• ARDS
  • 1 2 Despite vigorous researches on pharmacological treatment and ventilator strategy in recent decades, ARDS with profound hypoxaemia continues to be associated with high mortality rate. (hkmj.org)
  • 1. What 's New in CriticalCare of the Burn - InjuredPatient?Tina L. Palmieri, MD, FACS, FCCMa,b,* KEYWORDS Burns Sepsis Inhalation injury Critical care Glycemic controlMortality after burn injury has decreased markedly (ARDS).4 The risk for mortality from ALI and ARDSin the past 30 years. (slideshare.net)
  • Amato MBP, Barbas CSV, Medeiros DM, et al (1995) Beneficial effects of the "open lung approach" with low distending pressures in ARDS: A prospective randomized study on mechanical ventilation. (springer.com)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hallmark of ARDS is diffuse injury to cells which form the barrier of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs, surfactant dysfunction, activation of the innate immune system response, and dysfunction of the body's regulation of clotting and bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In effect, ARDS impairs the lungs' ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood across a thin layer of the lungs' microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARDS may be seen in the setting of severe pulmonary (pneumonia) or systemic infection (sepsis), following trauma, multiple blood transfusions (TRALI), severe burns, severe inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), near-drowning or other aspiration events, drug reactions, or inhalation injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to generally broadening the diagnostic thresholds, other notable changes from the prior 1994 consensus criteria include discouraging the term "acute lung injury," and defining grades of ARDS severity according to degree of decrease in the oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, radiographic findings of fluid accumulation (pulmonary edema) affecting both lungs and unrelated to increased cardiopulmonary vascular pressure (such as in heart failure) may be suggestive of ARDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound findings suggestive of ARDS include the following: Anterior subpleural consolidations Absence or reduction of lung sliding "Spared areas" of normal parenchyma Pleural line abnormalities (irregular thickened fragmented pleural line) Nonhomogeneous distribution of B-lines (a characteristic ultrasound finding suggestive of fluid accumulation in the lungs) ARDS is a form of fluid accumulation in the lungs not explained by heart failure (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional common findings in ARDS include partial collapse of the lungs (atelectasis) and low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is clinically indistinguishable from acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the primary complications that presents in patients mechanically ventilated is acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • ARDS can also occur in adults as a result of many disorders or injuries [ 3 ] where the mortality rate is greater than 40% [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ), also known as respiratory distress syndrome ( RDS ) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS ) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • ARDS is a severe lung disease caused by a variety of direct and indirect insults. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • ARDS usually occurs within 24 to 48 hours of the initial injury or illness. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • ARDS is characterized by a diffuse inflammation of lung parenchyma. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • adult respirat
  • Pelosi P, D'Andrea L, Vitale G, Pesenti A, Gattinoni L (1994) Vertical gradient of regional lung inflation in adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Gattinoni L, Pelosi P, Crotti S, Valenza F (1995) Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on regional distribution of tidal volume and recruitment in adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Hickling KG, Walsh J, Henderson S, Jackson R (1994) Low mortality rate in adult respiratory distress syndrome using low-volume, pressure-limited ventilation with permissive hypercapnia: a prospective study. (springer.com)
  • Mclntyre RC, Haenel JV, Moore FA, Read RR, Burch JM, Moore EE (1994) Cardiopulmonary effects of permissive hypercapnia in the management of adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Gattinoni L, Bombino M, Pelosi P, et al (1994) Lung structure and function in different stages of severe adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Bachofen M, Weibel ER (1982) Structural alternations of lung parenchyma in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • alveoli
  • Protein-rich fluid is transmitted from the intravascular to the extravascular spaces andADVANCES IN VENTILATOR MANAGEMENT alveoli. (slideshare.net)
  • The hope is that the liquid will help the transport of oxygen to parts of the lung that are flooded and filled with debris, help remove this debris and open up more alveoli improving lung function. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The term ''acute these factors combine to result in airway damagelung injury'' (ALI) is used to designate the acute and alveolar collapse.onset of impaired oxygen exchange that results Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventila-from lung injury, and the condition is characterized tion are often necessary to support the patient whoby a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 300. (slideshare.net)
