• infection
  • Persons at greatest risk of exposure to infection are children in day care, their close contacts, men who have sex with men, backpackers and campers (via ingestion of unfiltered, untreated drinking water), travelers to disease-endemic areas, and persons drinking water from shallow wells ( 8--11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Public health and infection control personnel are frequently involved in the identification, investigation, and intervention of foodborne illness outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • 6 The infection can also lead to neurological disease causing seizures, comas, and cerebral blood clots, and can so severely damage the lining of the large intestine that it may have to be removed to save the patient. (pcrm.org)
  • Four children died: 6-year-old Lauren Beth Rudolph of southern California, who died on December 28, 1992, due to complications of an E. coli O157:H7 infection later tied to the same outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta toxin is the principal disease causing toxin in C. perfringens type B infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Giardia was the most frequently identified etiologic agent of outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States for the years 1976--1994 ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • From 1994 to 1998, 360 ulcers (already healed or active disease) were seen. (deepdyve.com)
  • In 1994, the total global production of fish and shellfish from capture fisheries and aquaculture reached a record level of 109.6 million tonnes, just over 7 million tonnes more than it had been in 1993 (or a 7 percent increase). (fao.org)
  • 1990
  • The Region accounts for about 80 percent of the new plantations established in the tropics between 1981 and 1990 (Cossalter, 1993). (fao.org)
  • illnesses
  • Before pasteurization of milk began in the United States in the 1920s, consumption of raw dairy products accounted for a significant proportion of foodborne illnesses among Americans and resulted in hundreds of outbreaks of tuberculosis and infections caused by bacteria, such as Brucella abortus , streptococcal species, and enteric pathogens. (aappublications.org)
  • Pasteurization has greatly reduced the number of foodborne illnesses attributed to dairy products, and continuous efforts to reduce milk contamination pre- and post-pasteurization are further decreasing the disease burden ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The outbreaks caused 979 illnesses and 73 hospitalizations. (cdc.gov)
  • coli
  • In addition, multistate outbreaks caused by contaminated produce and outbreaks caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 remained prominent. (cdc.gov)
  • Shiga toxin-producing E. coli caused 17% of outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • The 1993 Jack in the Box E. coli outbreak occurred when 732 people were infected with the Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacterium originating from contaminated beef patties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wide media coverage and scale of the outbreak were responsible for "bringing the exotic-sounding bacterium out of the lab and into the public consciousness" but it was not the first E. coli O157:H7 outbreak resulting from undercooked patties. (wikipedia.org)
  • At a 1993 press conference the president of Foodmaker (the parent company of Jack in the Box) blamed Vons Companies (supplier of their hamburger meat) for the E. coli epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • 17-month-old Riley Detwiler of Bellingham, WA, who died on February 20, 1993, following secondary contact (person-to-person) transmission from another child sick with E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a direct result of the outbreak: E. coli O157:H7 was upgraded to become a reportable disease at all state health departments. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestinal
  • The purpose of investigating and reporting these cases was to obtain information regarding the role of food, milk, and water in outbreaks of intestinal illness as the basis for public health action. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Division of Viral Diseases
  • NCIRD will contain five divisions: Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD) Division of Viral Diseases (DVD) Global Immunization Division (GID) Immunization Services Division (ISD) Influenza Division (ID) NCIRD director Schuchat has indicated a willingness to expand immunization surveillance and enforce vaccination schedule compliance, "I think we have a long way to go with adolescent immunization programs, as well as adult programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • dairy products
  • Reasons for the continued burden of disease related to raw or unpasteurized milk or milk products are primarily related to misinformation regarding the purported benefits of these raw dairy products. (aappublications.org)
  • Our study aimed at estimating the outbreak-related disease burden associated with the consumption of fluid cow's milk and cheese made from cow's milk (herein also referred to as milk and cheese or dairy products) that are unpasteurized and contaminated with Campylobacter spp. (cdc.gov)
  • A previous study reviewed outbreaks linked to dairy products. (cdc.gov)
  • This study also compared the number of outbreaks linked to raw dairy products in states that allowed the sale of raw dairy products to the number in states that prohibited the sale of these products. (cdc.gov)
  • From 1993 through 2006, 121 outbreaks were linked to dairy products identified as pasteurized or unpasteurized (raw). (cdc.gov)
  • occur
  • Cytokine storms can occur in a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, Ebola, avian influenza, smallpox, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks of VEE generally occur after periods of heavy precipitation that cause mosquito populations to thrive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the majority of VEE outbreaks occur in Central and South America, the virus has potential to outbreak again in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • The virus causing EVA was first identified following an outbreak of respiratory disease and abortion on a horse farm in Ohio in 1953. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), formerly known as the National Immunization Program until April 2006, is charged with responsibility for the planning, coordination, and conduct of immunization activities in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2006, the National Immunization Program became the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). (wikipedia.org)
  • NCIRD's proposed mission is to prevent disease, disability, and death through immunization and control of respiratory and related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new center will support both domestic and global immunization and respiratory disease prevention and control priorities, and will link epidemiology and laboratory science around vaccine-preventable diseases and acute respiratory infections with prevention and control programs and strong communication science. (wikipedia.org)
  • sanitation
  • Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Giardiasis in the United States - an epidemiologic and geospatial analysis of county-level drinking water and sanitation data, 1993-2010' and will not need an account to access the content. (iwaponline.com)
  • Poor sanitation and the prevalence of several tropical diseases further eroded the health of the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campylobacter
