• lumbar
  • Twenty-four hours later, saddle anesthesia and lumbar pain persisted and, after 48 hours, the patient presented urinary incontinence. (scielo.br)
  • After intravenous anesthesia recovery and in the presence of spinal block, the following parameters were observed: presence of motor block, anal sphincter tone (normal or relaxed) and sensory block level in different cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral dermatomes. (scielo.br)
  • Were euthanized by electrocution under anesthesia and spinal cord and meningeal lumbar and sacral portions were removed for histological exam under optic microscopy. (scielo.br)
  • cord
  • 1 The movement response to skin incision (nociception) has been shown to be mediated at the spinal cord level and is not necessarily related to hypnosis or amnesia mediated at higher cortical centers in the brain. (asahq.org)
  • Descending inhibitory interneurons are affected, causing an excess of excitatory neurotransmitters and inadequate release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • Baclofen (Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) acts as an agonist at the GABA b receptors in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and reduces the tone and pain associated with muscle spasms. (asahq.org)
  • 11 In addition, nicotine stimulates release of norepinephrine in cultured fetal rat neurons from the locus coeruleus, 12 the major source of noradrenergic innervation in the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • However, the effects of nAChR activation in the spinal cord need not be identical to that in the brain, and the only study of direct relevance to the spinal cord was performed in cultured fetal cells, which may differ in important ways from the adult. (asahq.org)
  • For example, nicotinic agonists stimulate glutamate release and nitric oxide synthesis in the spinal cord, 11,13,14 and both of these agents can induce norepinephrine release. (asahq.org)
  • Three Group 3 animals presented hind paws motor changes and anal sphincter relaxation with foci of posterior necrosis (two dogs) and fascial necrosis in all spinal cord surface (one dog). (scielo.br)
  • Seven Group 4 animals presented clinical changes (paralysis or decreased muscle strength in hind paws, anal sphincter relaxation) or histological changes (spinal cord surface band necrosis or nervous tissue necrosis foci). (scielo.br)
  • In this study, spinal lidocaine in concentrations above 7.5% in single injection through Quincke needle has determined histological changes on spinal cord, but not on meninges. (scielo.br)
  • Oxycodone overdose has also been described to cause spinal cord infarction in high doses and ischemic damage to the brain, due to prolonged hypoxia from suppressed breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nervous tissue found in the brain, spinal cord, and periphery comprises an extraordinarily complex biological system that largely defines many of the unique traits of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, through selective passage of ions and nutrients and trapping heavy metals such as lead, the choroid plexuses maintain a strictly regulated environment which contains the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • intravenous
  • 28 Because the sites of action of anesthetics in producing LOC and immobility seem to be different and various putative sites of anesthetic agents have been identified, defining the volatile/intravenous anesthetic interaction for these agents at two clinically relevant end points may provide another tool to help further define the mechanism of action of anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • COMPLICATIONS
  • 1 This tremendous increase can be linked to the perception that regional anesthesia is associated with numerous advantages and with very few severe complications. (asahq.org)
  • Thus, we created a hotline service (SOS Regional Anesthesia Service) that had three main goals: (1) to provide online clinical help for the practitioner facing a severe complication, (2) to obtain immediately relevant clinical information for every complication reported, and (3) to estimate the incidence of complications from a prospective declaration of all regional techniques performed by practitioners who had subscribed to the service. (asahq.org)
  • nitrous oxide
  • Anesthesia machines may differ in appearance, size and degree of sophistication but generally speaking, they consist of sections for: ventilation space for monitoring equipment accessories storage space worktop It is imperative that essential medical pipeline gas supply, e.g. oxygen], nitrous oxide and air, are secured firmly to the machine, and readily available without any obstructions, defects or pressure leaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthesia was initially maintained with 0.5% isoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen. (asahq.org)
  • Desflurane Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Sevoflurane Xenon (rarely used) Cocaine (very common) Volatile agents are specially formulated organic liquids that evaporate readily into vapors, and are given by inhalation for induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the volatile agents can be used alone or in combination with other medications to maintain anesthesia (nitrous oxide is not potent enough to be used as a sole agent). (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery
  • Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) has previously been shown to blunt the stress hormone response to coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) 22 and to decrease troponin release after cardiac surgery. (asahq.org)
