bauhinia holophylla (Bong. (springer.com)
  • This study evaluated the phytochemical properties, cytotoxic, apoptotic, mutagenic/antimutagenic effects and alterations in gene expression (RNAm) in HepG2 cells treated with the B. holophylla extract. (springer.com)
  • Isoforms are defined as highly related gene products that perform, in essence, similar biological functions, with variations existing between the isoforms in terms of biological activity, regulatory properties, temporal and spatial expression, and/or the intercellular location. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • Although substantial differences between alternative exons from the same gene have been revealed by sequence comparison (1a and 1b, 6a and 6b, and the exon 9s), most exons are, however, highly conserved between the different genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a single copy gene spanning over 1500 bases and is in two exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABO gene contains seven exons and a 1062 base pair (bp) sequence codes for a glycosyltransferase, of which the A 1 [Aallele (usually described as the consensus allele) product adds a monosaccharide ( N -acetyl-α-D-galactosamine) to a specific acceptor glycoconjugate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • These changes facilitate the recruitment of specific adapter proteins such as the insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS) in addition to SH2-B (Src Homology 2 - B ), APS and protein phosphatases, such as PTP1B, eventually promoting downstream processes involving blood glucose homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In direct contrast of the 'one gene, one polypeptide' rule, we now know from a combination of genomic sequencing, such as the Human Genome Project and EST data of expressed proteins that many eukaryotes produce a range of proteins from a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This plays a crucial role in the functionality of higher eukaryotes, with humans expressing more than 5 times as many different proteins (isoforms) through alternative splicing than they have genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • From an evolutionary point of view, tropomyosins in higher eukaryotes are notable in retaining all 4 of the potential genes produced by the dual genomic duplication event that took place in early eukaryotic evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Evidence supports a genetic link between the Kell blood group (on chromosome 7 q33) and the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide, or PTC, a bitter-tasting thiourea compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus, 'for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development. (livescience.com)
  • Hammond proudly touts InGen's advances in genetic engineering and shows his guests through the island's vast array of automated systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene-centered view of evolution rose to prominence in the 1960s, followed by the neutral theory of molecular evolution, sparking debates over adaptationism, the unit of selection, and the relative importance of genetic drift versus natural selection as causes of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • A comparative study of this gene in seven mammalian species revealed significant differences between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Biochemically, the insulin receptor is encoded by a single gene INSR, from which alternate splicing during transcription results in either IR-A or IR-B isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tropomyosins are often categorised into two groups, muscle tropomyosin isoforms and nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contractile system relies upon 4 actin filament isoforms and 5 tropomyosin isoforms, whereas the actin filament system of the cytoskeleton uses two actin filament isoforms and over 40 tropomyosin isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within mammals, four genes are responsible for generating more than 40 different tropomyosin isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoforms are produced by two distinct mechanisms, gene duplication and alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vast array of tropomyosin isoforms are generated by using a combination of different genes and alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • unequal
  • The former mechanism is a process by which multiple copies of a gene are generated through unequal crossing over, through tandem duplication, or by translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The Wright group was eventually identified as a single point mutation on the SLC4A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, two groups exhibit large concentrations of the Q-M242 mutation, the Ket (93.8%) and the Selkup (66.4%) peoples. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is still transcribed in non erythroid cells in the presence of this mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • In the late 20th-century, DNA sequencing led to molecular phylogenetics and the reorganization of the tree of life into the three-domain system by Carl Woese. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Dib is common or ubiquitous in all populations which have been screened for it, while Dia has been found only in Indigenous peoples of the Americas (in both North and South America) and East Asians, and in people with some ancestors from those groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND Studies in Western populations suggest that cagA, iceA, and vacA gene status in Helicobacter pylori isolates is associated with increased virulence and peptic ulcer disease. (bmj.com)
  • The A and B genes are co-dominant, so individuals can be phenotyped as A, B, AB or O. A common dimorphism in some populations leads to the division of blood group A into A 1 and A 2 , the latter showing weaker antigenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • exon
  • In mammals, regardless of the gene, transcription is initiated at the start of either exon 1a or exon 1b. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most highly related genes are the α- and γ-genes, utilizing two promoters and differing only with the presence of the unique 2a exon in the α-gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exon and Domain Evolution in the Proenzymes of Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. (antievolution.org)
  • mechanisms
  • An ideal system for studying mechanisms underlying the development of cortical topographic maps is the system of callosal connections in primary visual cortex (VI, área 17, striate cortex, Fig. 1 ). (scielo.cl)
  • Olavarría and Li (1995) proposed that bilateral projections from temporal retina relay synchronous activity to retinotopically corresponding points in both hemispheres, leading to the stabilization of non mirror-symmetric interhemispheric connections through Hebbian-like (Hebb, 1949) mechanisms ( Fig. 1A ). (scielo.cl)
  • Individuals
  • Thus, individuals with the Le gene but no Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively-adsorbed Le(a) but no Le(b). (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with both the Le gene and the Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively adsorbed Le(b) and no Le(a). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood samples from five individuals living in Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden and the USA were analysed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • Type 2 is found exclusively on the surface of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the formation of anti-K, subsequent blood transfusions may be marked by destruction of the new cells by these antibodies, a process known as hemolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibodies lead to destruction of the red blood cells with resulting anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, a pregnant woman may develop antibodies against fetal red blood cells, resulting in destruction, anemia, and hydrops fetalis in a process known as hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cells from the father reacted strongly to blood serum from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that while the organizer is the dorsal lip the blastopore, this is not one set of cells but rather is a constantly changing group of cells that are migrating over the dorsal lip of the blastopore by forming apically constricted bottle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the innate system recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way, but, unlike the adaptive immune system, the system does not provide long-lasting immunity to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines produced by macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system mediate the inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • The innate immune system is an evolutionarily older defense strategy, and is the dominant immune system found in plants, fungi, insects, and primitive multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection or irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophils then trigger other parts of the immune system by releasing factors that summon additional leukocytes and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am now just on a protocol of vitamin supplements and I get acupuncture, which has helped my immune system as well as the joint problems. (dadamo.com)
  • Your clinical situation supplants the long- range recommendations for your blood type, which is to avoid long-term zinc administration as its cummulative effects are suppressive on the immune system rather than augmentative. (dadamo.com)
  • type
  • Rh and ABO blood type mismatches were soon ruled out, and investigators began searching for a rare blood factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare blood types known at the time were eliminated, and the new type was classified as a "private" or "family" blood type. (wikipedia.org)
  • If so can the problem be reversed by correct eating for my blood type? (dadamo.com)
  • Structure
  • Although the precise binding mechanism of IR and its ligand has not yet been elucidated structurally, as identified using a systems biology approach, biologically relevant prediction of the IR-ligand kinetics (insulin/IGF-I) has been identified in the context of the currently available IR ectodomain structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of structure, the genes are very similar, suggesting that they arose through gene duplication of an ancestral gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution and structure of the fibrinogen genes: Random insertion on introns or selective loss? (antievolution.org)