  • Campylobacter caused 81% of outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • In a 2011 outbreak of Campylobacter infections in North Carolina, where sales were prohibited, raw milk was purchased from a "buying club" in South Carolina where sales were legal. (cdc.gov)
  • In a 2012 outbreak of Campylobacter infections in Pennsylvania, where raw milk sales were legal, cases were reported from Maryland, West Virginia, and New Jersey, where sales were prohibited. (cdc.gov)
  • populations
  • In this year an outbreak of mange (originally detected 2 years before, in the south-center of Asturias and north-center of Leon) seriously affected the populations of these areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • These industrial monocultures are very susceptible to diseases, which have caused several regional wipe-outs of farm shrimp populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speed with which the disease spreads depends on the subtype of the VEE virus and the density of mosquito populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemiology
  • He is a specialist in the natural history, epidemiology and control of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, West Nile Virus and malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccination against childhood diseases was expanding, but in 1989 Vientiane's municipal authorities still were unable to vaccinate more than 50 percent of targeted children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccination of pregnant sows has proven effective at preventing the disease in piglets. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCIRD supports a national framework for surveillance of diseases for which immunizing agents are increasingly becoming available from commercial pharmaceutical companies, and assists health departments in developing vaccine information management systems to facilitate identification of children whose parents may have not complied with local vaccination laws. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCIRD also administers research and operational programs for the prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases, assesses vaccination levels in state and local areas, and monitors the safety and efficacy of vaccines by linking vaccine administration information with disease outbreak patterns and adverse event mandated reporting requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • milk
  • These early surveillance efforts led to the enactment of important public health measures (e.g., the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance) that led to decreased incidence of enteric diseases, particularly those transmitted by milk and water (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Process for selecting US outbreaks associated with cow's milk and cheese, 2009-2014. (cdc.gov)
  • This more recent study reviewed outbreaks linked to raw milk in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The number of outbreaks linked to raw milk has increased. (cdc.gov)
  • From 2007 through 2012, 26 states reported 81 outbreaks linked to raw milk. (cdc.gov)
  • From 2007 through 2009, 30 outbreaks were linked to raw milk. (cdc.gov)
  • Among outbreaks in which the food or drink linked to the outbreak was identified, the percentage associated with raw milk increased from 2% from 2007 through 2009 to 5% from 2010 through 2012. (cdc.gov)
  • The average number of outbreaks linked to raw milk each year was four times higher from 2007 through 2012 than from 1993 through 2006. (cdc.gov)
  • More states are legalizing the sale of raw milk even though this leads to an increase in the number of outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • 81% of outbreaks were reported in states where the sale of raw milk was legal. (cdc.gov)
  • Raw milk sales in one state can lead to outbreaks in neighboring states. (cdc.gov)
  • Raw milk was much more likely to be linked to outbreaks than pasteurized milk. (cdc.gov)
  • 73 outbreaks (46 from fluid milk and 27 from cheese) were linked to raw milk, and 48 outbreaks (10 from fluid milk and 38 from cheese) were linked to pasteurized milk. (cdc.gov)
  • Probably no more than 1% of the milk consumed in the United States is raw, yet more outbreaks were linked to raw milk than by pasteurized milk. (cdc.gov)
  • If you consider the number of outbreaks associated with raw milk in light of the very small amount of milk that is consumed raw, the risk of outbreaks linked to raw milk is at least 150 times greater than the risk of outbreaks linked to pasteurized milk. (cdc.gov)
  • California
  • The outbreak involved 73 Jack in the Box restaurants in California, Idaho, Washington, and Nevada, and has been described as "far and away the most infamous food poison outbreak in contemporary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • equine
  • In the Americas, there have been 21 reported outbreaks of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus occurred in Central American and South American countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by equine arteritis virus, an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus which causes EVA was first isolated in 1953, but the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • burden
  • This report documents the first nationwide look at epidemiologic parameters and disease burden estimates for giardiasis in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • We also assessed how hypothetical increases in unpasteurized dairy consumption would affect this outbreak-related disease burden. (cdc.gov)
  • giardiasis
  • Using 368,847 reported giardiasis cases (1993-2010), we mapped county-level giardiasis incidence rates, private well reliance, and septic system reliance, and assessed spatiotemporal clustering of giardiasis. (iwaponline.com)
  • food
  • Food-borne outbreaks of NoV are often associated with salads, sandwiches, bakery products, and other foods which are handled and contaminated by infected food handlers just before being served. (asmscience.org)
  • One programme is Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) to eliminate the risks of food consumption and subsequently reduce the current increasing number of reported food poisoning outbreaks. (springer.com)
  • Sen. Richard Durbin [D-IL], addressing a congressional hearing on food safety in 2006, described the outbreak as "a pivotal moment in the history of the beef industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • James Reagan, vice president of Research and Knowledge Management at the National Cattlemen's Beef Association (NCBA), said that the outbreak was "significant to the industry" and "the initiative that moved us further down the road [of food safety] and still drives us today. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first convoy of over 120 trucks laden with relief material such as tents, blankets, food and clothing, medical supplies and temporary shelters given by international donors departed from Mumbai at around 10am on 2 October 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, the radio operators split into four groups and visited scores of ravaged villages, relaying vital information - such as possible outbreak of disease, food supply and devastation - to a control station set up in Omerga. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • This summary reviews data from January 1993 through December 1997. (cdc.gov)
  • using a model relying on publicly available outbreak data. (cdc.gov)
  • imd.ernet.in: LATUR EARTHQUAKE OF SEPTEMBER 30,1993 The International Seismological Centre has data and a bibliography for this event. (wikipedia.org)