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  • 1993
  • Bruijnzeel PLB, Kuijper PHM, Kapp A, Warringa RAJ, Betz S, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CAFM (1993) The involvement of eosinophils in the patch test reaction to aeroallergens in atopic dermatitis: its relevance for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. (springer.com)
  • Gene
  • In humans, the eosinophil cationic protein is encoded by the RNASE3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the predominant constituent of the crystalline core of the eosinophil granule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pappalysin-1, also known as pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, is a protein encoded by the PAPPA gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a secreted metalloproteinase which cleaves insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • P-selectin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SELP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a bZIP transcription factor which can bind as a homodimer to certain DNA regulatory regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with specific granule deficiency, a rare congenital disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human receptor protein is encoded by the FPR2 gene and is activated to regulate cell function by binding any one of a wide variety of ligands including not only certain N-Formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides such as N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) but also the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolite of arachidonic acid, lipoxin A4 (LXA4). (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). (jimmunol.org)
  • Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in the initiation and propagation of inflammatory reactions and the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity and can serve as a major effector cell, inducing tissue damage and dysfunction ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • ECP concentrations in plasma and other body fluids increase during inflammatory reactions marked by activated eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asthma is recognised as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with infiltration of eosinophils and mononuclear cells into the bronchial mucosa and associated vasodilation, microvascular leakage, and epithelial disruption. (bmj.com)
  • After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and MCP1/4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophil
  • Viral loads in neutrophil-depleted mice were not diminished by LTB 4 administration, and a substantial reduction in the presence of murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide and the murine eosinophil-related RNase family in lung tissue was observed. (jimmunol.org)
  • Neutrophil granules contain molecules with potential antiviral activities. (jimmunol.org)
  • Serum
  • Czech W, Krutmann J, Schöpf E, Kapp A (1992) Serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a sensitive measure for disease activity in atopic dermatitis. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND Asthma has been associated with eosinophil activation, measured in serum, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and urine. (bmj.com)
  • 4 Serum levels of these granule proteins have been used as a tool for measuring eosinophil activation in asthma, 5 and levels can be related to disease severity 6 and the effects of treatment. (bmj.com)
  • For example, salmeterol inhibits the rise in serum ECP following allergen challenge without significantly affecting the eosinophil count. (bmj.com)
  • High levels of the proform of this protein are also present in placenta and pregnancy serum, where it exists as a complex with several other proteins including pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA), angiotensinogen (AGT), and C3dg. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Literature reviewed suggested that only nucleated cells with intensely red cytoplasmic granules should be accepted as eosinophils. (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • FcεRI), physical injury through pattern recognition receptors for damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), microbial pathogens through pattern recognition receptors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and various compounds through their associated G-protein coupled receptors (e.g., morphine through opioid receptors) or ligand-gated ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • this cluster also includes the genes for two other chemotactic factor receptors, the G protein-coupled C5a receptor (also termed CD88) and a second C5a receptor, GPR77 (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • C5a2 or C5L2), which has the structure of G protein receptors but apparently does not couple to G proteins and is of uncertain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • However, a series of subsequent studies cloned two genes that encoded receptor-like proteins with amino acid sequences very similar to that of FPR. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • ECP is a potent cytotoxic protein capable of killing cells of guinea pig tracheal epithelium, mammalian leukemia, epidermis carcinoma, and breast carcinoma, as well as non-mammalian cells such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal role of these cells, in a healthy host, is the elimination of antibody bound parasites through the release of cytotoxic granule proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8-12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8-12 days in the absence of stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-5 has long been associated with the cause of several allergic diseases including allergic rhinitis and asthma, wherein a large increase in the number of circulating, airway tissue, and induced sputum eosinophils have been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These granules also led him to the incorrect belief that they existed to nourish the surrounding tissue, so he named them Mastzellen (from German Mast, meaning 'fattening', as of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • The encoded protein may be essential for terminal differentiation and functional maturation of committed granulocyte progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • For example, the human alpha interferons comprise a family of proteins having roughly 80-85 percent homology in amino acid sequences. (google.com)
  • The results of these studies, although based on mammalian (mouse) protein systems, are not translationally suggestive of counterpart studies which could be conducted with human interferon preparations. (google.com)
  • 1982). "Immunological studies of the human placenta: functional and morphological analysis of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A)". Immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although TNF-a and LPS increase levels of both mRNA and protein in murine models, they do not appear to affect mRNA in human endothelial cells, while IL-4 increases P-selectin transcription in both species. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, van Wichen DF, Spry CJ, Venge P, Bruijnzeel PL (1988) Active participation of eosinophils in patch test reactions to inhalant allergens in patients with atopic dermatitis. (springer.com)
  • RNase
  • Viral clearance in lungs was associated with up-regulated presence of antimicrobial peptides such as β-defensin-3, members of the mouse eosinophil-related RNase family, and the mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. (jimmunol.org)
  • secretion
  • High concentrations of these DNA traps are known to cause cellular damage, as the granules they contain are responsible for the ligand-induced secretion of eosinophilic toxins which cause structural damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • heparin
  • Specifically, it is a type of granulocyte derived from the myeloid stem cell that is a part of the immune and neuroimmune systems and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • Gelonin, a New Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Nontoxic to Intact Cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry 255(14): 6947-6953, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • The elevated synthesis of P-selectin may play an important role in the delivery of protein to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • FMLP), are products of the protein synthesis conducted by bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory proteins
  • a C-type lectin-like domain in the N-terminus, an EGF-like domain and a complement-binding protein-like domains (same as complement regulatory proteins: CRP) having short consensus repeats (~60 amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • bronchial
  • 1 Indeed, eosinophils have been proposed as the primary cell responsible for bronchial mucosal injury, and may contribute to the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) of asthma. (bmj.com)
  • megakaryocytes
  • First, P-selectin is synthesized by megakaryocytes and endothelial cells, where it is sorted into the membranes of secretory granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • When megakaryocytes and endothelial cells are activated by agonists such as thrombin, P-selectin is rapidly translocated to the plasma membrane from granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • The results hereof demonstrate a true synergistic effect from the interferon proteins themselves, because very pure preparations, containing for all intents and purposes only the respective interferons, hitherto unobtainable but for the application of recombinant DNA technology, were employed in the testing procedures. (google.com)
  • epithelial
  • Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data demonstrate that intestinal macrophage and epithelial cell-derived eotaxin-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of eosinophil recruitment in colonic eosinophilic disease such as pediatric UC and provides a basis for targeting the eosinophil/eotaxin-1 axis in UC. (jimmunol.org)
  • Acidic
  • Diets rich in animal proteins tend to produce acidic urine, while diets mainly composed of vegetables tend to produce alkali urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) and is a type I transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) located on the surface of many cell types of various animal species. (wikipedia.org)