• PLA2
  • Chemotaxis toward different cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations was tested in Dictyostelium discoideum cell lines with deletion of specific genes together with drugs to inhibit one or all combinations of the second-messenger systems PI3-kinase, phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and cytosolic Ca 2+ . (rupress.org)
  • Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, E.C. 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes phospholipids, e.g. phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol into corresponding lysocompounds. (springer.com)
  • Taipoxin like many other pre-synaptic neurotoxins are phospholipase A2 (PLA2) toxins, which inhibit/complete block the release of the motor transmitter acetylcholine and lead to death by paralysis of the respiratory muscles (asphyxia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is important in many inflammatory processes as it catalyses the release of arachidonic acid, which could generate lipid mediators of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Data presented by Professor Nevalainen showing that acute pancreatitis is accompanied by an elevation in the serum concentration of type II-phospholipase A 2 protein provided convincing evidence of the usefulness of the latter method. (springer.com)
  • Albert, P R (1994) Heterologous expression of G protein-linked receptors in pituitary and fibroblast cell lines. (springer.com)
  • FOUR distinct types of phospholipase C (PLC) protein, β, γ, δ, and ϵ, are produced in mammals by a rather diverse family of more than 10 genes. (genetics.org)
  • We have demonstrated previously that protein kinase C α (PKC α ) plays a key role in regulating phospholipase D (PLD) activation by nucleotides and the phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is well documented that protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by increased levels of diacylglycerol (DG) in the membrane that is produced as a result of hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids (PI) by signal-induced activation of phospholipase C (PLC) (Nishizuka, 1992). (springer.com)
  • Akimoto K, Mizuno K, Osada S, Hirai S, Tanuma S, Suzuki K and Ohno S (1994) A new member of the third class in the protein kinase C family, PKCλ, expressed dominantly in an undifferentiated mouse embryonal cartinoma cell line and also in many tissues and cells. (springer.com)
  • Anthes JC, Wang P, Siegel MI, Egan RW and Billah MM (1991) Granulocyte phospholipase D is activated by a guanine nucleotide dependent protein factor. (springer.com)
  • Asaoka Y, Oka M, Yoshida K, Sasaki Y and Nishizuka Y (1992b) Role of lysophosphatidylcholine in T-lymphocyte activation: Involvement of phospholipase A 2 in signal transduction through protein kinase C. Proc. (springer.com)
  • Asaoka Y, Yoshida K, Sasaki Y and Nishizuka Y (1993) Potential role of phospholipase A 2 in HL-60 cell differentiation to macrophages induced by protein kinase C activation. (springer.com)
  • Brown HA, Gutowski S, Moomaw CR, Slaughter C and Sternweis PC (1993) ADP-ribosylation factor, a small GTP-dependent regulatory protein, stimulates phospholipase D activity. (springer.com)
  • Cockcroft S (1992) G-protein-regulated phospholipases D, D and A 2 -mediated signalling in neutrophils. (springer.com)
  • Phospholipase A-2-activating protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLAA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase D1 hydrolyzes the inositol phosphate linkage in proteins anchored by phosphatidylinositol glycans, thereby releasing the attached protein from the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional types of phospholipases include phospholipase A1, phospholipase B, phospholipase C, and phospholipase D. Phospholipases A2 include several unrelated protein families with common enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytosolic phospholipase A2 associates with natural membranes in response to physiological increases in Ca2+ and selectively hydrolyses arachidonyl phospholipids, the aligned region corresponds the carboxy-terminal Ca2+-independent catalytic domain of the protein as discussed in. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition of phospholipase
  • Pharmacological inhibition of inositol trisphosphate-induced Ca 2+ release (by inhibition of phospholipase C, of inositol trisphosphate receptors, and of the endoplasmic Ca 2+ -ATPase) prevented the UTP-dependent inhibition of M currents but failed to alter UTP-evoked [ 3 H]noradrenaline release. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ochnaflavone, a secondary plant secondary metabolite of the Biflavonoid family, has been widely investigated in past decades due to its unique ability to mediate biological activities, such as inhibition of phospholipase A2 and lymphocyte proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • The toxin exhibits a neurotoxic, excitatory activity toward neurons ( Lazarovici, 1994 ), induces contraction of guinea pig ileum ( Primor, 1986 ), hemolysis and reduction of blood pressure and is lethal to rats ( Primor and Lazarovici, 1981 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1995