  • 24-28 Although a survey of cardiac anesthesiologists suggests that the use of TEA is relatively common, 29 the actual number of patients reported to have received epidural anesthesia for cardiac surgery is relatively small. (asahq.org)
  • During this first year in New York, Gwathmey completed training in surgery and anesthesia at the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the incidence is 0.2% in general surgery, about 0.4% during caesarean section, between 1 and 2% during cardiac surgery and between 10% and 40% for anesthesia of the traumatized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most traumatic case of anesthesia awareness is full consciousness during surgery with pain and explicit recall of intraoperative events. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are used in various techniques of local anesthesia such as: Topical anesthesia (surface) Topical administration of cream, gel, ointment, liquid, or spray of anaesthetic dissolved in DMSO or other solvents/carriers for deeper absorption Infiltration Brachial plexus block Epidural (extradural) block Spinal anesthesia (subarachnoid block) Iontophoresis Acute pain may occur due to trauma, surgery, infection, disruption of blood circulation, or many other conditions in which tissue injury occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergence
  • e.g., desflurane) give the anesthesia provider greater rapidity in titrating the depth of anesthesia, and permit a more rapid emergence from the anesthetic state upon discontinuing their administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, newer volatile agents (e.g., sevoflurane, desflurane) have been popular not due to their potency (minimum alveolar concentration), but due to their versatility for a faster emergence from anesthesia, thanks to their lower blood-gas partition coefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • unconsciousness
  • Three broad categories of anaesthesia exist: General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthesia awareness, also referred to as accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) or unintended intra-operative awareness, is a potential complication occurring during general anesthesia where the intended state of complete unconsciousness is not maintained throughout the whole procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • xenon
  • Although Russian toxicologist Nikolay V. Lazarev apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • sedation
  • Conscious sedation and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) refer to an awareness somewhere in the middle of the spectrum depending on the degree to which a patient is sedated. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • The incidence of this anesthesia complication is variable and seems to affect 0.2% to 0.4% of patients according to the surgical setting carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • needles
  • The local adverse effects of anesthetic agents include neurovascular manifestations such as prolonged anesthesia (numbness) and paresthesia (tingling, feeling of "pins and needles", or strange sensations). (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • In preparing for a medical procedure, the health care provider giving anesthesia chooses and determines the doses of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • If anesthesia awareness does occur, about 42% feel the pain of the operation, 94% experience panic or anxiety, and 70% experience lasting symptoms which may be psychological and may be physical or neurological. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Surface anesthesia also facilitates some endoscopic procedures such as bronchoscopy (visualization of the lower airways) or cystoscopy (visualization of the inner surface of the bladder). (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • For microdialysis experiments, anesthesia was induced with halothane in an induction chamber and maintained with α-chloralose (50-60 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally, followed by 20-25 mg/kg as indicated by hemodynamic changes) and sodium pentobarbital (20 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally). (asahq.org)
  • In theory, any inhaled anesthetic agent can be used for induction of general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain
  • Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Patients were randomly allocated by envelope selection to one of three vasopressor solutions to maintain maternal systolic arterial pressure during spinal anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • They should also be checked in between cases, ensuring that the breathing apparatus and breathing circuit are fully patent, for the safe anesthesia of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The experiences of patients who have experienced anesthesia awareness vary widely depending on why they became aware, whether they were paralyzed and patient responses and sequelae vary widely as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • His mastery of the design of anesthesia apparatuses and of the administration of the drugs, coupled with the dearth of trained anesthetists at the time, led him to quickly transition to practicing anesthesiology full-time. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve the goals of anesthesia, drugs act on different but interconnected parts of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)