• exons
  • It is a single copy gene spanning over 1500 bases and is in two exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although substantial differences between alternative exons from the same gene have been revealed by sequence comparison (1a and 1b, 6a and 6b, and the exon 9s), most exons are, however, highly conserved between the different genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABO gene contains seven exons and a 1062 base pair (bp) sequence codes for a glycosyltransferase, of which the A 1 [Aallele (usually described as the consensus allele) product adds a monosaccharide ( N -acetyl-α-D-galactosamine) to a specific acceptor glycoconjugate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • These changes facilitate the recruitment of specific adapter proteins such as the insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS) in addition to SH2-B (Src Homology 2 - B ), APS and protein phosphatases, such as PTP1B, eventually promoting downstream processes involving blood glucose homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In direct contrast of the 'one gene, one polypeptide' rule, we now know from a combination of genomic sequencing, such as the Human Genome Project and EST data of expressed proteins that many eukaryotes produce a range of proteins from a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This plays a crucial role in the functionality of higher eukaryotes, with humans expressing more than 5 times as many different proteins (isoforms) through alternative splicing than they have genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • From an evolutionary point of view, tropomyosins in higher eukaryotes are notable in retaining all 4 of the potential genes produced by the dual genomic duplication event that took place in early eukaryotic evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene can modulate risk of nephropathy due to hyperglycemia, and the II genotype (producing low plasma ACE concentrations and probably reduced renal angiotensin II generation and kinin inactivation) may protect against diabetic nephropathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 5 The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene was tested for its association with diabetic nephropathy for several reasons. (ahajournals.org)
  • expression
  • Isoforms are defined as highly related gene products that perform, in essence, similar biological functions, with variations existing between the isoforms in terms of biological activity, regulatory properties, temporal and spatial expression, and/or the intercellular location. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Evidence supports a genetic link between the Kell blood group (on chromosome 7 q33) and the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide, or PTC, a bitter-tasting thiourea compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hammond proudly touts InGen's advances in genetic engineering and shows his guests through the island's vast array of automated systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus, 'for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development. (livescience.com)
  • The gene-centered view of evolution rose to prominence in the 1960s, followed by the neutral theory of molecular evolution, sparking debates over adaptationism, the unit of selection, and the relative importance of genetic drift versus natural selection as causes of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 9 Second, an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene accounts for much of the interindividual difference in plasma ACE 10 and therefore provides a physiological basis for a genetic susceptibility to glomerular lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • amino
  • The mouse ortholog has been cloned and exhibits 63% homology to the human gene at the amino acid level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several groups have suggested that these amino acids can aberrantly activate an important metabolic pathway involved in cellular growth or can somehow poison the mitochondria that provide cellular energy," says Robert Gerszten , MD, director of Clinical and Translational Research for the MGH Heart Center, the paper's senior author. (massgeneral.org)
  • isoforms
  • Biochemically, the insulin receptor is encoded by a single gene INSR, from which alternate splicing during transcription results in either IR-A or IR-B isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tropomyosins are often categorised into two groups, muscle tropomyosin isoforms and nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contractile system relies upon 4 actin filament isoforms and 5 tropomyosin isoforms, whereas the actin filament system of the cytoskeleton uses two actin filament isoforms and over 40 tropomyosin isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within mammals, four genes are responsible for generating more than 40 different tropomyosin isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoforms are produced by two distinct mechanisms, gene duplication and alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vast array of tropomyosin isoforms are generated by using a combination of different genes and alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the innate system recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way, but, unlike the adaptive immune system, the system does not provide long-lasting immunity to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The innate immune system is an evolutionarily older defense strategy, and is the dominant immune system found in plants, fungi, insects, and primitive multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection or irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophils then trigger other parts of the immune system by releasing factors that summon additional leukocytes and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines produced by macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system mediate the inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to clear pathogens or mark them for destruction by other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am now just on a protocol of vitamin supplements and I get acupuncture, which has helped my immune system as well as the joint problems. (dadamo.com)
  • Your clinical situation supplants the long- range recommendations for your blood type, which is to avoid long-term zinc administration as its cummulative effects are suppressive on the immune system rather than augmentative. (dadamo.com)
  • Ion Channels in the Immune System. (uci.edu)
  • As an Assistant Professor, I decided to work on cells of the immune system, originally from my own blood, using a home-built patch-clamp rig to record from small single cells. (uci.edu)
  • 1. Functional network of ion channels in cells of the immune system. (uci.edu)
  • We were the first to show that ion channels also contribute to immune system function. (uci.edu)
  • glucose
  • Since the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes marks the culmination of a years-long breakdown of the body's system for metabolizing glucose, the ability to detect that breakdown at a stage when lifestyle changes could halt the process may significantly reduce the incidence of the disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • Using the baseline blood samples, the research team measured levels of 61 metabolites in 189 participants who later developed diabetes and 189 others - matched for age, sex and diabetes risk factors such as obesity and fasting glucose levels - who remained diabetes free. (massgeneral.org)
