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  • cord
  • One alternative to conduction block for spinal anesthesia is blockade of synaptic transmission in the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • 7,8 This effect likely results from antagonism of non-NMDA receptors on dorsal horn sensory neurons as well as motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • 1 The movement response to skin incision (nociception) has been shown to be mediated at the spinal cord level and is not necessarily related to hypnosis or amnesia mediated at higher cortical centers in the brain. (asahq.org)
  • Descending inhibitory interneurons are affected, causing an excess of excitatory neurotransmitters and inadequate release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • Baclofen (Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) acts as an agonist at the GABA b receptors in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and reduces the tone and pain associated with muscle spasms. (asahq.org)
  • However, the effects of adrenergic agonists on spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) and spinal vessels have not yet been clearly defined. (asahq.org)
  • 11 In addition, nicotine stimulates release of norepinephrine in cultured fetal rat neurons from the locus coeruleus, 12 the major source of noradrenergic innervation in the spinal cord. (asahq.org)
  • However, the effects of nAChR activation in the spinal cord need not be identical to that in the brain, and the only study of direct relevance to the spinal cord was performed in cultured fetal cells, which may differ in important ways from the adult. (asahq.org)
  • For example, nicotinic agonists stimulate glutamate release and nitric oxide synthesis in the spinal cord, 11,13,14 and both of these agents can induce norepinephrine release. (asahq.org)
  • Oxycodone overdose has also been described to cause spinal cord infarction in high doses and ischemic damage to the brain, due to prolonged hypoxia from suppressed breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nervous tissue found in the brain, spinal cord, and periphery comprises an extraordinarily complex biological system that largely defines many of the unique traits of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, through selective passage of ions and nutrients and trapping heavy metals such as lead, the choroid plexuses maintain a strictly regulated environment which contains the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • elective
  • The study is based on the hypothesis that small dose lidocaine spinal anaesthesia may be adequate for elective surgical procedures, providing limited motor and sensory block, and thus enabling earlier patient's discharge. (viamedica.pl)
  • Phenylephrine
  • For this reason, we decided to investigate the concentration-related effects of dexmedetomidine, clonidine, phenylephrine, and epinephrine on spinal and cerebral pial vascular diameter using spinal and cranial window techniques. (asahq.org)
  • incidence
  • 1,2 Current research in spinal anesthesia has focused on the incidence of transient neurologic symptoms and the dose and particular local anesthetic used, the effect of additives like epinephrine, and associated factors like patient position. (asahq.org)
  • The incidence of this anesthesia complication is variable and seems to affect 0.2% to 0.4% of patients according to the surgical setting carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the incidence is 0.2% in general surgery, about 0.4% during caesarean section, between 1 and 2% during cardiac surgery and between 10% and 40% for anesthesia of the traumatized. (wikipedia.org)
  • sedation
  • [7,An important component of this interest is how the time course and side-effect profile (sedation and respiratory depression), associated with the spinal delivery of an agent, is altered as a function of drug distributional pharmacokinetics. (asahq.org)
  • Conscious sedation and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) refer to an awareness somewhere in the middle of the spectrum depending on the degree to which a patient is sedated. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrous oxide
  • Anesthesia machines may differ in appearance, size and degree of sophistication but generally speaking, they consist of sections for: ventilation space for monitoring equipment accessories storage space worktop It is imperative that essential medical pipeline gas supply, e.g. oxygen], nitrous oxide and air, are secured firmly to the machine, and readily available without any obstructions, defects or pressure leaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthesia was initially maintained with 0.5% isoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen. (asahq.org)
  • Desflurane Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Sevoflurane Xenon (rarely used) Cocaine (very common) Volatile agents are specially formulated organic liquids that evaporate readily into vapors, and are given by inhalation for induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the volatile agents can be used alone or in combination with other medications to maintain anesthesia (nitrous oxide is not potent enough to be used as a sole agent). (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA
  • 5 Ketamine, a drug used clinically in anesthesia, antagonizes NMDA receptors. (asahq.org)
  • The NMDA receptor is an ionotropic receptor that allows for the transfer of electrical signals between neurons in the brain and in the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergence
  • e.g., desflurane) give the anesthesia provider greater rapidity in titrating the depth of anesthesia, and permit a more rapid emergence from the anesthetic state upon discontinuing their administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, newer volatile agents (e.g., sevoflurane, desflurane) have been popular not due to their potency (minimum alveolar concentration), but due to their versatility for a faster emergence from anesthesia, thanks to their lower blood-gas partition coefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • xenon
