• C57BL
  • One early study showed that C57BL/10 strain melanocytes contributed more than BALB/c melanocytes to the coats of most chimaeras in a series of BALB/c↔C57BL/10 aggregation chimaeras ( Mullen and Whitten, 1971 ). (biologists.org)
  • BALB
  • It has been shown previously that BALB/c strain embryos tend to contribute poorly to mouse aggregation chimaeras. (biologists.org)
  • The development of BALB/c strain preimplantation embryos lagged behind embryos from some other strains and the contribution that BALB/c and other embryos made to chimaeras correlated with their developmental stage at E2.5. (biologists.org)
  • differences
  • Strain differences in LGN volume correlate moderately well with glial cell number ( r = 0.69) and less well with RGC number ( r = 0.35) and with LGN neuron number ( r = 0.32). (jneurosci.org)
  • Differences between studies are most likely due to differences in the populations studied - in terms of type of allergy, evolutionary stage of the disease, environment, genetic background - but also to the various probiotic used in terms of strain, dose, duration and time of administration in relation to the development of allergy, and finally the follow-up period [ 13 , 19 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • No consideration was given in that study 15 to potential differences in pressor responses to adenosine between the two strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • Homozygous
  • This strain is homozygous for Cdh23 ahl , the age related hearing loss 1 mutation, and ahl4, which on this background result in progressive hearing loss with onset between three and five months of age. (jax.org)
  • A strain characteristic of A/J is a late onset (four to five months) progressive muscular dystrophy as a result of a homozygous retrotransposon insertion in the dysferlin ( Dysf ) gene. (jax.org)
  • genes
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because diabetic symptoms vary greatly among strains, other genes seem to play important interacting roles as well. (physiology.org)
  • retina
  • We acquired matched counts of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in these strains and tested the precision of numerical matching between retina and LGN. (jneurosci.org)
  • among
  • The Chr 11 locus, neuron number control 1 ( Nnc1 ), accounts for one third of the genetic variance among BXH strains and more than half of that among BXD strains, but Nnc1 has no known effects on brain weight, eye weight, or total retinal cell number. (jneurosci.org)
  • colony
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rats inoculated with the endogenous rat retrovirus were significantly protected against the development of cancer, whereas uninoculated rats and rats given one of several murine retroviruses or baboon retrovirus were not protected. (worldwidescience.org)
  • genetic
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to T. cruzi infection in humans as well as mice may vary according to the genetic background of the host and the virulence of the parasite strain [ 23 , 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • several
  • Over the next 30 years rats were used for several more experiments and eventually the laboratory rat became the first animal domesticated for purely scientific reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two different strains of mice (AKR and NMRI-IVIC) were inoculated intraperitoneally with the virulent Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi , and then treated with the lysosomotropic ethidium bromide-DNA complex, according to several different treatment schedules. (ajtmh.org)
  • survival
  • for example, it has been suggested that albino alligators have an average survival span of only 24 hours due to the lack of protection from UV and their lack of camouflage to avoid predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • To model gene-by-environment interactions in a mouse model system, our group has generated an F 16 advanced intercross line (AIL) from the SM/J and LG/J inbred strains. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An examination in the F 16 sample of eight adiposity quantitative trait loci previously identified in an F 2 intercross of SM/J and LG/J mouse strains reveals locus-by-diet interactions for all previously mapped loci. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Crosses derived from the SM/J and LG/J mouse strains are particularly attractive for these types of studies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Biology
  • Examples of albino laboratory mammals Albinism in biology is the "Congenital absence of any pigmentation or coloration in a person, animal or plant, resulting in white hair and pink eyes in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • previously
  • However, since this S symbol has previously been used to designate the Dahl Salt Sensitive strain the symbol assigned to the strain is now: OXYS. (jax.org)
  • cells
  • Intensive transport of monosaccharides into the cells ( Salganik et al 1994 ). (jax.org)
  • high
  • Metabolites of 3 - methylcholanthrene (3-MC) formed by rat liver microsomes were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography. (worldwidescience.org)
  • color
  • Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Mice, rats, fish, amphibians and reptiles together account for over 85% of research animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have a special interest in the cold tolerance of FOK, a model animal of genotypic heat adaptation, and have used this strain to gather evidence for a further understanding of the thermal regulatory mechanisms of animals. (physiology.org)
  • wild
  • In 18th century Europe, wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Founder mice for the wild-derived strain Watkins Star Line B (WSB) were trapped in Eastern Shore, Maryland by Michael Potter (NCI) in 1976. (jax.org)
  • known
  • As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has long been known that the composition of chimaeras is affected by the strain combination, but the basis for this bias remains poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • early
  • Well characterized in the late 1960s and early 1970s, mice with ob and db mutations are obese and often diabetic depending on diet and strain background ( 13 , 14 , 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • Institute
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The strain was transferred from Dr. Jared Grantham, University of Kansas Medical Center to the Rat Resource and Research Center in 2002. (mcw.edu)