  • however, type 1 diabetics do not all run the same risk of diabetic nephropathy, regardless of their blood glucose control. (ahajournals.org)
  • In experimental diabetes, high blood glucose causes high intraglomerular hydraulic pressure, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal plasma flow, 7 just as in type 1 diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • unequal
  • The former mechanism is a process by which multiple copies of a gene are generated through unequal crossing over, through tandem duplication, or by translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • The Wright group was eventually identified as a single point mutation on the SLC4A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, two groups exhibit large concentrations of the Q-M242 mutation, the Ket (93.8%) and the Selkup (66.4%) peoples. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is still transcribed in non erythroid cells in the presence of this mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • intron
  • ABO blood grouping discrepancies were investigated serologically and by ABO genotyping [duplex polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) - restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR - allele-specific-primer (ASP) across intron and DNA sequencing of the ABO gene and its proposed regulatory elements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • type
  • Type 2 is found exclusively on the surface of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rh and ABO blood type mismatches were soon ruled out, and investigators began searching for a rare blood factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare blood types known at the time were eliminated, and the new type was classified as a "private" or "family" blood type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethnic cleansing are not technically genocide unless there is an expressed intent to destroy in whole or in part the ethnic groups that is being expelled, though some may argue land is heavily tied to national identity and thus separating an ethnic group from its historical home land may constitute a type of cultural genocide. (wikipedia.org)
  • If so can the problem be reversed by correct eating for my blood type? (dadamo.com)
  • Measuring the levels of small molecules in the blood may be able to identify individuals at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes as much as a decade before symptoms of the disorder appear. (massgeneral.org)
  • Out of 2,400 study participants who entered the study in 1991 and 1995, about 200 developed type 2 diabetes during the following 12 years. (massgeneral.org)
  • 3 10 As high urinary albumin excretion reflects changes in glomerular structure in type 1 diabetics, 15 which can affect renal hemodynamics, all the type 1 diabetics studied had normal blood pressure and albumin excretion. (ahajournals.org)
  • A group of 416 subjects (209 men and 207 women) were eligible for the study from the 696 type 1 diabetics who attended the Adult Diabetic Clinic in Angers University Hospital (France) during 1995. (ahajournals.org)
  • Individuals
  • Thus, individuals with the Le gene but no Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively-adsorbed Le(a) but no Le(b). (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with both the Le gene and the Se gene will have red blood cells bearing only the passively adsorbed Le(b) and no Le(a). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood samples from five individuals living in Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden and the USA were analysed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The A and B genes are co-dominant, so individuals can be phenotyped as A, B, AB or O. A common dimorphism in some populations leads to the division of blood group A into A 1 and A 2 , the latter showing weaker antigenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular
  • In the late 20th-century, DNA sequencing led to molecular phylogenetics and the reorganization of the tree of life into the three-domain system by Carl Woese. (wikipedia.org)
  • exon
  • The most highly related genes are the α- and γ-genes, utilizing two promoters and differing only with the presence of the unique 2a exon in the α-gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exon and Domain Evolution in the Proenzymes of Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. (antievolution.org)
  • mechanisms
  • An ideal system for studying mechanisms underlying the development of cortical topographic maps is the system of callosal connections in primary visual cortex (VI, área 17, striate cortex, Fig. 1 ). (scielo.cl)
  • Olavarría and Li (1995) proposed that bilateral projections from temporal retina relay synchronous activity to retinotopically corresponding points in both hemispheres, leading to the stabilization of non mirror-symmetric interhemispheric connections through Hebbian-like (Hebb, 1949) mechanisms ( Fig. 1A ). (scielo.cl)
  • Authors invoked a variety of mechanisms for superluminal travel (or generation starships) and placed their stories on worlds in planetary systems around other stars, an innovation that gave them the freedom to construct exotic fictional planets and themes. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • 11 This hypothesis would explain the very modest blood pressure (BP) elevation noted with premenopausal contraceptive estrogen administration 2 and its absence and even BP reduction noted in some postmenopausal women receiving ERT. (ahajournals.org)
  • pathways
  • The actin filament system that is involved in regulating these cellular pathways is more complex than the actin filament systems that regulates muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Following the formation of anti-K, subsequent blood transfusions may be marked by destruction of the new cells by these antibodies, a process known as hemolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibodies lead to destruction of the red blood cells with resulting anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, a pregnant woman may develop antibodies against fetal red blood cells, resulting in destruction, anemia, and hydrops fetalis in a process known as hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cells from the father reacted strongly to blood serum from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that while the organizer is the dorsal lip the blastopore, this is not one set of cells but rather is a constantly changing group of cells that are migrating over the dorsal lip of the blastopore by forming apically constricted bottle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • His single-cell imaging experiments decoded the intracellular calcium signaling requirements for gene transcriptional activation and cell motility in lymphocytes. (uci.edu)
  • responses
  • In vivo imaging approaches, in combination with targeted gene deletion and specific pharmacological agents, are continuing to revealing important insights into the choreography of immune responses in vivo. (uci.edu)
  • populations
  • Dib is common or ubiquitous in all populations which have been screened for it, while Dia has been found only in Indigenous peoples of the Americas (in both North and South America) and East Asians, and in people with some ancestors from those groups. (wikipedia.org)