  • Although Russian toxicologist Nikolay V. Lazarev apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Patients were randomly allocated by envelope selection to one of three vasopressor solutions to maintain maternal systolic arterial pressure during spinal anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • 24-28 Although a survey of cardiac anesthesiologists suggests that the use of TEA is relatively common, 29 the actual number of patients reported to have received epidural anesthesia for cardiac surgery is relatively small. (asahq.org)
  • After enrollment, the patients were randomized (based on a computer-generated Table ofrandom numbers) to one of nine treatment groups to receive between 0.0 and 0.5 mg (0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5) intrathecal preservative-free morphine in conjunction with their spinal anesthetic. (asahq.org)
  • They should also be checked in between cases, ensuring that the breathing apparatus and breathing circuit are fully patent, for the safe anesthesia of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awareness occurs when patients have anesthesia that is inadequate to keep them unconscious during an operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The experiences of patients who have experienced anesthesia awareness vary widely depending on why they became aware, whether they were paralyzed and patient responses and sequelae vary widely as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • In preparing for a medical procedure, the health care provider giving anesthesia chooses and determines the doses of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery
  • Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) has previously been shown to blunt the stress hormone response to coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) 22 and to decrease troponin release after cardiac surgery. (asahq.org)
  • During this first year in New York, Gwathmey completed training in surgery and anesthesia at the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most traumatic case of anesthesia awareness is full consciousness during surgery with pain and explicit recall of intraoperative events. (wikipedia.org)
  • needles
  • The local adverse effects of anesthetic agents include neurovascular manifestations such as prolonged anesthesia (numbness) and paresthesia (tingling, feeling of "pins and needles", or strange sensations). (wikipedia.org)
  • continuous
  • Anesthesia was induced with pentobarbital sodium (20 mg/kg intravenously) and maintained with a continuous infusion of pentobarbital sodium (2 mg [middle dot] kg -1 [middle dot] min -1 ). (asahq.org)
  • However
  • However, our previous study indicated that vasoconstrictors affect both spinal and cerebral pial vessels. (asahq.org)
  • fentanyl
  • The spinal action of several 4-anilinopiperidines, notably lofentanil, fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil have been previously studied in humans and in detail in several animal models. (asahq.org)
  • Anesthesia was induced with 100 mg thiopental and 50 μg fentanyl. (asahq.org)
  • occur
  • If anesthesia awareness does occur, about 42% feel the pain of the operation, 94% experience panic or anxiety, and 70% experience lasting symptoms which may be psychological and may be physical or neurological. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • There has been little attempt to evaluate the comparative effects of adrenergic agonists on the spinal and cerebral vascular beds in in vivo experiments. (asahq.org)
  • For microdialysis experiments, anesthesia was induced with halothane in an induction chamber and maintained with α-chloralose (50-60 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally, followed by 20-25 mg/kg as indicated by hemodynamic changes) and sodium pentobarbital (20 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally). (asahq.org)
  • regional
  • After regional anesthesia, bleeding disorders are the greatest risk factors for the development of spinal hematoma 2,3 , although there are other known factors, such as difficult or traumatic insertion of the needle. (scielo.br)
  • The gain of shivering might be well preserved during regional anesthesia if control mechanisms compensate for lower-body paralysis by augmenting activity of upper-body muscles. (asahq.org)
  • Similarly, it might seem logical that lower-body paralysis will reduce the maximum intensity of shivering during regional anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • Appropriate regulatory feedback of heat production thus might maintain maximum shivering intensity even during regional anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • [8,Current thermoregulatory theory is thus insufficiently detailed to predict the effect of regional anesthesia on either aspect of shivering. (asahq.org)
  • 1997
  • She was a member of the U.S. National Slalom Kayaking Team from 1993 to 1997, and a member of the World Championship Kayaking Team in 1993. (cvmc.org)
  • cord
  • This can be caused by spinal cord injury, spinal anesthesia, or nervous system damage. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • After ventral incision through all three meningeal layers, the dura, arachnoid, and pia mater were reflected from the spinal cord, preserving their normal anatomic relation. (asahq.org)
  • Oxycodone overdose has also been described to cause spinal cord infarction in high doses and ischemic damage to the brain, due to prolonged hypoxia from suppressed breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, by injecting under the skin, intravenously, into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally. (wikipedia.org)
  • postoperative
  • 8-11 Previous controlled prospective studies of hypotensive anesthesia lacked rigorous surveillance for postoperative cognitive outcomes, had limited generalizability, or had low power because of small patient populations. (asahq.org)
