• 1996
  • Research in 1996 in England found no case in which a battered woman successfully pleaded self-defense (see Noonan at p198). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, in R v Thornton (No 2) (1996) 2 AER 1023 the battered wife adduced fresh evidence that she had a personality disorder and the Court of Appeal ordered a retrial considering that, if the evidence had been available at the original trial, the jury might have reached a different decision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lima syndrome was named after an abduction at the Japanese embassy in Lima, Peru, in 1996, when members of a militant movement took hostage hundreds of people attending a party at the official residence of Japan's ambassador. (wikipedia.org)
  • American Correctional Association Victims Committee (1996), Reports and Recommendations on Restorative Justice (Draft), Lanham, MD: Unpublished manuscript. (ovc.gov)
  • offenses
  • Further frustrated by their inability to stem offenses such as burglary and car theft - crimes in which the perpetrator usually cannot be described - law enforcement agents tended to be abrupt and dismissive in the face of victims' despair. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Concern about an apparent growing unwillingness of victims to report offenses and cooperate with law enforcement agencies provided a further impetus for the establishment of assistance programs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • wives
  • Even the most callous listener could not help but express moral indignation at ex-wives who used children as pawns to gain an edge in a property settlement, greedy lawyers who milked until they were broke then dropped them like hot potatoes, and mental health professionals who would slant their testimony to trick the courts into depriving fathers of the right to see their children. (blogspot.com)
  • Arsone, Sarah, "Battered Wives: Spousal Abuse in Jewish Hones. (blogspot.com)
  • They criticized marriage and family laws, especially the requirement to pay spousal and child support to former wives and illegitimate children, and supported the use of blood tests to determine paternity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hungarian immigrant convicted of the murder and rape of his two wives and four children. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • Since 1995 the members have met semiannually at the conferences of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children to discuss their views of MSBP with the ultimate goal of providing scholarly guidance to practitioners in the field of child protection. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • nation's
  • The effect of women having independent thoughts and a thirst for exploring her options was a huge threat to gender, as it resulted in masculinized women and feminized men, apparently confounding the nation's youth and dooming their future. (wikipedia.org)
  • expert testimony
  • To date 31 states and the District of Columbia have allowed use of expert testimony on the syndrome and five have acknowledged its validity, but held it inadmissible based on the facts of the particular case. (blogspot.com)
  • If the terms "Munchausen syndrome by proxy" or "factitious disorder by proxy" are used in prosecuting the abuse, expert testimony is required and often results in a battle of the psychiatric and/or pediatric experts over definition issues that have been historically argued in the literature. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • COURTS
  • Feminist groups, particularly Southall Black Sisters and Justice for Women, challenged the legal definition of provocation, with its masculine bias, and in a series of appeals against murder convictions secured the courts' recognition of battered woman syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The courts in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States have accepted the extensive and growing body of research showing that battered women can use force to defend themselves and sometimes kill their abusers because of the abusive and sometimes life-threatening situation in which they find themselves, acting in the firm belief that there is no other way than to kill for self-preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • neglect
  • In the United States , neglect of crime victims changed dramatically from about 1960 onward. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Child Protective Services (CPS) is the name of a governmental agency in many states of the United States responsible for providing child protection, which includes responding to reports of child abuse or neglect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Issues of abuse and neglect were addressed in the Social Security Act in 1930, which provided funding for intervention for "neglected and dependent children in danger of becoming delinquent. (wikipedia.org)
  • crime victims
  • In earlier times, crime victims were consigned to a peripheral position, necessary as background players but of no true importance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the end, crime victims usually received little satisfaction - beyond a story to tell friends and neighbors, though often a story saturated with irritation and anger. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics (1993), Highlights from 20 Years of Surveying Crime Victims, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, p. 15. (ovc.gov)
  • empathy
  • all of which specifically target anger patterns and distorted beliefs, and offer training and/or reflection, support, and modelling that focuses on parenting skills and expectations, as well as increasing empathy for the child by supporting the parent's taking the child's perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • An abductor may also have second thoughts or experience empathy towards their victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • Finally, prosecutions have sometimes successfully used the specific method of assault-e.g., suffocating, poisoning, or infecting-in describing what the perpetrator did to the child. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • Stockholm
  • Stockholm syndrome is a condition that causes hostages to develop a psychological alliance with their captors as a survival strategy during captivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FBI's Hostage Barricade Database System shows that roughly eight percent of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stockholm syndrome is ostensibly paradoxical because the sympathetic sentiments captives feel towards their captors are the opposite of the fear and disdain an onlooker may feel towards the captors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stockholm syndrome is considered a "contested illness", due to many law enforcement officers' doubt about the legitimacy of the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nils Bejerot, a Swedish criminologist and psychiatrist coined the term after Stockholm police asked him for assistance with analyzing the victims' reactions to the 1973 bank robbery and their status as hostages. (wikipedia.org)
  • it later became known outside of Sweden as the Stockholm syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • After her 1975 arrest, pleading Stockholm syndrome did not work as a proper defense in court, much to the chagrin of her defense lawyer, F. Lee Bailey. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar form of Stockholm syndrome called Lima syndrome has been proposed, in which abductors develop sympathy for their hostages. (wikipedia.org)
  • From a psychoanalytic lens, it can be argued that Stockholm syndrome arises strictly as a result of survival instincts. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • Instead of using the term "battered woman", the terminology "battering and its effects" became acceptable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mostly this guide keeps to the term domestic violence, not because it is more accurate, but simply because it is still so widely used by police. (popcenter.org)
  • Also in this guide, the term domestic violence is intended to include violence perpetrated by current and former intimates or dating partners, including those of the opposite or same sex. (popcenter.org)
