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  • genes
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because diabetic symptoms vary greatly among strains, other genes seem to play important interacting roles as well. (physiology.org)
  • 2002
  • The strain was transferred from Dr. Jared Grantham, University of Kansas Medical Center to the Rat Resource and Research Center in 2002. (mcw.edu)
  • Homozygous
  • This strain is homozygous for Cdh23 ahl , the age related hearing loss 1 mutation, and ahl4, which on this background result in progressive hearing loss with onset between three and five months of age. (jax.org)
  • A strain characteristic of A/J is a late onset (four to five months) progressive muscular dystrophy as a result of a homozygous retrotransposon insertion in the dysferlin ( Dysf ) gene. (jax.org)
  • QTLs
  • we suggested that much of the variation in retinal ganglion cell number in mice, and the striking bimodality of strain averages, are caused by one or two quantitative trait loci (QTLs). (jneurosci.org)
  • retina
  • We acquired matched counts of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in these strains and tested the precision of numerical matching between retina and LGN. (jneurosci.org)
  • among
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chr 11 locus, neuron number control 1 ( Nnc1 ), accounts for one third of the genetic variance among BXH strains and more than half of that among BXD strains, but Nnc1 has no known effects on brain weight, eye weight, or total retinal cell number. (jneurosci.org)
  • Even among closely related strains of inbred laboratory mice brain weight differs by as much as 13%, from 429 mg in C3H/HeJ to 490 mg in C3H/HeSnJ. (nervenet.org)
  • colony
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • In 1992, due to new findings, the S symbol was assigned to this strain. (jax.org)
  • differ
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Irrespective of the parameter considered, structural and functional deficits resulting from postnatal hyperoxia were significantly more pronounced in LE rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • statistical
  • Although FGF-2 levels in LE rats had a tendency to increase after hyperoxia compared with normoxic littermates, it did not reach statistical significance. (arvojournals.org)
  • survival
  • for example, it has been suggested that albino alligators have an average survival span of only 24 hours due to the lack of protection from UV and their lack of camouflage to avoid predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • previously
  • However, since this S symbol has previously been used to designate the Dahl Salt Sensitive strain the symbol assigned to the strain is now: OXYS. (jax.org)
  • animals
  • We have a special interest in the cold tolerance of FOK, a model animal of genotypic heat adaptation, and have used this strain to gather evidence for a further understanding of the thermal regulatory mechanisms of animals. (physiology.org)
  • Model
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • color
  • Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • true
  • It is only when a gerbil is c(-)c(-)pp or pseudo albino, that they have eyes that are a true pink, and these are distinctly lighter than a ruby eyed individual. (egerbil.com)
  • common
  • As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild
  • In 18th century Europe, wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Founder mice for the wild-derived strain Watkins Star Line B (WSB) were trapped in Eastern Shore, Maryland by Michael Potter (NCI) in 1976. (jax.org)
  • jumping mice
  • These include the squirrel - which includes the groundhog - ( Sciuridae ), beaver ( Castoridae ), porcupine ( Erethizontidae ), mice, rat and vole ( Muridae ), and jumping mice ( Zapodidae ) families. (bobpickett.org)
  • protein
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Cat geneticists once thought that it was caused by a recessive albino allele (gene form) of the Full Colour gene, but this is no longer the case. (blogspot.com.ar)
  • levels
  • Although FGF-2 levels in LE rats had a tendency to increase after hyperoxia compared with normoxic littermates, it did not reach statistical significance. (arvojournals.org)
  • Of interest, however, baseline levels of FGF-2 were approximately four to five times higher in SD rats than in LE rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • There was a similar, hyperoxia-induced increase in CNTF levels between SD and LE rats. (arvojournals.org)
  • five
  • This strain is homozygous for Cdh23 ahl , the age related hearing loss 1 mutation, and ahl4, which on this background result in progressive hearing loss with onset between three and five months of age. (jax.org)