  • The chemical was first described in 1994-1995, although it had been discovered some time before that. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-AG was a known chemical compound but its occurrence in mammals and its affinity for the cannabinoid receptors were first described in 1994-1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • A research group at Teikyo University reported the affinity of 2-AG for the cannabinoid receptors in 1994-1995, but the isolation of 2-AG in the canine gut was first reported in 1995 by the research group of Raphael Mechoulam at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which additionally characterized its pharmacological properties in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • inositol
  • Also, he and his colleagues identified inositol lipid degradation and phospholipase A2 activation in neural cell damage in experimental epilepsy and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • phospholipids
  • This particular phospholipase specifically recognizes the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids and catalytically hydrolyzes the bond releasing arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Chemoattractants applied as a gradient, such as cAMP with Dictyostelium discoideum or fMLP with neutrophils, induce the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase at the front of the cell, leading to the localized depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI[4, 2 ) and the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI[3,4, 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, the biochemical mechanism of activation of phospholipases D and A 2 remains largely unknown. (springer.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers activation of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) and then enhancing the synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) in inflammatory diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, mature homeothermic animals, vulnerable to relatively short periods of anoxia, rapidly accumulate arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid as a result of phospholipase A2 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his colleagues showed in 1979 that phospholipase A2 activation, which gives rise to brain free arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid upon stimulation, is related to neurotransmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolyzes
  • Phospholipase D's principal substrate is phosphatidylcholine, which it hydrolyzes to produce the signal molecule phosphatidic acid (PA), and soluble choline. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Both native and the synthetic Pardaxin selectively stimulated phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity (measured by [ 3 H]AA release) in the presence as well as in the absence of extracellular calcium. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The extracellular forms of phospholipases A2 have been isolated from different venoms (snake, bee, and wasp), from virtually every studied mammalian tissue (including pancreas and kidney) as well as from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) is typical of proteins that appeared at this time, containing several different modules that probably originated elsewhere. (genetics.org)
  • 1994). "Release of GPI-anchored membrane proteins by a cell-associated GPI-specific phospholipase D". EMBO J. 13 (7): 1741-51. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Uhl W., Büchler M., Nevalainen T.J., Deller A. and Beger H.G. Serum phospholipase A2 in patients with multiple injuries. (springer.com)
  • Oka Y., Ogawa M., Matsuda Y., Murata A., Nishijima J., Miyauchi K., Uda K., Yasuda T. and Mori T. Serum immunoreactive pancreatic phospholipase A2 in patients with various malignant tumours. (springer.com)
  • Nevalainen T.J., Kortesuo P.T., Rintala E. and Märki F. Immunochemical detection of group I and group II phospholipases A2 in human serum. (springer.com)
  • Ogawa M., Arakawa H., Yamashita S., Sakamoto K. and Ikei S. Postoperative elevations of serum interleukin 6 and group II phospholipase A2: group II phospholipase A2 in serum is an acute phase reactant. (springer.com)
  • Nevalainen T.J., Grönroos J.M. and Kortesuo P.T. Pancreatic and synovial-type phospholipase A2 in serum in severe acute pancreatitis. (springer.com)
  • physiological
  • More than half a century of biochemical studies have implicated phospholipase D and PA activity in a wide range of physiological processes and diseases, including inflammation, diabetes, phagocytosis, neuronal & cardiac signaling, and oncogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic
  • Eskola J.U., Nevalainen T.J. and Lövgren T.N.-E. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of human pancreatic phospholipase A2. (springer.com)
  • Santavuori S.A., Kortesuo P.T., Eskola J.U. and Nevalainen T.J. Application of a new monoclonal antibody for time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of human pancreatic phospholipase A2. (springer.com)
  • mediates
  • Strictly speaking, phospholipase D is a transphosphatidylase: it mediates the exchange of polar headgroups covalently attached to membrane-bound lipids. (wikipedia.org)