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  • gene
  • In addition, several other transcription factors have also been implicated in hypoxic gene regulation, either independently or in cooperation with HIF-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The human SPARC gene is 26.5 kb long, and contains 10 exons and 9 introns and is located on chromosome 5q31-q33. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGFs
  • Members FGF11, FGF12, FGF13, and FGF14, also known as FGF homologous factors 1-4 (FHF1-FHF4), have been shown to have distinct functions compared to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular processes unrelated to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminus sequence of the present chimeric FGFs identify homology with that of human acidic fibroblast growth factor. (google.com)
  • tumor
  • Induction of new blood vessel formation via the secretion of proangiogenic factors is one of the main adaptive responses engaged by tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have also shown that CREB plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vivo ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hyaluronan's contribution to tumor growth may be due to its interaction with CD44. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Growth factors are responsible for the regulation of a variety of physiological processes, including development, regeneration and wound repair. (google.com)
  • Ansel JC, Tara DC, Krueger J, Olerud J, Hart C (1992) Selective regulation and secretion of keratinocyte PDGF isoforms: implications for cutaneous bioactivity. (springer.com)
  • Regulation by nerve growth factor and other agents. (springer.com)
  • Proteases
  • Proteases, integrins, pH, and reactive oxygen species are just few of the currently known factors that can activate TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that MMPs have been proven to play a key role in activating TGF-β, mice with mutations in MMP-9 and MMP-2 genes can still activate TGF-β and do not show any TGF-β deficiency phenotypes, this may reflect redundancy among the activating enzymes suggesting that other unknown proteases might be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • The isolation of nerve growth factor (NGF) proved that such a factor could indeed promote the growth of a specific type of neuron (Levi- Montalcini and Hamburger 1953), and the importance of NGF in neuronal development was indicated in experiments showing that specific antibodies against NGF could interfere with the normal development of dorsal root ganglion neurons (Johnson et al. (springer.com)
  • Studies of network assembly in spreading fibroblasts and differentiating nerve cells show that particles move along microtubules in a kinesin and dynein-dependent manner, and as spreading continues, the particles polymerize into intermediate filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • Zarnegar R, Michalopoulos G. Purification and biological characterization of human hepatopoietin A, a polypeptide growth factor for hepatocytes. (springer.com)
  • Osteonectin is a 40 kD acidic and cysteine-rich glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain that can be broken into 4 domains: 1) a Ca++ binding domain near the glutamic acid-rich region at the amino terminus (domain I), 2) a cysteine-rich domain (II), 3) a hydrophilic region (domain III), and 4) an EF hand motif at the carboxy terminus region (domain IV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a potent cell regulatory polypeptide homodimer of 25kD. (wikipedia.org)
  • wound
  • Many investigators continue to examine ways to enhance and control skin healing by changing the wound s environment (oxygen, magnetic fields, stress, location, etc.) or the wound s biochemical activity (growth factors or other biochemical agents). (tamucc.edu)
  • Skin healing can be altered by changing the configuration (pore size, porosity, fiber diameter), the surface (composition, charge, surface energy), the biochemical activity (incorporation of growth factors or other biochemical factors), or the degradation or drug delivery rate of the wound dressing. (tamucc.edu)
  • genes
  • Many of the genes driving the growth at primary site can determine the dissemination and colonization at the ectopic site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic diversity is mediated by the activation of genes that act as coupling to organ-specific growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes are expressed during late log phase and stationary phase in response to environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • The growth of lesions at the ectopic site depends on multiple complex interactions between metastatic cells and host homeostatic mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteases
  • Proteases, integrins, pH, and reactive oxygen species are just few of the currently known factors that can activate TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that MMPs have been proven to play a key role in activating TGF-β, mice with mutations in MMP-9 and MMP-2 genes can still activate TGF-β and do not show any TGF-β deficiency phenotypes, this may reflect redundancy among the activating enzymes suggesting that other unknown proteases might be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • Osteonectin is a 40 kD acidic and cysteine-rich glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain that can be broken into 4 domains: 1) a Ca++ binding domain near the glutamic acid-rich region at the amino terminus (domain I), 2) a cysteine-rich domain (II), 3) a hydrophilic region (domain III), and 4) an EF hand motif at the carboxy terminus region (domain IV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) for Rho and the Rho effector Rho kinase II (ROCKII) are crucial for the regulation of adhesion movement and trailing-edge retraction. (biologists.org)
  • Through cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts, integrins behave as mechanosensors, bi-directionally transducing information both into and out of the cell, directing the strength, stability and growth of focal adhesions to promote cell adhesion, spreading and motility (Fig. 3 ). (thno.org)
  • It disrupts focal adhesions in fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • 289. Pijet B., Stefaniuk M., Kostrzewska-Ksiezyk A., Tsilibary P-E., Tzinia A., Kaczmarek L. Elevation of MMP-9 levels promotes epileptogenesis after traumatic brain injury. (gov.pl)
  • lung
  • 4 5 6 7 Recent studies have suggested that HGF has various other activities and plays an important role as an organotrophic factor responsible for regeneration of the liver, kidney, and lung. (arvojournals.org)
  • Tissue
  • Glimepiride may have potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties and it may potentially repair tissue damage by decreasing the levels of toxic AGE and increasing colony-stimulating factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • activation
  • Moreover, there is also sufficient evidence which implicates ceramide to the activation of the kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), PKCζ, and cathepsin D. Interestingly, cathepsin D has been proposed as the main target for ceramide formed in organelles called lysosomes, making lysosomal acidic SMase enzymes one of the key players in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation by pH Acidic conditions can denature the LAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, MDM2 has p53-independent transcription factor-like effects in nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFκB) activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic diversity is mediated by the activation of genes that act as coupling to organ-specific growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • This could have immense effects on the signaling functions of ceramide because it is known that ceramide generated by acidic SMase enzymes in the outer leaflet of an organelle membrane may have different roles compared to ceramide that is formed in the inner leaflet by the action of neutral SMase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Protrusion of the leading edge and the establishment of new peripheral adhesions coupled with the maintenance of stable attachments at the cell rear create the typical asymmetrical profile of a migrating cells with a broad lamellipodia (front) and narrow long trailing edge (rear) ( Regen and Horwitz, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • However, the trailing edge of the cells must be able to detach from the substrate to permit cell translocation ( Regen and Horwitz, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • Studies of network assembly in spreading fibroblasts and differentiating nerve cells show that particles move along microtubules in a kinesin and dynein-dependent manner, and as spreading continues, the particles polymerize into intermediate filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • the growth factor is necessary for the cells to remain in an undifferentiated state, although the mechanisms by which it does this are poorly defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth of lesions at the ectopic site depends on multiple complex interactions between metastatic cells and host homeostatic mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • It is well known that perturbations of these activating factors can lead to unregulated TGF-β signaling levels that may cause several complications including inflammation, autoimmune disorders, fibrosis, cancer and cataracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMP-9 and MMP-2 are known to cleave latent TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Risk factors for C. difficile infection include antibiotic treatment, which can disrupt normal intestinal microbiota and lead to colonization of C. difficile bacteria. (wikipedia.org)

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  • primary
  • Many of the genes driving the growth at primary site can determine the dissemination and colonization at the ectopic site. (wikipedia.org)