  • doses
  • Selective spinal anaesthesia is the practice of employing minimal doses of intrathecal agents so that only the nerve roots supplying a specific area and only the modalities that require to be anaesthetised are affected. (viamedica.pl)
  • In preparing for a medical procedure, the health care provider giving anesthesia chooses and determines the doses of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The diagnosis of neurogenic claudication secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis was made on clinical grounds, and the patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine. (asahq.org)
  • CLINICAL, 1,2 in vivo , 3 and in vitro 4 studies have documented the occurrence of local anesthetic (LA) spinal neurotoxicity, dependent on both concentration and exposure time, but have not determined the mechanism by which LAs cause neurotoxicity. (asahq.org)
  • Senior Scientist and Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Anesthesia, Cornell Medical College. (asahq.org)
  • It is by far the world's largest and most productive clinical anesthesia research group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • 16,17 The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the risks and benefits of hypotensive epidural anesthesia with this technique for elderly patients with comorbid cardiovascular disease undergoing THR. (asahq.org)
  • Patients were randomly allocated by envelope selection to one of three vasopressor solutions to maintain maternal systolic arterial pressure during spinal anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • They should also be checked in between cases, ensuring that the breathing apparatus and breathing circuit are fully patent, for the safe anesthesia of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awareness occurs when patients have anesthesia that is inadequate to keep them unconscious during an operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence of this anesthesia complication is variable and seems to affect 0.2% to 0.4% of patients according to the surgical setting carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The experiences of patients who have experienced anesthesia awareness vary widely depending on why they became aware, whether they were paralyzed and patient responses and sequelae vary widely as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • cords
  • [1-Briefly, thoracic spinal cords of seven Macaca nemestrina monkeys were carefully removed en bloc and placed in PBS within 10-30 min of the animal's death by barbiturate overdose. (asahq.org)
  • The murder charges related to an adult patient, Karnamaya Mongar, who died following an abortion procedure, and seven newborns said to have been killed by having their spinal cords severed with scissors after being born alive during attempted abortions. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • 10 LAs are neurotoxic and the chemically dissimilar tetrodotoxin is not when both are given as spinal anesthetics to rats at concentrations that produce similar extents of Na + block. (asahq.org)
  • Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monitoring
  • Anesthesia machines may differ in appearance, size and degree of sophistication but generally speaking, they consist of sections for: ventilation space for monitoring equipment accessories storage space worktop It is imperative that essential medical pipeline gas supply, e.g. oxygen], nitrous oxide and air, are secured firmly to the machine, and readily available without any obstructions, defects or pressure leaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • If anesthesia awareness does occur, about 42% feel the pain of the operation, 94% experience panic or anxiety, and 70% experience lasting symptoms which may be psychological and may be physical or neurological. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • The patient felt well until July 1993, when gradual onset of weakness developed in both legs, associated with pain on walking and standing. (asahq.org)
  • However, conduction anesthesia may be preferable because of superior pain control and fewer side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medically they are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • The goal of anesthesia is to achieve the endpoints required for the given surgical procedure with the least risk to the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Department
  • The Consortium's administrative center is the Department of Outcomes Research in the Anesthesiology Institute at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989 and 1993 - cited by Pennsylvania Department of Health for having no nurses in the recovery room. (wikipedia.org)
  • block
  • This chapter will review the relevant anatomy of the eye, classic (retro and peribulbar) needle block techniques, emerging anesthesia techniques, and choice of LAs and adjuvant agents. (nysora.com)
  • several
  • 1 Hypotensive anesthesia for THR offers several benefits: a drier surgical field, better visualization of anatomy, and reduced intraoperative blood loss. (asahq.org)
  • provide
  • Injection of LA solution inside the cone will provide anesthesia and akinesia of the globe and the extraocular muscles. (nysora.com)
  • basic
  • The purpose of anesthesia can be distilled down to three basic goals or end points: hypnosis (a temporary loss of consciousness and with it a loss of memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • degree
  • We measured the permeability of morphine through fresh spinal meninges obtained from anesthetized monkeys and then repeated this measurement through the same tissues after they were dry-frozen at -20 [degree sign]C. (asahq.org)
  • common
  • One common approach to studying drug transfer across the spinal meninges has been the use of a classical diffusion cell model, in which a section of the meninges is mounted in vitro into a diffusion cell apparatus. (asahq.org)