• inflammatory
  • The type I receptor is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) while type II receptors may act as a suppressor of IL-1 activity by competing for IL-1 binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • His team demonstrated in 2005 that the chemokine receptor D6 acts as a decoy and scavenger receptor for inflammatory chemokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect has been predominantly attributed to the repression of key inflammatory transcription factors, including AP-1 and NF-κB, and is termed transrepression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In recent years, interleukin-13 (IL-13) has received much attention because it has been found to play a major role in malignancies and inflammatory diseases including pulmonary asthma ( 4 -7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hence prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been suggested to protect neuronal cells in a variety of pathophysiological situations including Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke. (cogprints.org)
  • Further, these experiments suggest that a combination of aspirin with ascorbic acid constitutes a novel approach to render COX-2 more sensitive to inhibition by aspirin, allowing an anti-inflammatory therapy with lower doses of aspirin, thereby avoiding the side effects of the usually high dose aspirin treatment. (cogprints.org)
  • Targeting IL-1 in inflammatory disease: new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. (cogprints.org)
  • IL1Ra is secreted by various types of cells including immune cells, epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and is a natural inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory effect of IL1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein inhibits the activities of interleukin 1, alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), and modulates a variety of interleukin 1 related immune and inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these cell types is found in acute and chronic inflammatory sites in association with expression of E-selectin, thus implicating E-selectin in the recruitment of these cells to such inflammatory sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once, in the nucleus, STAT6 heterodimer molecule regulates gene expression of cell types critical to the balance between host immune defense and allergic inflammatory responses such as the development of Th2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of severe trauma, an overwhelming, systemic inflammatory response can result in additional multi-organ damage to the host cells and the development of multi-organ failure (MOF) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The inflammatory response after severe trauma correlates with the severity of injury and is associated with mortality and the development of complications, such as MOF or sepsis [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1994, the "danger theory" of the inflammatory response following trauma or infection has been introduced and has meanwhile significantly broadened our understanding of the immune response [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As unique features, HMGB1, IL-1 α , and IL-33 exert dual functions as intracellular transcription factors and as extracellular inflammatory mediators. (hindawi.com)
  • Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a syndrome in which chronic asthma is accompanied by nonallergic hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), leading to acute bronchoconstriction and exacerbation of other lower and upper airway symptoms [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The ability of classical NSAIDs to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes, particularly COX-1, is implicated in these acute exacerbations [ 3 ], but it is not known how they activate mast cells, eosinophils, macrophages, epithelium, and other cells to release a range of inflammatory mediators in susceptible subjects. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It binds IL1A and IL1B and inhibits their binding to IL1R1, deterring the inflammatory response which is generally promoted by the binding of type 1 interleukins to interleukin receptor 1 type I. Also known as TNFRSF6, the DcR3 receptor is found primarily in human malignant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elicitation of different TLRs/IL-1Rs results in similar signaling cascades due to their homologous TIR motif leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, which initiates a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and AP-1-dependent transcriptional response of pro-inflammatory genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • He was the first to identify monocyte chemotactic protein - 1 / CCL2 in 1983, and PTX3 in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, MyD88 was identified as the cytosolic protein that recruits IRAKs to the cytosolic domains of IL-1 receptors, mediating IL-1's signal transduction to the cytsolic signal cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997). "The IL-9 receptor gene, located in the Xq/Yq pseudoautosomal region, has an autosomal origin, escapes X inactivation and is expressed from the Y". Hum. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • This includes integral membrane proteins, that is, proteins that completely traverse the lipid bilayer sometimes more than once such as membrane receptors, as well as peripheral membrane proteins such as the guanosine-triphosphate (GTP) binding protein ("G-protein") subunits and cell-cell recognition molecules such as LFA-2 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-2), which are only associated with the membrane and do not traverse it. (springer.com)
  • 2002
  • It is estimated that in the year 2002 alone, 205,000 new patients (including 1,500 male) were diagnosed in the United States and about 40,000 patients died from this disease ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2015. Ashkenazi, Avi (1 June 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • In Th1 cells, IL-12 signaling through the IL12 receptor leads to the phosphorylation of STAT4 and continued Th1 differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to NSAIDs is postulated to shunt the shared substrate arachidonic acid from the prostaglandin (cyclooxygenase) pathway to the leukotriene (5-lipoxygenase) pathway, or to reduce production of a prostaglandin, putatively PGE 2 , that normally suppresses leukotriene synthesis via an EP receptor mechanism [ 2 ], possibly via phosphorylation of LTC 4 synthase [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • functional
  • PSGL-1 was detected on the surfaces of bone-metastatic prostate tumor cells, suggesting that it may have a functional role in the bone tropism of prostate tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in the binding activity of nuclear proteins to the glucocorticoid responsive element was also observed after SCI, demonstrating a functional element of GR activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • DAMPs share structural and functional similarities with exogenous, conserved microbial surface structures released from invading microorganisms, so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which, like DAMPs, are recognized by a set of receptors, termed pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) [ 4 , 11 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • genes