  • Current management uses intermittent positive pressure ventilation, but barotrauma, volutrauma and oxygen toxicity can prevent lung recovery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Cypridina luciferin analogue-dependent chemiluminescence (representing Oxygen 2 sup - production) by neutrophils isolated from the pulmonary artery and light-microscopic findings of the lung were compared among the four groups. (asahq.org)
  • Lidocaine effectively treats endotoxin-induced lung injury by attenuating Oxygen 2 sup - production by neutrophils, which is the final step of lung injury, without affecting the secretion of cytokines. (asahq.org)
  • compliance
  • Jonson B, Richard JC, Straus C, Mancebo J, Lemaire F, Brochard L (1999) Pressure-volume curves and compliance in acute lung injury: evidence of recruitment above the lower inflection point. (springer.com)
  • Alternatively, one can take a global approach to study the recruitment of airway networks to characterize lung compliance and examine inter-dependency between distant parts of the network. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Results: Endotoxin caused decreases in peripheral leukocyte and platelet counts, lung compliance, and Pa O 2 . (asahq.org)
  • The change in compliance, decrease in Pa O 2 , and albumin concentrations in BALF were slightly but significantly less in rabbits receiving lidocaine after injury. (asahq.org)
  • 2001
  • Glaister DH (2001) Effects of aceleration on the lung. (springer.com)
  • Tsubo T, Sakai I, Suzuki A, Okawa H, Ishihara H, Matsuki A (2001) Density detection in dependent left lung region using transesophageal echocardiography. (springer.com)
  • 1983
  • Menitove SM, Goldring RM (1983) Combined ventilator and bicarbonate strategy in the management of status asthmaticus. (springer.com)
  • volume
  • Mead J, Collier C (1959) Relationship of volume history of lungs to respiratory mechanics in anesthetised dogs. (springer.com)
  • This paper proposes a mathematical multiscale model for the mechanical ventilation of a network of occluded airways, where air is forced into the network at a fixed tidal volume, allowing investigation of optimal recruitment strategies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • After tracheal intubation, the lungs of each animal were ventilated with a tidal volume of 18 ml/kg using a volume-cycled ventilator (model 607, Harvard Apparatus, Natick, MA). (asahq.org)
  • Although total liquid ventilation (TLV) with completely liquid-filled lungs can be beneficial, the complex liquid-filled tube system required is a disadvantage compared to gas ventilation-the system must incorporate a membrane oxygenator, heater, and pumps to deliver to, and remove from the lungs tidal volume aliquots of conditioned perfluorocarbon (PFC). (wikipedia.org)
  • One research group led by Thomas H. Shaffer has maintained that with the use of microprocessors and new technology, it is possible to maintain better control of respiratory variables such as liquid functional residual capacity and tidal volume during TLV than with gas ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, partial liquid ventilation (PLV) is a technique in which a PFC is instilled into the lung to a volume approximating functional residual capacity (approximately 40% of total lung capacity). (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to correctly and effectively conduct PLV, it is essential to properly dose a patient to a specific lung volume (10-15 ml/kg) to recruit alveolar volume redose the lung with PFC liquid (1-2 ml/kg/h) to oppose PFC evaporation from the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • parenchyma
  • It is characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to impaired gas exchange with concomitant systemic release of inflammatory mediators causing inflammation, hypoxemia and frequently resulting in multiple organ failure. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Consensus
  • Note that the 2012 "Berlin criteria" are a modification of the prior 1994 consensus conference definitions (see history). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Shibata K, Cregg N, Engelberts D, Takeuchi A, Fedorko L, Kavanagh BP (1998) Hypercapnic acidosis may attenuate acute lung injury by inhibition of endogenous xanthine oxidase. (springer.com)
  • respiratory rate
  • The current study compares the effects of increased positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) versus an individually titrated respiratory rate (RRind) on intra-tidal amplitude of Δ paO2 and on average paO2 in saline-lavaged pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • phenomenon
  • Neutrophils and some T- lymphocytes quickly migrate into the inflamed lung parynchema and contribute in the amplification of the phenomenon. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • spontaneous
  • Although similar in modality, these terms describe how a mode is intended to inflate the lung, rather than defining the characteristics of synchronization or the way spontaneous breathing efforts are supported. (wikipedia.org)