  • For example, "Munchausen syndrome by proxy" is the original term used in 1977 by Roy Meadow, a British pediatrician, which was based on "Munchausen syndrome," coined in 1951 to describe adults who made themselves ill. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • Medical battering" has been suggested by pediatrics, to resemble the term "battered child syndrome. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • The task force has separated the victimization of the child from the motivation of the perpetrator, resulting in a recommendation that the term "pediatric condition falsification" be used to describe this type of abuse, regardless of the perpetrator's motivation. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • Moreover, the definition stated by the 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women also supported the notion that violence is rooted in the inequality between men and women when the term violence is used together with the term 'gender-based. (wikipedia.org)
  • woman
  • See Walker, L., The Battered Woman Syndrome (1984) p. 95-97. (blogspot.com)
  • In determining relevancy, the court must first decide whether it has enough evidence to decide whether the person was in fact a battered woman. (blogspot.com)
  • Battered woman syndrome (BWS) emerged in the 1990s from several murder cases in England in which women had killed violent partners in response to what they claimed was cumulative abuse, rather than in response to a single provocative act. (wikipedia.org)
  • The federal report ultimately rejected all terminology related to the battered woman syndrome…noting that these terms were 'no longer useful or appropriate'" (Rothenberg "Social Change" 782). (wikipedia.org)
  • In some countries, domestic violence is often seen as justified, particularly in cases of actual or suspected infidelity on the part of the woman, and is legally permitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • perpetrators
  • Terms such as wife abuse, wife beating, and wife battering were used, but have declined in popularity due to efforts to include unmarried partners, abuse other than physical, female perpetrators, and same-sex relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • This resource is designed to help employers and human resources professionals respond to employees who are victims or perpetrators of abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • perpetrator
  • Often victims found themselves alone in a hallway or waiting room with the perpetrator and his friends. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Child protection then rests on the prosecutor's ability to prove the existence of a mental disorder in the perpetrator rather than simply prove that abuse had occurred to the child. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • This is analogous to having to prove that a perpetrator suffers from pedophilia in order to prove that a child has been sexually abused-an unnecessary hurdle for child protection. (eofamilylaw.com)
  • medical
  • Severe injuries requiring emergency medical treatment of battered women have been noted, yet the prevalence of head injuries and the negative consequences emanating from such injuries have been noticeably absent from the literature. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the 1940s and 1950s, due to improved technology in diagnostic radiology, the medical profession began to take notice of what they believed to be intentional injuries, the so-called "Shaken Baby Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most women victims of domestic violence do not seek medical treatment, even for injuries deserving of it. (popcenter.org)
  • researchers
  • But the reported cases are believed to represent only a fraction of victims, researchers say. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Originally researchers failed to separate domestic disputes from other types of "disturbance" calls and raw percentages stretched the findings beyond what they reasonably meant (Fridell and Pate, 1997). (popcenter.org)
  • validity
  • In 1997, they published the report of their investigation, titled The Validity and Use of Evidence Concerning Battering and Its Effects in Criminal Trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corporal
  • For instance, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro writes in the UN Secretary-General's Study on Violence Against Children: Corporal punishment involves hitting ('smacking', 'slapping', 'spanking') children, with the hand or with an implement - whip, stick, belt, shoe, wooden spoon, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abusive acts toward children can often result from parents' attempts at child discipline through excessive corporal punishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • In those rare instances when a case went to trial, the victim would have to miss work (and often forfeit pay), suffer through any number of postponements, and endure a grilling by the defense attorney that was meant to humiliate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Among professionals and the general public, people often do not agree on what behaviors constitute physical abuse of a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domestic violence often happens in the context of forced or child marriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some states use other names, often attempting to reflect more family-centered (as opposed to child-centered) practices, such as "Department of Children & Family Services" (DCFS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-custodial single fathers would often bring their children to our Mentor's home. (blogspot.com)
  • physical abuse
  • The WHO defines physical abuse as: Intentional use of physical force against the child that results in - or has a high likelihood of resulting in - harm for the child's health, survival, development or dignity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overlapping definitions of physical abuse and physical punishment of children highlight a subtle or non-existent distinction between abuse and punishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of causes of physical abuse against children have been identified, the most common of which, according to Mash and Wolfe, being: many abusive and neglectful parents have had little exposure to positive parental models and supports. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have also shown that children with a history of physical abuse may meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Stress builds from the pressures of daily life, like conflict over children, marital issues, misunderstandings, or other family conflicts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domestic violence is now commonly defined broadly to include "all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence" that may be committed by a family member or intimate partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • List of Other Names and Acronyms for CPS: Department of Children and Families - DCF Department of Children and Family Services - DCFS Department of Social Services - DSS Department of Human Services - DHS CPS/DCF is a department under a state's Health and Human Services organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1980, Congress passed the first comprehensive federal child protective services act, the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-272), which focused on family preservation efforts to help keep families together and children out of foster care or other out-of-home placement options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ari, Ronit Lev, and Dafna Boostan, After the Battering: The Struggle of Battered Women with Violence in the Family, Tel Aviv, Israel: Na'amat Movement of Working Women. (blogspot.com)
  • Domestic violence is but one aspect of the larger set of problems related to family violence. (popcenter.org)
  • The men's rights movement is made up of a variety of groups and individuals who focus on numerous social issues (including family law, parenting, reproduction, domestic violence, circumcision ) and government services (including education, compulsory military service, social safety nets, and health policies), which men's rights advocates say discriminate against men. (wikipedia.org)
  • definition
  • The decision to change this terminology was based on a changing body of research indicating there is more than one pattern to battering and a more inclusive definition was necessary to more accurately represent the realities of domestic violence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awareness, perception, definition and documentation of domestic violence differs widely from country to country. (wikipedia.org)