• sequence
  • Wilson, N. & Delaney, S. (2009) Structure-Dependent DNA Damage and Repair in a Trinucleotide Repeat Sequence. (jbsdonline.com)
  • 42. A polypeptide comprising a first amino acid sequence substantially identical to SEQ ID NO:1 linked to a second amino acid sequence substantially identical to SEQ ID NO:2, wherein the first and second amino acid sequences are linked directly or by a linker having between 1-300 amino acids and wherein the polypeptide excises methylated cytosines in DNA when contacted to DNA comprising methylated cytosines. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • activity
  • Reaction of cisplatin with purines to form DNA monoadducts that can mediate intrastrand and interstrand cross-links is essential for its cytotoxic activity ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • phosphate
  • The C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken by a beta-elimination reaction, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • Some glycosylase-lyases can further perform δ-elimination, which converts the 3' aldehyde to a 3' phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • During adenylylation, there is a nucleophilic attack on the alpha phosphate of ATP from a catalytic lysine resulting in the production of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and a covalently bound lysine-AMP intermediate in the active site of DNA ligase 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the AMP transfer step, the DNA ligase becomes associated with the DNA, locates a nick and catalyzes a reaction at the 5' phosphate site of the DNA nick. (wikipedia.org)
  • An anionic oxygen on the 5' phosphate of the DNA nick serves as the nucleophile, attacking the alpha phosphate of the covalently bound AMP causing the AMP to be covalently bound intermediate (DNA-AMP intermediate). (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive oxygen
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage is associated with the aging process as well as numerous pathologies in humans ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Complexes
  • The interaction is important for DNA repair, as auto-ribosylation is necessary to assemble and activate multiprotein complexes to carry out the process [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • damage
  • A mutant lacking the DNA glycosylase/AP lyase Nth1 is very sensitive to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), suggesting a role for Nth1 in base excision repair (BER) of alkylation damage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2. 1 (15) The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 for their "Mechanistic studies of DNA repair" Damage to the genetic material poses a threat to all organisms. (slideshare.net)
  • Organisms have evolved to repair DNA damage through several pathways, including the removal and replacement of damaged DNA bases via base excision repair (BER). (jbsdonline.com)
  • genomic
  • In eukaryotic cells, short stretches (146 base pairs) of genomic DNA are wrapped around octameric clusters of histone proteins, forming macromolecular structures called nucleosomes (Eickbush & Moudrianakis, 1978). (jbsdonline.com)
  • molecular
  • The reason our genetic material does not disintegrate into complete chemical chaos is that a host of molecular systems continuously monitor and repair DNA. (slideshare.net)
  • This insight led him to discover a molecular machinery, base excision repair, which constantly counteracts the collapse of our DNA. (slideshare.net)
  • mutagenic
  • The critical role of PARP1 in DNA repair is reflected by its frequent upregulation in cancer [ 8 , 9 ], as well as the hypersensitivity of PARP1 null animals towards the mutagenic effects of DNA damaging agents [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • enzymes
  • The nucleosome presents a particular challenge to BER enzymes: the rate and efficiency of repair at a particular lesion site are expected to depend on the relative rotational and translational position of the lesion site on the histone core. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Current evidence suggests that, in human cells, TDG and SMUG1 are the major enzymes responsible for the repair of the U:G mispairs caused by spontaneous cytosine deamination, whereas uracil arising in DNA through dU misincorporation is mainly dealt with by UNG. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • In humans, defective 8-oxodG repair may increase susceptibility to cancer, as increased ROS-associated DNA alteration and mutation is thought to promote tumor initiation and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • purines
  • Fpg has a preference for oxidised purines, excising oxidised purine bases such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). (wikipedia.org)
  • ligase
  • 1996) DNA ligase I is required for fetal liver erythropoiesis but is not essential for mammalian cell viability. (els.net)
  • DNA ligase I is found in eukaryotes and therefore is in the family of ATP-dependent DNA ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation and recruitment of DNA Ligase I seem to be associated with posttranslational modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA ligase 1 catalyzes a reaction that is chemically universal to all ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxoguanine
  • Excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine (FAPY) from damaged DNA. (uniprot.org)
  • defects
  • Furthermore, defects can also arise when DNA is copied during cell division, a process that occurs several million times every day in the human body. (slideshare.net)
  • cytosine
  • detecting the extension product, wherein the quantity or length of the extension product indicates cytosine methylation in the DNA sample. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • catalytic
  • The three domains consist of an N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD), and catalytic nucleotidyltransferase (NTase), and C-terminal oligonucleotide / oligosaccharide binding (OB) domains. (wikipedia.org)