• genes
  • Intact heavy chain transgenes undergo CSR to all heavy chain genes and mutate their transgenic VDJ exon. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, we find that in B cells with a transgene lacking the 3′ enhancers, interchromosomal recombination between the transgenic VDJ exon and the endogenous heavy chain C genes is more easily detected than CSR within the transgene. (rupress.org)
  • The transgenic γ, ϵ, and α heavy chain genes undergo germline transcription and CSR with the same regulation as the endogenous genes. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by human peripheral blood CD4-8- alpha/beta T cells demonstrates preferential use of several V beta genes and an invariant TCR alpha chain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Complete nucleotide sequences for the alpha-1 heavy chain constant region and the allelic alpha-2 heavy chain regions were published in 1984, and showed the genes were contained in three exons, each of which encodes a single region of the protein domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. (amazonaws.com)
  • specificity
  • The heavy chain 3′ enhancers enhance transcription with a high level of B cell specificity and with substantial synergy among the four HS sites ( Cogne and Birshtein, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • antibody
  • Two light and two heavy chains are linked together by disulfide bonds to form a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role in immune function in the mucous membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. The antibody according to claim 2 , characterized in that it is in the form of single chain (scFv) comprising one variable region of the light chain covalently joined to one variable region of the heavy chain. (google.com)
  • 7. The antibody according to claim 4 characterized in that it comprises at least one of the sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, and 6 in combination with a sequence derived from an immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region. (google.com)
  • 13. The antibody according to claim 1 , characterized by the lambda chain being Vλ3/V2-14. (google.com)
  • 14. The antibody according to claim 1 , characterized by the kappa chain being Vκ4/DPK24. (google.com)
  • It consists of one alpha (FcεRIα - antibody binding site), one beta (FcεRIβ - which amplifies the downstream signal), and two gamma chains (FcεRIγ - the site where the downstream signal initiates) connected by two disulfide bridges. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:20176268, PubMed:22158414). (genecards.org)
  • sequence
  • II: the amino acid sequence of the H-chain (mu-type), subgroup H III. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the primary sequence was determined independently for the alpha-2 chain of the protein in 1979. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ig alpha-1 chain C region is contained on the first of the constant regions of IgA, and is composed of an amino acid sequence 353 residues long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin-like domains that are related in both sequence and structure can be found in several diverse protein families. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4 has four immunoglobulin-like domains in its extracellular region that share the same structure, but can differ in sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic mice
  • Using Cre-loxP recombination to delete a 28-kb region that contains the four known 3′ heavy chain enhancers, we isolated lines of BAC transgenic mice with an intact heavy chain locus and paired lines in the same chromosomal insertion site lacking the 3′ enhancers. (rupress.org)
  • isotypes
  • Transgenic CD4 cells exhibited a 10- 100-fold increase in IL-4 production on mitogen stimulation in vitro and in vivo, and baseline levels of the Th2-controlled serum immunoglobulin isotypes, IgE and IgG1, were also selectively elevated in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • antigen
  • The inter-chain disulfide bonds help bring together the two parts of the antigen binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. (genecards.org)
  • homology
  • Consequently, Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is recruited by Syk to the FcR γ-chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Compared to FcαRI with Ser248, FcαRI molecules with Gly248 are better able to signal for the release of IL-6, even independently from FcR γ-chain association. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pro-inflammatory response is signaled when IgA molecules in an immune complex bind to multiple FcαRI, resulting in the activation of Src family kinases and the phosphorylation of the FcR γ-chain ITAMs by Lyn. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 19. The article as in claim 14, wherein the binding partner comprises short polymer chains grafted on the nanowire surface, wherein the chains are selected form a group of polymers consisting of: polyamide, polyester, polyacrylic, polyimide. (freepatentsonline.com)