• ARDS
  • 1 2 Despite vigorous researches on pharmacological treatment and ventilator strategy in recent decades, ARDS with profound hypoxaemia continues to be associated with high mortality rate. (hkmj.org)
  • 1. What 's New in CriticalCare of the Burn - InjuredPatient?Tina L. Palmieri, MD, FACS, FCCMa,b,* KEYWORDS Burns Sepsis Inhalation injury Critical care Glycemic controlMortality after burn injury has decreased markedly (ARDS).4 The risk for mortality from ALI and ARDSin the past 30 years. (slideshare.net)
  • Amato MBP, Barbas CSV, Medeiros DM, et al (1995) Beneficial effects of the "open lung approach" with low distending pressures in ARDS: A prospective randomized study on mechanical ventilation. (springer.com)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hallmark of ARDS is diffuse injury to cells which form the barrier of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs, surfactant dysfunction, activation of the innate immune system response, and dysfunction of the body's regulation of clotting and bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In effect, ARDS impairs the lungs' ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood across a thin layer of the lungs' microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to generally broadening the diagnostic thresholds, other notable changes from the prior 1994 consensus criteria include discouraging the term "acute lung injury," and defining grades of ARDS severity according to degree of decrease in the oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, radiographic findings of fluid accumulation (pulmonary edema) affecting both lungs and unrelated to increased cardiopulmonary vascular pressure (such as in heart failure) may be suggestive of ARDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound findings suggestive of ARDS include the following: Anterior subpleural consolidations Absence or reduction of lung sliding "Spared areas" of normal parenchyma Pleural line abnormalities (irregular thickened fragmented pleural line) Nonhomogeneous distribution of B-lines (a characteristic ultrasound finding suggestive of fluid accumulation in the lungs) ARDS is a form of fluid accumulation in the lungs not explained by heart failure (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional common findings in ARDS include partial collapse of the lungs (atelectasis) and low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is clinically indistinguishable from acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the primary complications that presents in patients mechanically ventilated is acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • ARDS can also occur in adults as a result of many disorders or injuries [ 3 ] where the mortality rate is greater than 40% [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ), also known as respiratory distress syndrome ( RDS ) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS ) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • ARDS is a severe lung disease caused by a variety of direct and indirect insults. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • ARDS usually occurs within 24 to 48 hours of the initial injury or illness. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • ARDS is characterized by a diffuse inflammation of lung parenchyma. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • 1995
  • Gattinoni L, Pelosi P, Crotti S, Valenza F (1995) Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on regional distribution of tidal volume and recruitment in adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Schuster DP (1995) What is acute lung injury? (springer.com)
  • Nahum A, Shapiro RS, Ravenscraft SA, Adams AB, Marini JJ (1995) Efficacy of expiratory tracheal gas insufflation in a canine model of lung injury. (springer.com)
  • Hypercapnia
  • Permissive hypercapnia (PH) is becoming a widely accepted strategy for decreasing ventilator-induced lung injury [1- (springer.com)
  • Its rationale is the assumption that transitory effects of hypercapnia are less deleterious than the lung damage produced by conventional attempts to keep a target PaCO 2 around 40 mmHg [13- (springer.com)
  • Hickling KG, Walsh J, Henderson S, Jackson R (1994) Low mortality rate in adult respiratory distress syndrome using low-volume, pressure-limited ventilation with permissive hypercapnia: a prospective study. (springer.com)
  • Feihl F, Perret C (1994) Permissive hypercapnia. (springer.com)
  • Tuxen DV (1994) Permissive hypercapnia. (springer.com)
  • Mclntyre RC, Haenel JV, Moore FA, Read RR, Burch JM, Moore EE (1994) Cardiopulmonary effects of permissive hypercapnia in the management of adult respiratory distress syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Simon RJ, Mawilmada S, Ivatury RR (1994) Hypercapnia: Is there a cause for concern? (springer.com)
  • Laffey JG, Jankov RP, Engelberts D, et al (2003) Effects of therapeutic hypercapnia on mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion injury. (springer.com)
  • Laffey JG, Tanaka M, Engelberts D, et al (2000) Therapeutic hypercapnia reduces pulmonary and systemic injury following in vivo lung reperfusion. (springer.com)
  • Kantores C, McNamara PJ, Teixeira L, et al (2006) Therapeutic hypercapnia prevents chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in the newborn rat. (springer.com)
  • spontaneous
  • Although similar in modality, these terms describe how a mode is intended to inflate the lung, rather than defining the characteristics of synchronization or the way spontaneous breathing efforts are supported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consensus
  • Note that the 2012 "Berlin criteria" are a modification of the prior 1994 consensus conference definitions (see history). (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • It is characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to impaired gas exchange with concomitant systemic release of inflammatory mediators causing inflammation, hypoxemia and frequently resulting in multiple organ failure. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Prolonged mechanical ventilation has the potential to aggravate or initiate pulmonary inflammation and cause lung damage through fibrin deposition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • complications
  • Today, patient-ventilator interaction is understood to be crucial, and there is a growing awareness of complications associated with neuromuscular blockade. (springer.com)
  • phenomenon
  • Neutrophils and some T- lymphocytes quickly migrate into the inflamed lung parynchema and contribute in the amplification of the phenomenon. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • PEEP
  • The current study compares the effects of increased positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) versus an individually titrated respiratory rate (RRind) on intra-tidal amplitude of Δ paO2 and on average paO2 in saline-lavaged pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • clinical
  • Many prototypes are used for animal experimentation, but experts recommend continued development of a liquid ventilator toward clinical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • volume
  • Low tidal volume (LVT) has proved to be an effective ventilation strategy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper proposes a mathematical multiscale model for the mechanical ventilation of a network of occluded airways, where air is forced into the network at a fixed tidal volume, allowing investigation of optimal recruitment strategies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although total liquid ventilation (TLV) with completely liquid-filled lungs can be beneficial, the complex liquid-filled tube system required is a disadvantage compared to gas ventilation-the system must incorporate a membrane oxygenator, heater, and pumps to deliver to, and remove from the lungs tidal volume aliquots of conditioned perfluorocarbon (PFC). (wikipedia.org)
  • One research group led by Thomas H. Shaffer has maintained that with the use of microprocessors and new technology, it is possible to maintain better control of respiratory variables such as liquid functional residual capacity and tidal volume during TLV than with gas ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to correctly and effectively conduct PLV, it is essential to properly dose a patient to a specific lung volume (10-15 ml/kg) to recruit alveolar volume redose the lung with PFC liquid (1-2 ml/kg/h) to oppose PFC evaporation from the lung. (wikipedia.org)