  • However, clinical utility can be compromised by the development of side effects, many of which are attributed to the ability of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to induce the transcription of, or transactivate, certain genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • According to that, they suggested that IL-1F6, IL-1F8 and IL-1F9 should get new names IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ, even though they are encoded by distinct genes, they use the same receptor complex IL-1Rrp2 and coreceptor IL-1RAcP and deliver almost identical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes for both receptors are located on chromosome 2q35 and are each encoded by a single exon, and are 20 kb apart in distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The close proximity and location of these two genes on the chromosome suggest that they are derived from the same ancestor sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • 1994). "Expression cloning of a human IL-12 receptor component. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major objective of this study was to determine the level expression of IL-1 ligands system (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1RA) in the most common subtypes of ovarian cancer cells compared to endometrial cells. (springer.com)
  • Endometrioid ovarian cancer exhibits an alteration in the expression of IL-1RA, a key protector against tumorogenic effects of IL-1. (springer.com)
  • The inhibition of IL-1beta-mediated PGE2 synthesis by ascorbic acid was not due to the inhibition of the expression of COX-2 or microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1). (cogprints.org)
  • Synergistic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by vitamin E and aspirin. (cogprints.org)
  • Interleukin 4 (IL4) is reported to antagonize the activity of interleukin 1 by inducing the expression and release of this cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of E-selectin is stimulated by the expression of P-selectin which in turn, is stimulated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is suggested to mediate MP actions, limited knowledge is available on its expression and possible function after SCI. (jneurosci.org)
  • GR expression sharply increased at 4 hr (22-fold), peaked at 8 hr (56-fold), rapidly declined at 1 d, and returned to the baseline level at and after 3 d. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present study, we sought to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of GR expression, GRE transcriptional activity, and colocalization of GR and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) after SCI. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we show that the expression of a potential glucagon inhibitor, the adenosine A1 receptor (Adora1), is gradually diminished in α-cells of NOD mice, autoantibody-positive (AA + ) and overtly type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients during the progression of disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This activation of LFA-1 by "inside-out signaling" does not require increased expression of LFA-1 on the cell surface or de novo protein synthesis ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • human
  • This combination approach showed profound antitumor activity against human breast tumors in xenografted immunodeficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 1985 two distinct, but distantly related complementary DNAs encoding proteins sharing human IL-1 activity were reported to be isolated from a macrophage cDNA library, thus defining two individual members of the IL-1 family - IL-1α and IL-1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, we show that ascorbic acid dose-dependently inhibited interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-mediated PGE2 synthesis in the human neuronal cell line, SK-N-SH. (cogprints.org)
  • The amino acids that are identical between mature human IL-1α and mature IL-1β is 22% while it is 26% when comparing IL-1β to IL-1RA and only 18% when comparing IL-1α to IL-1RA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human synovial fibroblasts coexpress IL-1 receptor type I and type II mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of cytokine receptors on human Langerhans' cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-18 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by monocytes/macrophages lineage, Kupffer cells, and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells, such as human keratinocytes ( 13 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 16. The immunostimulatory regimen of claim 1 wherein the type 1 interferon is a human alpha or beta interferon. (google.com.au)
  • 17. The immunostimulatory regimen of claim 2 wherein the type 1 interferon is a human alpha or beta interferon. (google.com.au)
  • 18. The immunostimulatory regimen of claim 3 wherein the type 1 interferon is a human alpha or beta interferon. (google.com.au)
  • 22. The immunostimulatory regimen of claim 1 wherein the CD40 agonistic antibody or fragment is an agonistic chimeric, human, or humanized anti-CD40 antibody or an agonistic CD40 antibody fragment which is selected from a Fab, F(ab′) 2 , Fd, and a Fv. (google.com.au)
  • The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-binding region of human E-selectin has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Determinants of the cellular specificity of acetaminophen as an inhibitor of prostaglandin H(2) synthases. (cogprints.org)
  • IL-1RA was initially called the IL-1 inhibitor and was discovered separately in 1984 by two independent laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • It acts as an inhibitor, binding a ligand and keeping it from binding to its regular receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The notion that endogenous and exogenous molecular patterns can cause a similar host response through the same receptors challenged the model of the immune system discriminating between "self" and "nonself", but could be sufficiently explained by the "danger theory. (hindawi.com)
  • Wortmannin and PMA were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO), and the fluorescence dye 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-(and-6)-carboxyfluo-rescein, acetoxymeyhyl ester (BCECF-AM) was obtained from Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). (jimmunol.org)
  • synthesis
  • Our results provide in vitro evidence that the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid may depend, at least in part, on its ability to reduce neuronal COX-2 activity and PGE2 synthesis, owing to its antioxidant properties. (cogprints.org)
  • Interleukin-13 is a central regulator in IgE synthesis, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, airway hyperresponsiveness, fibrosis and chitinase up-regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • In addition to its known regulatory role in bone metabolism, osteopontin has been postulated to be a T H 1 cytokine and is involved in T H 1-associated immune responses. (drugs.com)
  • Most normal cells, such as immune cells or endothelial cells, express very low or undetectable levels of IL-13 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • The angiogenic effects of IL8 in intestinal microvascular endothelial cells are found to be mediated by this receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high laminar shear enhances acute endothelial cell response to interleukin-1β in naïve or shear-conditioned endothelial cells as may be found in the pathological setting of ischemia/reperfusion injury while conferring rapid E-selectin down regulation to protect against chronic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • Gastroprotection by vitamin C-a heme oxygenase-1-dependent mechanism? (cogprints.org)
  • Mechanism of vitamin E inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages from old mice: role of peroxynitrite. (cogprints.org)
  • Cassel D, Selinger Z. Mechanism of adenylate activation through the 13-adrenergic receptor: catecholamine-induced displacement of bound GDP by GTP. (springer.com)
  • Bennett V, O'Keefe E, Cuatrecasas P. Mechanism of action of cholera toxin and the mobile receptor theory of hormone receptor-adenylate cyclase interactions. (springer.com)