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  • monoclonal
  • Virus isolates (93-42124, ISET-Chi93, Oax131, and Oax142) were shown by indirect immunofluorescence, hemagglutination inhibition, monoclonal antibody ELISA, and nucleotide sequencing to be VEE virus, subtype IE, a type previously thought to be equine-avirulent. (ajtmh.org)
  • species
  • Equines, rather than rodents, are the primary animal species that carry and spread the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This VEE virus previously was believed to be spread by a particular sub-species of mosquito known as Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus as that feeds mainly on and infects rodents and other small mammals but that is not thought to be effective at transmitting the virus to horses or people to cause epidemics. (innovations-report.com)
  • In a paper to be published in the Aug. 3 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the researchers suggest that as deforestation wiped out the Culex sub-species, a single genetic mutation in the virus allowed it to move into a brand new niche. (innovations-report.com)
  • Just one of those changes in the Guatemalan virus, it turned out, controlled the infectivity of the virus for the mosquito species Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. (innovations-report.com)
  • What's troubling," said Professor Scott C. Weaver, director for emerging infectious diseases at UTMB's Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases and senior author of the paper, "is that this shows a virus can find a simple genetic mutation that allows it to switch to a new species of mosquito that has the capacity to infect horses and people. (innovations-report.com)
  • assay
  • A blood specimen tested positive for Seoul virus immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Seoul virus RNA was detected by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction testing. (freethesaurus.com)
  • virulence
  • Reassortant analysis of guinea pig virulence of Pichinde virus variants. (utmb.edu)
  • It is not clear whether these differences may also influence equine virulence. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, renewed VEE virus subtype IE activity in Mexico, and its apparent conversion to equine virulence, underscores the need for increased surveillance, additional laboratory and epidemiologic studies in VEE-endemic regions, and possibly new vaccines. (ajtmh.org)
  • genetic
  • VEE, like SARS, HIV and hantaviruses, is an RNA virus, meaning that its genetic material is encoded in a single-strand RNA molecule rather than the double-stranded structure characteristic of the DNA double helix. (innovations-report.com)
  • Detection and genetic characterization of Seoul virus from commensal brown rats in France. (freethesaurus.com)
  • diseases
  • It's a medical mystery: Exactly how do emerging viruses such as SARS, HIV and hantavirus suddenly burst forth, seemingly from nowhere, to start infecting people and causing lethal diseases, sometimes in epidemic proportions? (innovations-report.com)
  • A whole range of exotic virus diseases prevalent in tropical areas came within the screening program in 1960-61, with major effort directed at increased first hand knowledge of so-called arbovirues (i.e. arthropod borne viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • The speed with which the disease spreads depends on the subtype of the VEE virus and the density of mosquito populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mucambo virus (subtype III) appears to have evolved ~1807 AD (95% credible interval: 1559-1944). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Walling DM, Andritsos LA, Etienne W, Payne DA, ARONSON JF, Flaitz CM, Nichols CM: Molecular markers of clonality and identity in Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. (utmb.edu)
  • Forest
  • The structure of the Semliki Forest virus revealed a structure that is similar to that of flaviviral glycoprotein E, with three structural domains in the same primary sequence arrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • horses
  • Virus was isolated from two horses from each outbreak, including three brain isolates and one from blood. (ajtmh.org)
  • epidemic
  • It could also be used to determine the epidemic potential of a VEE virus following an intentional introduction for bioterrorism. (ajtmh.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • Replication occurs within the cytoplasm, and virions mature by budding through the plasma membrane, where virus-encoded surface glycoproteins E2 and E1 are assimilated. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the cell-penetrating peptide is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) trans-activator of transcription (TAT) cell-penetrating peptide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • prevalent
  • The scientists cite evidence suggesting that by replacing forests with ranchland along a 500-mile-long, 20- to 50-mile-wide swath of Mexico's and Guatemala's Pacific coastal plains, people put extreme evolutionary pressure on the strain of the VEE virus formerly prevalent there. (innovations-report.com)
  • proteins
  • After this, virus subgenomic 26S RNA continues to be translated and virus structural proteins are the main products of cellular translation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4) which are produced as a single polyprotein constitute the virus' replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in 1999 and by 2003 had spread to almost every state with over 3,000 cases in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • These are translated directly from the full-length 42S genomic RNA and form the virus replicase responsible for RNA replication and transcription ( Takkinen, 1986 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • temperature
  • The rate at which the virus disseminate in the vector is limited by temperature of their environment which can be an important determinant of geographical and seasonal limits to transmission by the arthropods in the tropics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations in nsP2 that produce noncytopathic viruses or a temperature sensitive phenotypes cluster at the P2/P3 interface region. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • Since 1993, Grieder has been on the faculty and has conducted research at the medical school of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. (nih.gov)
  • A 1993 reform transformed the structure of public health care funding by shifting the burden of subsidy from providers to users. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21% (pre-1993) to 56% in 2004 and 66% in 2005, health disparities persist, with the poor continuing to suffer relatively high mortality rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Serology testing performed on this virus has shown the presence of six different subtypes (classified I to VI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first miRNA was discovered in 1993 during studies of the timing of embryonic development of different larval stages of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ). (frontiersin.org)
  • study
  • A study of this taxon suggests that this group of viruses had a marine origin - specifically the Southern Ocean - and that they have subsequently spread to both the Old and New World. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Viruses cannot reproduce on their own, and thus must inject their genetic material into host cells and then take over their reproductive machinery to make new virus particles. (nti.org)
  • mutations
  • Mutations in nsP2 that produce noncytopathic viruses or a temperature sensitive phenotypes cluster at the P2/P3 interface region. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Replication occurs within the cytoplasm, and virions mature by budding through the plasma membrane, where virus-encoded surface glycoproteins E2 and E1 are assimilated. (wikipedia.org)
  • origin
  • Botulism specific treatment requires injections of antitoxins, usually of equine origin and thus poorly tolerated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A study of this taxon suggests that this group of viruses had a marine origin - specifically the Southern Ocean - and that they have subsequently spread to both the Old and New World. (wikipedia.org)
  • likely
  • Analyzed DENV-1 Colombian isolates belonged to the formerly defined genotype V. Only one virus isolate was clasified in the genotype I, likely representing a sole introduction that did not spread. (biomedcentral.com)
  • small
  • Sequence analysis of the small RNA segment of guinea-pig passaged Pichinde virus variants. (utmb.edu)