• sequence
  • Wilson, N. & Delaney, S. (2009) Structure-Dependent DNA Damage and Repair in a Trinucleotide Repeat Sequence. (jbsdonline.com)
  • 42. A polypeptide comprising a first amino acid sequence substantially identical to SEQ ID NO:1 linked to a second amino acid sequence substantially identical to SEQ ID NO:2, wherein the first and second amino acid sequences are linked directly or by a linker having between 1-300 amino acids and wherein the polypeptide excises methylated cytosines in DNA when contacted to DNA comprising methylated cytosines. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • activity
  • Reaction of cisplatin with purines to form DNA monoadducts that can mediate intrastrand and interstrand cross-links is essential for its cytotoxic activity ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One possible mechanistic hypothesis is that DNA-PKcs may function through associating with CyclinT2/CDK9 (P-TEFb) to modulate the activity of RNA Pol II, which has already been identified as a key molecule recognizing and initializing TCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • catalytic
  • The three domains consist of an N-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD), and catalytic nucleotidyltransferase (NTase), and C-terminal oligonucleotide / oligosaccharide binding (OB) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • During adenylylation, there is a nucleophilic attack on the alpha phosphate of ATP from a catalytic lysine resulting in the production of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and a covalently bound lysine-AMP intermediate in the active site of DNA ligase 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • Although depletion of DNA-PKcs sensitized HeLa cells to UV radiation, it did not affect the ggNER efficiency of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genomic
  • In eukaryotic cells, short stretches (146 base pairs) of genomic DNA are wrapped around octameric clusters of histone proteins, forming macromolecular structures called nucleosomes (Eickbush & Moudrianakis, 1978). (jbsdonline.com)
  • Cellular genomic DNA constantly suffers from damage induced by various external genotoxic agents and endogenous metabolic materials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phosphate
  • The C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken by a beta-elimination reaction, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • Some glycosylase-lyases can further perform δ-elimination, which converts the 3' aldehyde to a 3' phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the AMP transfer step, the DNA ligase becomes associated with the DNA, locates a nick and catalyzes a reaction at the 5' phosphate site of the DNA nick. (wikipedia.org)
  • An anionic oxygen on the 5' phosphate of the DNA nick serves as the nucleophile, attacking the alpha phosphate of the covalently bound AMP causing the AMP to be covalently bound intermediate (DNA-AMP intermediate). (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive oxygen
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage is associated with the aging process as well as numerous pathologies in humans ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Complexes
  • The interaction is important for DNA repair, as auto-ribosylation is necessary to assemble and activate multiprotein complexes to carry out the process [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • replication
  • Replication of DNA and its transcription to the various RNA species necessitate a constant and substantial supply of the constituent nucleotides, a particularly demanding requirement in the case of rapidly dividing cells or pathogens, for example cancer cells or malaria parasites. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • If such intervention depletes the dNTP pool sufficiently, DNA replication is arrested, but even the induction of nucleotide imbalances can lead to misincorporation of base types during replication, leading to fatal genetic damage [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • DNA ligases are important tools for DNA replication and repair in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the known eukaryotic DNA ligases, DNA ligase I is the only ligase involved in DNA replication making it the most studied of the ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, the N-terminal serines are substrates of the CDK and CKII, which appear to play an important regulatory role DNA ligase I recruitment to the replication factory during S-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • LIG1 encodes DNA ligase I, which functions in DNA replication and the base excision repair process. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase 1 utilizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to catalyze the energetically favorable ligation events in both DNA replication and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the synthesis phase (S-phase) of the eukaryotic cell cycle, DNA replication occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutagenic
  • The critical role of PARP1 in DNA repair is reflected by its frequent upregulation in cancer [ 8 , 9 ], as well as the hypersensitivity of PARP1 null animals towards the mutagenic effects of DNA damaging agents [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • enzymes
  • The nucleosome presents a particular challenge to BER enzymes: the rate and efficiency of repair at a particular lesion site are expected to depend on the relative rotational and translational position of the lesion site on the histone core. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Current evidence suggests that, in human cells, TDG and SMUG1 are the major enzymes responsible for the repair of the U:G mispairs caused by spontaneous cytosine deamination, whereas uracil arising in DNA through dU misincorporation is mainly dealt with by UNG. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • In humans, defective 8-oxodG repair may increase susceptibility to cancer, as increased ROS-associated DNA alteration and mutation is thought to promote tumor initiation and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • purines
  • Fpg has a preference for oxidised purines, excising oxidised purine bases such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). (wikipedia.org)
  • ligase
  • 1996) DNA ligase I is required for fetal liver erythropoiesis but is not essential for mammalian cell viability. (els.net)
  • DNA ligase I is found in eukaryotes and therefore is in the family of ATP-dependent DNA ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation and recruitment of DNA Ligase I seem to be associated with posttranslational modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA ligase 1 catalyzes a reaction that is chemically universal to all ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Interestingly, despite the roles of PARP1 in DNA repair and transcription, little is known about how one process affects the other. (mdpi.com)
  • Through the motif-PARP1 interaction, we will also discuss how transcription and DNA repair affect one another in normal cell functions and diseases states. (mdpi.com)
  • By means of immunoprecipitation and MALDI-TOF-Mass spectrometric analysis, we have revealed the interaction of DNA-PKcs and cyclin T2, which is a subunit of the human transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb). (biomedcentral.com)
  • oxoguanine
  • Excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine (FAPY) from damaged DNA. (uniprot.org)
  • cytosine
  • detecting the extension product, wherein the quantity or length of the extension product indicates cytosine methylation in the DNA sample. (patentsencyclopedia.com)